Questions, Inferences, and Scenarios


Author: Andrzej Wisniewski
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781848901209
Category: Mathematics
Page: 190
View: 6822

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"The importance of questions is beyond doubt. But the degree of attention paid to them in logic and linguistics is still less than they deserve." (from the Preface) What is a question? How to represent questions in formal languages? How to model reasoning in which questions are involved? Can we prove anything by means of pure questioning? How to model goal-directed problem solving? These are the main issues of Andrzej Wi niewski's "Questions, Inferences, and Scenarios." This book offers a state-of-the-art exposition of Inferential Erotetic Logic, that is, an approach to the logic of questions focused on inferences which lead to questions as conclusions. Wi niewski characterizes semantic relations which determine validity of these inferences within the framework of Minimal Erotetic Semantics, applicable to a wide range of formal languages. He elaborates in detail the concept of erotetic search scenario, a tool for modelling problem solving. Moreover, the author presents some applications of Inferential Erotetic Logic in proof theory. Andrzej Wi niewski is one of the most prominent contemporary researchers in the logic of questions. Currently, he is a full professor at the Department of Logic and Cognitive Science, Institute of Psychology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Pozna, Poland.

Flexible Query Answering Systems

12th International Conference, FQAS 2017, London, UK, June 21–22, 2017, Proceedings
Author: Henning Christiansen,Hélène Jaudoin,Panagiotis Chountas,Troels Andreasen,Henrik Legind Larsen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319596926
Category: Computers
Page: 288
View: 4383

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions. The papers cover the following topics: foundations of flexible querying; recommendation and ranking; technologies for flexible representations and querying; knowledge discovery and information/data retrieval; intuitionistic sets; and generalized net model.

Essays in Logical Philosophy


Author: Andrzej Wisniewski
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 3643903812
Category: Philosophy
Page: 117
View: 5686

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This collection of papers is written in the spirit of what is nowadays called 'Logical Philosophy.' The topics addressed include: skepticism and the criterion of truth, situational semantics, computational aspects of possible worlds semantics and question-answer systems, occurrent beliefs, the logical omniscience paradox, paraconsistency, and models of explanatory procedures. (Series: Development in Humanities - Vol. 12)

Inferences with Ignorance: Logics of Questions


Author: Peliš, Michal
Publisher: Charles University in Prague, Karolinum Press
ISBN: 8024631814
Category: Mathematics
Page: 110
View: 2409

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Inferences with Ignorance focuses on two formal logic systems that employ the type of inferences in which questions are used in addition to statements. Not merely capturing questions as part of a logical apparatus, Michal Peliš also emphasizes the role of question-asking in communication. The book presents options for formalizing questions using sets of “direct answers,” demonstrates where questions are used in inferences, and explores asking questions and seeking answers as important components of everyday communication, proposing ways of using questions within a formal system that can capture a change in knowledge during this simple communication.

The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory


Author: Shalom Lappin,Chris Fox
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118882199
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 704
View: 5119

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The second edition of The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory presents a comprehensive introduction to cutting-edge research in contemporary theoretical and computational semantics. Features completely new content from the first edition of The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory Features contributions by leading semanticists, who introduce core areas of contemporary semantic research, while discussing current research Suitable for graduate students for courses in semantic theory and for advanced researchers as an introduction to current theoretical work

Logical Reasoning with Diagrams


Author: Gerard Allwein,Jon Barwise
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195355864
Category: Computers
Page: 288
View: 1331

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One effect of information technology is the increasing need to present information visually. The trend raises intriguing questions. What is the logical status of reasoning that employs visualization? What are the cognitive advantages and pitfalls of this reasoning? What kinds of tools can be developed to aid in the use of visual representation? This newest volume on the Studies in Logic and Computation series addresses the logical aspects of the visualization of information. The authors of these specially commissioned papers explore the properties of diagrams, charts, and maps, and their use in problem solving and teaching basic reasoning skills. As computers make visual representations more commonplace, it is important for professionals, researchers and students in computer science, philosophy, and logic to develop an understanding of these tools; this book can clarify the relationship between visuals and information.

Case Study Research

Design and Methods
Author: Robert K. Yin
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483322246
Category: Social Science
Page: 312
View: 564

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Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fifth Edition of Robert K. Yin’s bestselling text offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. The book offers a clear definition of the case study method as well as discussion of design and analysis techniques. The Fifth Edition has been updated with nine new case studies, three new appendices, seven tutorials presented at the end of relevant chapters, increased coverage of values and ethics, expanded discussion on logic models, a brief glossary, and completely updated citations. This book includes exemplary case studies drawn from a wide variety of academic fields.

Designing Social Inquiry

Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research
Author: Gary King,Robert O. Keohane,Sidney Verba
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400821211
Category: Social Science
Page: 264
View: 8745

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While heated arguments between practitioners of qualitative and quantitative research have begun to test the very integrity of the social sciences, Gary King, Robert Keohane, and Sidney Verba have produced a farsighted and timely book that promises to sharpen and strengthen a wide range of research performed in this field. These leading scholars, each representing diverse academic traditions, have developed a unified approach to valid descriptive and causal inference in qualitative research, where numerical measurement is either impossible or undesirable. Their book demonstrates that the same logic of inference underlies both good quantitative and good qualitative research designs, and their approach applies equally to each. Providing precepts intended to stimulate and discipline thought, the authors explore issues related to framing research questions, measuring the accuracy of data and uncertainty of empirical inferences, discovering causal effects, and generally improving qualitative research. Among the specific topics they address are interpretation and inference, comparative case studies, constructing causal theories, dependent and explanatory variables, the limits of random selection, selection bias, and errors in measurement. Mathematical notation is occasionally used to clarify concepts, but no prior knowledge of mathematics or statistics is assumed. The unified logic of inference that this book explicates will be enormously useful to qualitative researchers of all traditions and substantive fields.

