Questions, Inferences, and Scenarios


Author: Andrzej Wisniewski
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781848901209
Category: Mathematics
Page: 190
View: 3134

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"The importance of questions is beyond doubt. But the degree of attention paid to them in logic and linguistics is still less than they deserve." (from the Preface) What is a question? How to represent questions in formal languages? How to model reasoning in which questions are involved? Can we prove anything by means of pure questioning? How to model goal-directed problem solving? These are the main issues of Andrzej Wi niewski's "Questions, Inferences, and Scenarios." This book offers a state-of-the-art exposition of Inferential Erotetic Logic, that is, an approach to the logic of questions focused on inferences which lead to questions as conclusions. Wi niewski characterizes semantic relations which determine validity of these inferences within the framework of Minimal Erotetic Semantics, applicable to a wide range of formal languages. He elaborates in detail the concept of erotetic search scenario, a tool for modelling problem solving. Moreover, the author presents some applications of Inferential Erotetic Logic in proof theory. Andrzej Wi niewski is one of the most prominent contemporary researchers in the logic of questions. Currently, he is a full professor at the Department of Logic and Cognitive Science, Institute of Psychology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Pozna, Poland.

Flexible Query Answering Systems

12th International Conference, FQAS 2017, London, UK, June 21–22, 2017, Proceedings
Author: Henning Christiansen,Hélène Jaudoin,Panagiotis Chountas,Troels Andreasen,Henrik Legind Larsen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319596926
Category: Computers
Page: 288
View: 737

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions. The papers cover the following topics: foundations of flexible querying; recommendation and ranking; technologies for flexible representations and querying; knowledge discovery and information/data retrieval; intuitionistic sets; and generalized net model.

Essays in Logical Philosophy


Author: Andrzej Wisniewski
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 3643903812
Category: Philosophy
Page: 117
View: 7458

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This collection of papers is written in the spirit of what is nowadays called 'Logical Philosophy.' The topics addressed include: skepticism and the criterion of truth, situational semantics, computational aspects of possible worlds semantics and question-answer systems, occurrent beliefs, the logical omniscience paradox, paraconsistency, and models of explanatory procedures. (Series: Development in Humanities - Vol. 12)

Inferences with Ignorance: Logics of Questions


Author: Peliš, Michal
Publisher: Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press
ISBN: 8024631814
Category: Mathematics
Page: 110
View: 7210

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Inferences with Ignorance focuses on two formal logic systems that employ the type of inferences in which questions are used in addition to statements. Not merely capturing questions as part of a logical apparatus, Michal Peliš also emphasizes the role of question-asking in communication. The book presents options for formalizing questions using sets of “direct answers,” demonstrates where questions are used in inferences, and explores asking questions and seeking answers as important components of everyday communication, proposing ways of using questions within a formal system that can capture a change in knowledge during this simple communication.

The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory


Author: Shalom Lappin,Chris Fox
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118882199
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 704
View: 3980

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The second edition of The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory presents a comprehensive introduction to cutting-edge research in contemporary theoretical and computational semantics. Features completely new content from the first edition of The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory Features contributions by leading semanticists, who introduce core areas of contemporary semantic research, while discussing current research Suitable for graduate students for courses in semantic theory and for advanced researchers as an introduction to current theoretical work

Designing Social Inquiry

Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research
Author: Gary King,Robert O. Keohane,Sidney Verba
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400821211
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 7825

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While heated arguments between practitioners of qualitative and quantitative research have begun to test the very integrity of the social sciences, Gary King, Robert Keohane, and Sidney Verba have produced a farsighted and timely book that promises to sharpen and strengthen a wide range of research performed in this field. These leading scholars, each representing diverse academic traditions, have developed a unified approach to valid descriptive and causal inference in qualitative research, where numerical measurement is either impossible or undesirable. Their book demonstrates that the same logic of inference underlies both good quantitative and good qualitative research designs, and their approach applies equally to each. Providing precepts intended to stimulate and discipline thought, the authors explore issues related to framing research questions, measuring the accuracy of data and uncertainty of empirical inferences, discovering causal effects, and generally improving qualitative research. Among the specific topics they address are interpretation and inference, comparative case studies, constructing causal theories, dependent and explanatory variables, the limits of random selection, selection bias, and errors in measurement. Mathematical notation is occasionally used to clarify concepts, but no prior knowledge of mathematics or statistics is assumed. The unified logic of inference that this book explicates will be enormously useful to qualitative researchers of all traditions and substantive fields.

