Rich Democracies, Poor People

How Politics Explain Poverty
Author: David Brady
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199736677
Category: Social Science
Page: 280
View: 4070

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Poverty is not simply the result of an individual's characteristics, behaviors or abilities. Rather, as David Brady demonstrates, poverty is the result of politics. In Rich Democracies, Poor People, Brady investigates why poverty is so entrenched in some affluent democracies whereas it is a solvable problem in others. Drawing on over thirty years of data from eighteen countries, Brady argues that cross-national and historical variations in poverty are principally driven by differences in the generosity of the welfare state. An explicit challenge to mainstream views of poverty as an inescapable outcome of individual failings or a society's labor markets and demography, this book offers institutionalized power relations theory as an alternative explanation.

Rich Democracies

Political Economy, Public Policy, and Performance
Author: Harold L. Wilensky
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520928336
Category: Social Science
Page: 922
View: 8341

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In this landmark work, the culmination of 30 years of systematic, comprehensive comparison of 19 rich democracies, Wilensky answers two basic questions: (1) What is distinctly modern about modern societies--in what ways are they becoming alike? (2) How do variations in types of political economy shape system performance? He specifies similarities and differences in the structure and interplay of government, political parties, the mass media, industry, labor, professions, agriculture, churches, and voluntary associations. He then demonstrates how differences in bargaining arrangements among these groups lead to contrasting policy profiles and patterns of taxing and spending, which in turn explain a large number of outcomes: economic performance, political legitimacy, equality, job security, safety and risk, real health, the reduction of poverty and environmental threats, and the effectiveness and fairness of regulatory regimes. Drawing on quantitative data and case studies covering the last 50 years and more than 400 interviews he conducted with top decision-makers and advisors, Wilensky provides a richly detailed account of the common social, economic, and labor problems modern governments confront and their contrasting styles of conflict resolution. The result is new light on the likely paths of development of rich democracies as they become richer. Assessing alternative theories, Wilensky offers a powerful critique of such images of modern society as "post-industrial" or "high-tech," "the information age" or the alleged dominance of "globalization." Because he systematically compares all of the rich democracies with at least three million population, Wilensky can specify what is truly exceptional about the United States, what it shares with Britain and Britain abroad (Canada, Australia, New Zealand) and what it shares with all or almost all of the West European democracies, Israel, and Japan. He gives careful attention to which successful social and labor policies are transferable across nations and which are not. Rich Democracies will interest both scholars and practitioners. It combines the perspectives of political economy (the interplay of markets and politics) and political sociology (the social bases of politics). It will be especially useful in courses on comparative political economy, comparative politics, European politics, public policy, political sociology, the welfare state, American government, advanced industrial societies, and industrial relations.

The Political Economy of Privatization in Rich Democracies


Author: Herbert Obinger,Carina Schmitt,Stefan Traub
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191648434
Category: Political Science
Page: 224
View: 1619

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Almost all advanced democracies have launched significant privatization programs over the last three decades. However, while there was a global run into privatization, substantial cross-national differences in the divesture of state-owned enterprises can be observed. This book focuses on the political economy of privatization, and addresses the questions 'What are the driving forces behind this development and how can the variation be explained?' which are of both theoretical and empirical interest. While the topic itself is not new, the existing comparative literature on the political economy of privatization suffers from at least two major shortcomings: First, recent macro-quantitative analysis in political science and economics has only focused on material privatization; formal privatization has hitherto been neglected due to an absence of data, even though this type of privatization is of eminent relevance in the public utility sectors. Second, most of the empirical studies in this area treat countries as independent units. In reality, however, policy decisions are likely to be interdependent. Policy decisions taken in one country influence the decision-making process in others. Given these shortcomings in the existing literature, the idea of this volume is to supply a fresh and comprehensive overview of the political economy of privatization using a new data set, the REST database. The empirical analysis covers 20 OECD countries in the period between 1980 and the advent of the global economic crisis in 2008. The recent economic crisis provides a good opportunity to take stock of the changing role of government in economic over the last three decades.

Precarious Lives

Job Insecurity and Well-Being in Rich Democracies
Author: Arne L. Kalleberg
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1509506535
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 248
View: 6977

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Employment relations in advanced, post-industrial democracies have become increasingly insecure and uncertain as the risks associated with work are being shifted from employers and governments to workers. Arne L. Kalleberg examines the impact of the liberalization of labor markets and welfare systems on the growth of precarious work and job insecurity for indicators of well-being such as economic insecurity, the transition to adulthood, family formation, and happiness, in six advanced capitalist democracies: the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Spain, and Denmark. This insightful cross-national analysis demonstrates how active labor market policies and generous social welfare systems can help to protect workers and give employers latitude as they seek to adapt to the rise of national and global competition and the rapidity of sweeping technological changes. Such policies thereby form elements of a new social contract that offers the potential for addressing many of the major challenges resulting from the rise of precarious work.