Handbook of Logic and Language


Author: Johan F.A.K. van Benthem,Alice ter Meulen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444537270
Category: Mathematics
Page: 1168
View: 8077

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The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories

Handbook of Knowledge Representation


Author: Frank van Harmelen,Vladimir Lifschitz,Bruce Porter
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080557021
Category: Computers
Page: 1034
View: 2185

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Handbook of Knowledge Representation describes the essential foundations of Knowledge Representation, which lies at the core of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The book provides an up-to-date review of twenty-five key topics in knowledge representation, written by the leaders of each field. It includes a tutorial background and cutting-edge developments, as well as applications of Knowledge Representation in a variety of AI systems. This handbook is organized into three parts. Part I deals with general methods in Knowledge Representation and reasoning and covers such topics as classical logic in Knowledge Representation; satisfiability solvers; description logics; constraint programming; conceptual graphs; nonmonotonic reasoning; model-based problem solving; and Bayesian networks. Part II focuses on classes of knowledge and specialized representations, with chapters on temporal representation and reasoning; spatial and physical reasoning; reasoning about knowledge and belief; temporal action logics; and nonmonotonic causal logic. Part III discusses Knowledge Representation in applications such as question answering; the semantic web; automated planning; cognitive robotics; multi-agent systems; and knowledge engineering. This book is an essential resource for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in knowledge representation and AI. * Make your computer smarter * Handle qualitative and uncertain information * Improve computational tractability to solve your problems easily

The Balloonist: A Novel


Author: Macdonald Harris
Publisher: The Overlook Press
ISBN: 1468303732
Category: Fiction
Page: 256
View: 5230

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As in the best of Jules Verne or Albert Sanchez Pinol, The Balloonist is a gripping and surreal yarn, chilling and comic by turn, that brilliantly reinvents the Arctic adventure. It is July 1897, at the northernmost reach of the inhabited world. A Swedish scientist, an American journalist, and a young, French-speaking adventurer climb into a wicker gondola suspended beneath a huge, red-and-white balloon. The ropes are cut, the balloon rises, and the three begin their voyage: an attempt to become the first people to set foot on the North Pole, and return, borne on the wind. Philip Pullman says in his foreword: "Once I open any of MacDonald Harris’s novels I find it almost impossible not to turn and read on, so delightful is the sensation of a sharp intelligence at work. In The Balloonist , we see all of his qualities at their best."

The Posing of Questions

Logical Foundations of Erotetic Inferences
Author: A. Wisniewski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401584060
Category: Philosophy
Page: 250
View: 6841

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This book is a study in the logic of questions (sometimes called erotetic logic). The central topics in erotetic logic have been the structure of questions and the question-answer relationship. This book doesn't neglect these problems, but much of it is focussed on other issues. The main subject is the logical analysis of certain relations between questions and the contexts of their appearance. And our aim is to elaborate the conceptual apparatus of the inferential approach to the logic of questions. Questions are asked for many reasons and for different purposes. Yet, before a question is asked or posed, a questioner must arrive at it. In many cases arriving at a question resembles coming to a conclusion: there are some premises involved and some inferential thought processes take place. If we agree that a conclusion need not be "conclusive", we may say that sometimes questions can play the role of conclusions. But questions can also perform the role of premises: we often pass from some "initial" question to another question. In other words, there are inferential thought processes - we shall call them erotetic inferences - in which questions play the roles of conclusions or conclusions and premises. The inferential approach to the logic of questions focusses its attention on the analysis of erotetic inferences. This book consists of eight chapters.

The Logic of Scientific Discovery


Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134470029
Category: Philosophy
Page: 480
View: 7969

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Described by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as post-war philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day.

The Octopus Scientists


Author: Sy Montgomery
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 0544232704
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 80
View: 9549

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A latest entry in the award-winning Scientists in the Field series takes readers to the waters off of Moorea, Tahiti, to study these amazing creatures, following scientists as they uncover the secrets of the octopus's advanced intelligence to learn what these thinking, feeling animals have to teach us about the oceans and ourselves.

Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking


Author: Merrilee H. Salmon
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1133711642
Category: Education
Page: 528
View: 9450

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Designed for students with no prior training in logic, INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING offers an accessible treatment of logic that enhances understanding of reasoning in everyday life. The text begins with an introduction to arguments. After some linguistic preliminaries, the text presents a detailed analysis of inductive reasoning and associated fallacies. This order of presentation helps to motivate the use of formal methods in the subsequent sections on deductive logic and fallacies. Lively and straightforward prose assists students in gaining facility with the sometimes challenging concepts of logic. By combining a sensitive treatment of ordinary language arguments with a simple but rigorous exposition of basic principles of logic, the text develops students' understanding of the relationships between logic and language, and strengthens their skills in critical thinking. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Probability Theory

The Logic of Science
Author: E. T. Jaynes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139435167
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 4742

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The standard rules of probability can be interpreted as uniquely valid principles in logic. In this book, E. T. Jaynes dispels the imaginary distinction between 'probability theory' and 'statistical inference', leaving a logical unity and simplicity, which provides greater technical power and flexibility in applications. This book goes beyond the conventional mathematics of probability theory, viewing the subject in a wider context. New results are discussed, along with applications of probability theory to a wide variety of problems in physics, mathematics, economics, chemistry and biology. It contains many exercises and problems, and is suitable for use as a textbook on graduate level courses involving data analysis. The material is aimed at readers who are already familiar with applied mathematics at an advanced undergraduate level or higher. The book will be of interest to scientists working in any area where inference from incomplete information is necessary.