The Posing of Questions

Logical Foundations of Erotetic Inferences
Author: A. Wisniewski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401584060
Category: Philosophy
Page: 250
View: 2859

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This book is a study in the logic of questions (sometimes called erotetic logic). The central topics in erotetic logic have been the structure of questions and the question-answer relationship. This book doesn't neglect these problems, but much of it is focussed on other issues. The main subject is the logical analysis of certain relations between questions and the contexts of their appearance. And our aim is to elaborate the conceptual apparatus of the inferential approach to the logic of questions. Questions are asked for many reasons and for different purposes. Yet, before a question is asked or posed, a questioner must arrive at it. In many cases arriving at a question resembles coming to a conclusion: there are some premises involved and some inferential thought processes take place. If we agree that a conclusion need not be "conclusive", we may say that sometimes questions can play the role of conclusions. But questions can also perform the role of premises: we often pass from some "initial" question to another question. In other words, there are inferential thought processes - we shall call them erotetic inferences - in which questions play the roles of conclusions or conclusions and premises. The inferential approach to the logic of questions focusses its attention on the analysis of erotetic inferences. This book consists of eight chapters.

Probability Theory

The Logic of Science
Author: E. T. Jaynes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139435167
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 6149

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The standard rules of probability can be interpreted as uniquely valid principles in logic. In this book, E. T. Jaynes dispels the imaginary distinction between 'probability theory' and 'statistical inference', leaving a logical unity and simplicity, which provides greater technical power and flexibility in applications. This book goes beyond the conventional mathematics of probability theory, viewing the subject in a wider context. New results are discussed, along with applications of probability theory to a wide variety of problems in physics, mathematics, economics, chemistry and biology. It contains many exercises and problems, and is suitable for use as a textbook on graduate level courses involving data analysis. The material is aimed at readers who are already familiar with applied mathematics at an advanced undergraduate level or higher. The book will be of interest to scientists working in any area where inference from incomplete information is necessary.

Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking


Author: Merrilee H. Salmon
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1133711642
Category: Education
Page: 528
View: 385

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Designed for students with no prior training in logic, INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING offers an accessible treatment of logic that enhances understanding of reasoning in everyday life. The text begins with an introduction to arguments. After some linguistic preliminaries, the text presents a detailed analysis of inductive reasoning and associated fallacies. This order of presentation helps to motivate the use of formal methods in the subsequent sections on deductive logic and fallacies. Lively and straightforward prose assists students in gaining facility with the sometimes challenging concepts of logic. By combining a sensitive treatment of ordinary language arguments with a simple but rigorous exposition of basic principles of logic, the text develops students' understanding of the relationships between logic and language, and strengthens their skills in critical thinking. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Case Study Research

Design and Methods
Author: Robert K. Yin
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412960991
Category: Social Science
Page: 219
View: 4278

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Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin’s bestselling text Case Study Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. This thoroughly revised text now covers more than 50 case studies (approximately 25% new), gives fresh attention to quantitative analyses, discusses more fully the use of mixed methods research designs, and includes new methodological insights. The book’s coverage of case study research and how it is applied in practice gives readers access to exemplary case studies drawn from a wide variety of academic and applied fields. Key Features of the Fourth Edition Highlights each specific research feature through 44 boxed vignettes that feature previously published case studies Provides methodological insights to show the similarities between case studies and other social science methods Suggests a three-stage approach to help readers define the initial questions they will consider in their own case study research Covers new material on human subjects protection, the role of Institutional Review Boards, and the interplay between obtaining IRB approval and the final development of the case study protocol and conduct of a pilot case Includes an overall graphic of the entire case study research process at the beginning of the book, then highlights the steps in the process through graphics that appear at the outset of all the chapters that follow Offers in-text learning aids including “tips” that pose key questions and answers at the beginning of each chapter, practical exercises, endnotes, and a new cross-referencing table Case Study Research, Fourth Edition is ideal for courses in departments of Education, Business and Management, Nursing and Public Health, Public Administration, Anthropology, Sociology, and Political Science.

Handbook of Logic and Language


Author: Johan F.A.K. van Benthem,Alice ter Meulen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444537270
Category: Mathematics
Page: 1168
View: 1101

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The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories

Understanding Political Science Research Methods

The Challenge of Inference
Author: Maryann Barakso,Daniel M. Sabet,Brian Schaffner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136622381
Category: Political Science
Page: 250
View: 1519