Wie Demokratien sterben

Und was wir dagegen tun können
Author: Steven Levitsky,Daniel Ziblatt
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 3641222915
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 1682

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Ausgezeichnet mit dem NDR Kultur Sachbuchpreis 2018 als bestes Sachbuch des Jahres Demokratien sterben mit einem Knall oder mit einem Wimmern. Der Knall, also das oft gewaltsame Ende einer Demokratie durch einen Putsch, einen Krieg oder eine Revolution, ist spektakulärer. Doch das Dahinsiechen einer Demokratie, das Sterben mit einem Wimmern, ist alltäglicher – und gefährlicher, weil die Bürger meist erst aufwachen, wenn es zu spät ist. Mit Blick auf die USA, Lateinamerika und Europa zeigen die beiden Politologen Steven Levitsky und Daniel Ziblatt, woran wir erkennen, dass demokratische Institutionen und Prozesse ausgehöhlt werden. Und sie sagen, an welchen Punkten wir eingreifen können, um diese Entwicklung zu stoppen. Denn mit gezielter Gegenwehr lässt sich die Demokratie retten – auch vom Sterbebett.

Capitalism, Democracy and the Prevention of War and Poverty


Author: Peter Graeff,Guido Mehlkop
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134034830
Category: Political Science
Page: 240
View: 4011

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For a very large part of the world’s population, poverty and war are still part of everyday life. Drawing on insights from several disciplines, this book attempts to find scientific answers to explain the relationship between conflict and poverty. This interdisciplinary volume brings together a range of arguments that synthesize both democratic and capitalist peace theory. Supported by a large body of research, contributors contend that nations with institutions that maximize individual political and civil rights minimize the probability of fighting each other. The volume includes: contributors from leading and award winning scholars in the field, including Bruce Russett and Erik Gartzke topics such as democratization and economic development, situated within the broader contexts of globalization and modernization contributions supported by empirical analyses, systematizing democratic and capitalist peace theories This book will be vital reading for students and scholars of International Relations and globalization, and also for a broader range of subjects including sociology, political science and economics.

Anti-System Politics

The Crisis of Market Liberalism in Rich Democracies
Author: JONATHAN. HOPKIN,Jonathan Hopkin
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780190699765
Category:
Page: 272
View: 3030

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Recent elections in the advanced western democracies have undermined the basic foundations of political systems that had previously beaten back all challenges -- from both the left and the right. The election of Donald Trump to the US Presidency, only months after the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union, signaled a dramatic shift in the politics of the rich democracies. In Anti-System Politics, Jonathan Hopkin traces the evolution of this shift and argues that it is a long-term result of abandoning the post-war model of egalitarian capitalism in the 1970s. That shift entailed weakening the democratic process in favor of an opaque, technocratic form of governance that allows voters little opportunity to influence policy. With the financial crisis of the late 2000s these arrangements became unsustainable, as incumbent politicians were unable to provide solutions to economic hardship. Electorates demanded change, and it had to come from outside the system. Using a comparative approach, Hopkin explains why different kinds of anti-system politics emerge in different countries and how political and economic factors impact the degree of electoral instability that emerges. Finally, he discusses the implications of these changes, arguing that the only way for mainstream political forces to survive is for them to embrace a more activist role for government in protecting societies from economic turbulence. A historically-grounded analysis of arguably the most important global political phenomenon at present, Anti-System Politics illuminates how and why the world seems upside down.

The Oil Curse

How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations
Author: Michael L. Ross
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400841925
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 8230

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Countries that are rich in petroleum have less democracy, less economic stability, and more frequent civil wars than countries without oil. What explains this oil curse? And can it be fixed? In this groundbreaking analysis, Michael L. Ross looks at how developing nations are shaped by their mineral wealth--and how they can turn oil from a curse into a blessing. Ross traces the oil curse to the upheaval of the 1970s, when oil prices soared and governments across the developing world seized control of their countries' oil industries. Before nationalization, the oil-rich countries looked much like the rest of the world; today, they are 50 percent more likely to be ruled by autocrats--and twice as likely to descend into civil war--than countries without oil. The Oil Curse shows why oil wealth typically creates less economic growth than it should; why it produces jobs for men but not women; and why it creates more problems in poor states than in rich ones. It also warns that the global thirst for petroleum is causing companies to drill in increasingly poor nations, which could further spread the oil curse. This landmark book explains why good geology often leads to bad governance, and how this can be changed.

Politics of Aristotle

With an Introduction, Two Prefatory Essays and Notes Critical and Explanatory
Author: W. L. Newman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108011306
Category: Literary Collections
Page: 788
View: 5857

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A monument of Victorian classical scholarship, this valuable work will continue to be read by scholars and students of Aristotle.

Culture and Politics in Economic Development


Author: Volker Bornschier
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134326092
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 256
View: 2247

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In this important book, pre-eminent economic sociologist Volker Bornschier analyzes growth and development in the Old and New Worlds - the so-called 'developed' countries. He shows how sociological and political factors have a massive impact on economic change in those countries. The book is a significant contribution to the burgeoning literature on social capital, trust and democracy and will be of interest to those in the fields of economics, sociology, politics and development studies.

Human Rights and Democracy

The Precarious Triumph of Ideals
Author: Todd Landman
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1849664862
Category: Political Science
Page: 192
View: 9365

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The 20th century has been described as the bloodiest in human history, but it was also the century in which people around the world embraced ideas of democracy and human rights as never before, constructing social, political and legal institutions seeking to contain human behaviour. Todd Landman offers an optimistic, yet cautionary tale of these developments, drawing on the literature, from politics, international relations and international law. He celebrates the global turn from tyranny and violence towards democracy and rights but also warns of the precariousness of these achievements in the face of democratic setbacks and the undermining of rights commitments by many countries during the so-called 'War on Terror'.

Conflict, Political Accountability and Aid


Author: Paul Collier
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136904409
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 408
View: 5215

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Paul Collier’s contributions to development economics,and in regard to Africa in particular, have marked him out as one of the most influential commentators of recent times. His research has centred upon the causes and consequences of civil war, the effects of aid, and the problems of democracy in low-income and natural-resource-rich societies. His work has also enjoyed substantial policy impact, having seen him sit as a senior adviser to Tony Blair’s Commission on Africa and addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations This collection of Collier’s major writings, with assistance from Anke Hoeffler and Jan Gunning, and accompanied by a new introduction, provide the definitive account of a wide range of macroeconomic, microeconomic and political economy topics concerned with Africa. Within macroeconomics, there is a focus on external shocks, exchange rate and trade policies, whilst microeconomic topics focus upon labour and financial markets, as well as rural development. Collier’s book The Bottom Billion had become a landmark book and this summation of the research underpinning it will be a superb guide for all those concerned with African development.

Rich and Poor in America

A Reference Handbook
Author: Geoffrey Gilbert
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1598840568
Category: Social Science
Page: 275
View: 1582

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Looks at the causes and consequences of the growing income gap in the United States.

Divided

The Perils of Our Growing Inequality
Author: Barack Obama
Publisher: New Press/ORIM
ISBN: 1595589449
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 5537

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Essays on the dangers of the wealth and income gap, collected by the New York Times–bestselling author of It’s Even Worse Than You Think. This collection includes writings by a wide range of voices—including Adam Smith, Elizabeth Warren, Barbara Ehrenreich, Joseph E. Stiglitz, Studs Terkel, Paul Krugman, Barack Obama, and David Cay Johnston—illuminating the reality of economic inequality in America, where in spite of the fury that followed the 2008 financial crisis, little has to been done to address the gulf between the one percent and the ninety-nine percent. Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist David Cay Johnston explains that in this most unequal of developed nations, every aspect of inequality remains hotly contested and poorly understood. These writings, from leading scholars, journalists, and activists, offers a multifaceted look at the problem, exploring its devastating—and dangerous—implications in areas as diverse as education, justice, health care, social mobility, and political representation. Provocative and eminently readable, here is an essential resource for anyone who cares about the future of America—and compelling evidence that inequality can be ignored only at the nation’s peril.

American Political Economy in Global Perspective


Author: Harold L. Wilensky
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107018099
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 360
View: 4369

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This book is a guide to claims about the proper role of government and markets in a global economy. Moving between systematic comparison of 19 rich democracies and debate about what the United States can do to restore a more civilized, egalitarian, and fair society, Harold L. Wilensky tells us how six of these countries got on a low road to economic progress and which components of their labor-crunch strategy are uniquely American. He provides an overview of the impact of major dimensions of globalization, only one of which - the interaction of the internationalization of finance and the rapid increase in the autonomy of central banks - undermines either national sovereignty or job security, labor standards, and the welfare state. Although Wilensky views American policy and politics through the lens of globalization, he concludes that the nation-state remains the center of personal identity, social solidarity, and political action. He concentrates on what national differences mean for the well-being of nations and their people. Drawing on lessons from abroad and from America's own past successes, Wilensky shows how we can reverse our three-decade decline. He argues that, in order to get off the low road, we must overcome the myths of "moderation," the rise of the "independent voter," and a rightward shift of the electorate. He specifies a feasible domestic agenda that matches majority sentiments in all rich democracies.