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This text starts by explaining the fundamental goal of good political science research—the ability to answer interesting and important questions by generating valid inferences about political phenomena. Before the text even discusses the process of developing a research question, the authors introduce the reader to what it means to make an inference and the different challenges that social scientists face when confronting this task. Only with this ultimate goal in mind will students be able to ask appropriate questions, conduct fruitful literature reviews, select and execute the proper research design, and critically evaluate the work of others. The authors' primary goal is to teach students to critically evaluate their own research designs and others’ and analyze the extent to which they overcome the classic challenges to making inference: internal and external validity concerns, omitted variable bias, endogeneity, measurement, sampling, and case selection errors, and poor research questions or theory. As such, students will not only be better able to conduct political science research, but they will also be more savvy consumers of the constant flow of causal assertions that they confront in scholarship, in the media, and in conversations with others. Three themes run through Barakso, Sabet, and Schaffner’s text: minimizing classic research problems to making valid inferences, effective presentation of research results, and the nonlinear nature of the research process. Throughout their academic years and later in their professional careers, students will need to effectively convey various bits of information. Presentation skills gleaned from this text will benefit students for a lifetime, whether they continue in academia or in a professional career. Several distinctive features make this book noteworthy: A common set of examples threaded throughout the text give students a common ground across chapters and expose them to a broad range of subfields in the discipline. Box features throughout the book illustrate the nonlinear, "non-textbook" reality of research, demonstrate the often false inferences and poor social science in the way the popular press covers politics, and encourage students to think about ethical issues at various stages of the research process.

Statistics in a Nutshell


Author: Sarah Boslaugh
Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
ISBN: 1449316824
Category: Mathematics
Page: 569
View: 4499

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A clear and concise introduction and reference for anyone new to the subject of statistics.

The Balloonist: A Novel


Author: Macdonald Harris
Publisher: The Overlook Press
ISBN: 1468303732
Category: Fiction
Page: 256
View: 2938

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As in the best of Jules Verne or Albert Sanchez Pinol, The Balloonist is a gripping and surreal yarn, chilling and comic by turn, that brilliantly reinvents the Arctic adventure. It is July 1897, at the northernmost reach of the inhabited world. A Swedish scientist, an American journalist, and a young, French-speaking adventurer climb into a wicker gondola suspended beneath a huge, red-and-white balloon. The ropes are cut, the balloon rises, and the three begin their voyage: an attempt to become the first people to set foot on the North Pole, and return, borne on the wind. Philip Pullman says in his foreword: "Once I open any of MacDonald Harris’s novels I find it almost impossible not to turn and read on, so delightful is the sensation of a sharp intelligence at work. In The Balloonist , we see all of his qualities at their best."

Handbook of Knowledge Representation


Author: Frank van Harmelen,Vladimir Lifschitz,Bruce Porter
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080557021
Category: Computers
Page: 1034
View: 7937

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Handbook of Knowledge Representation describes the essential foundations of Knowledge Representation, which lies at the core of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The book provides an up-to-date review of twenty-five key topics in knowledge representation, written by the leaders of each field. It includes a tutorial background and cutting-edge developments, as well as applications of Knowledge Representation in a variety of AI systems. This handbook is organized into three parts. Part I deals with general methods in Knowledge Representation and reasoning and covers such topics as classical logic in Knowledge Representation; satisfiability solvers; description logics; constraint programming; conceptual graphs; nonmonotonic reasoning; model-based problem solving; and Bayesian networks. Part II focuses on classes of knowledge and specialized representations, with chapters on temporal representation and reasoning; spatial and physical reasoning; reasoning about knowledge and belief; temporal action logics; and nonmonotonic causal logic. Part III discusses Knowledge Representation in applications such as question answering; the semantic web; automated planning; cognitive robotics; multi-agent systems; and knowledge engineering. This book is an essential resource for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in knowledge representation and AI. * Make your computer smarter * Handle qualitative and uncertain information * Improve computational tractability to solve your problems easily

Mathematical Logic for Computer Science


Author: Mordechai Ben-Ari
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447141296
Category: Mathematics
Page: 346
View: 2468

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Mathematical Logic for Computer Science is a mathematics textbook with theorems and proofs, but the choice of topics has been guided by the needs of students of computer science. The method of semantic tableaux provides an elegant way to teach logic that is both theoretically sound and easy to understand. The uniform use of tableaux-based techniques facilitates learning advanced logical systems based on what the student has learned from elementary systems. The logical systems presented are: propositional logic, first-order logic, resolution and its application to logic programming, Hoare logic for the verification of sequential programs, and linear temporal logic for the verification of concurrent programs. The third edition has been entirely rewritten and includes new chapters on central topics of modern computer science: SAT solvers and model checking.

Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences

A Pluralist Perspective
Author: Donatella Della Porta,Michael Keating
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139474596
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 1098

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A revolutionary textbook introducing masters and doctoral students to the major research approaches and methodologies in the social sciences. Written by an outstanding set of scholars, and derived from successful course teaching, this volume will empower students to choose their own approach to research, to justify this approach, and to situate it within the discipline. It addresses questions of ontology, epistemology and philosophy of social science, and proceeds to issues of methodology and research design essential for producing a good research proposal. It also introduces researchers to the main issues of debate and contention in the methodology of social sciences, identifying commonalities, historic continuities and genuine differences.