Public Administration and Society

Critical Issues in American Governance
Author: Richard C Box
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317461924
Category: Political Science
Page: 344
View: 1454

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For instructors who want to expose their students to the social, political, and historical context of the practice of public administration, this book provides a unique approach to the introductory PA course. The author's own text is skilfully interwoven with a collection of seminal readings and documents that illuminate the key issues of past and present for public service professionals in a democratic society. More than an overview of public administration, Public Administration and Society offers students a broad perspective on the American Founding Era, the relationship of citizens to government, and how the structure of government reflects societal values. The premise of the book is that understanding the societal context is important to the success of the practitioner and to the practitioner's role as a responsible agent of change in a democratic society. Introductory essays and readings offer students perspectives on five important thematic areas in public administration: the Founding-Era debate over the size and scope of government, the relationship of the community to the individual, public organizations and policy making, values and public administration, and the role of the public service practitioner in a democratic society. This new edition of features five new readings, and, based on input from adopters, an entirely new section on public policy making (Part IV: Public Organizations and Policy). The author's part-opening sections have all been extensively revised and updated.

Mehrwertiger Kapitalismus

Multidisziplinäre Beiträge zu Formen des Kapitals und seiner Kapitalien
Author: Stephan A. Jansen,Eckhard Schröter,Nico Stehr
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3531917846
Category: Social Science
Page: 282
View: 4870

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Welchen Wert hat der Kapitalismus für uns heute - in Zeiten also, in denen Heilsversprechungen über die freie Entfaltung der Marktkräfte vehement mit dramatischen Krisenprognosen konkurrieren? Gibt es eigentlich das Kapital oder den Kapitalismus? Welches Verständnis von Märkten und ihrem Kapital gewinnen wir nicht nur aus ökonomischer, sondern auch aus soziologischer, kulturwissenschaftlicher und politikwissenschaftlicher Sicht? Und welche Entwicklung solcher Kapitalien und ihrer Beziehungen untereinander ist für die Zukunft zu erwarten? Der Band nähert sich diesen Fragen vor dem Hintergrund aktueller Entwicklungen in Wirtschaft, Politik und Gesellschaft aus unterschiedlichen fachwissenschaftlichen Perspektiven, die sowohl die aktuellen praktischen Probleme als auch die theoretischen Dimensionen im Blick behalten.

As Others See Us

The Causes and Consequences of Foreign Perceptions of America
Author: Stephen Brooks
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 144260848X
Category: Political Science
Page: 192
View: 1539

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One of the ironies of the post-Cold War world, in which the power of the United States is without rival, is that the costs of isolationism and ignorance are greater than ever. The temptation to imagine that the rest of the world matters less than before is enticing, as America basks in the triumphant glow of a world in which capitalism and democracy, under the aegis of American leadership, are thought to have vanquished all rivals. Although it is unlikely that Americans will come to pay much attention to the rest of the world anytime soon—except when their citizens are threatened or killed abroad, or when they are persuaded that the threat of foreigners doing harm at home seems real—their failure to do so cripples the ability of the United States to understand a world in which American interests, security, and prosperity are embedded to an unprecedented degree. As Others See Us investigates the causes and consequences of the world’s perceptions of America. It proceeds from the premise that the images, ideas, and information that foreign populations have of the United States and Americans come from a number of sources, most of which are mediated. Some of these sources are American, Hollywood especially. Others are located outside the country, in the media, educational, religious, and political systems through which foreign populations learn about America. Any attempt to understand the "what" and "why" of foreign perceptions of America needs to look closely at these external determinants of how the image and interpretation of the United States is constructed in different societies.

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology


Author: Edwin Amenta,Kate Nash,Alan Scott
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444355074
Category: Social Science
Page: 576
View: 9748

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The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology is a complete reference guide, reflecting the scope and quality of the discipline, and highlighting emerging topics in the field. Global in focus, offering up-to-date topics from an interdisciplinary, international set of scholars addressing key issues concerning globalization, social movements, and citizenship The majority of chapters are new, including those on environmental politics, international terrorism, security, corruption, and human rights Revises and updates all previously published chapters to include new themes and topics in political sociology Provides an overview of scholarship in the field, with chapters working independently and collectively to examine the full range of contributions to political sociology Offers a challenging yet accessible and complete reference guide for students and scholars