Ptolemy I

King and Pharaoh of Egypt
Author: Ian Worthington
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190202351
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 352
View: 6904

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When Rome defeated the forces of Antony and Cleopatra and annexed Egypt, the rule of the longest-lived of the Hellenistic dynasties and one of the most illustrious in Egyptian history came to an end. For nearly three hundred years, the Macedonian dynasty known as the Ptolemaic had controlled Egypt and its mixed population of Egyptians, Greeks, Macedonians, and Jews. The founder of this dynasty, Ptolemy I (367-283/2 BC), was a boyhood friend and eventually personal bodyguard of Alexander the Great, who fought alongside Alexander in the epic battles that toppled the Persian Empire, and brought about a Macedonian Empire stretching from Greece to India. After Alexander's death, his senior staff carved up his vast empire, with Ptolemy gaining control of Egypt. There he built up his power base in Egypt, introduced administrative and economic reforms that made his family fabulously wealthy, and by extending Egypt's possessions overseas founded an Egyptian Empire. In addition to his political and military prowess, Ptolemy was an intellectual, who patronized the mathematician Euclid, wrote an important account of Alexander's campaign in Asia, and established the famous Library and Museum at Alexandria, which were the cultural heart of the entire Hellenistic Age. Ptolemy ruled Egypt until he died of natural causes in his early eighties. Ian Worthington's Ptolemy I--the first full-length biography of its kind in English--traces the life of Ptolemy from his boyhood to his reign as king and pharaoh of Egypt. Throughout, he highlights the achievements that profoundly shaped both Egypt's history and that of the early Hellenistic world. He argues that Ptolemy was by far the greatest of Alexander's Successors, and that he was a conscious imperialist who even boldly attempted to seize Greece and Macedonia, and be a second Alexander.

A History of the Ptolemaic Empire

Author: Günther Hölbl
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113511983X
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 7994

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This compelling narrative provides the only comprehensive guide in English to the rise and decline of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt over three centuries - from the death of Alexander in 323 BC to the tragic deaths of Antony and Cleopatra in 30 BC. The skilful integration of material from a vast array of sources allows the reader to trace the political and religious development of one of the most powerful empires of the ancient eastern Mediterranean. It shows how the success of the Ptolemies was due in part to their adoption of many features of the Egyptian Pharaohs who preceded them - their deification and funding of cults and temples throughout Egypt.

Ptolemy I and the Transformation of Egypt, 404-282 BCE

Author: Paul McKechnie,Jennifer A. Cromwell
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004367624
Category: History
Page: 260
View: 1406

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Seven studies document the transformation of Egypt through the dynamic fourth century, and the inauguration of the Ptolemaic state. After Alexander the Great, Ptolemy son of Lagus established himself as ruler. Continuity and change marked the Egyptian-Greek encounter.

The Last Pharaohs

Egypt Under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC
Author: Joseph Gilbert Manning
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691156387
Category: History
Page: 264
View: 4671

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Presents a history of Ptolemaic Egypt as a state, covering such topics as economic conditions, order and law, and politics.


Forgotten Queen and Pharaoh of Egypt
Author: Richard H. Wilkinson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199912343
Category: History
Page: 168
View: 9882

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Tausret reveals the relatively unknown story of one of the only women to ever rule ancient Egypt as a king. This book brings together distinguished scholars whose research and excavations have recovered the history of this nearly forgotten female pharaoh.

Antigonos the One-Eyed and the Creation of the Hellenistic State

Author: Richard A. Billows
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520919044
Category: History
Page: 544
View: 6133

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Called by Plutarch "the oldest and greatest of Alexander's successors," Antigonos the One-Eyed (382-301 BC) was the dominant figure during the first half of the Diadoch period, ruling most of the Asian territory conquered by the Macedonians during his final twenty years. Billows provides the first detailed study of this great general and administrator, establishing him as a key contributor to the Hellenistic monarchy and state. After a successful career under Philip and Alexander, Antigonos rose to power over the Asian portion of Alexander's conquests. Embittered by the persistent hostility of those who controlled the European and Egyptian parts of the empire, he tried to eliminate these opponents, an ambition which led to his final defeat in 301. In a corrective to the standard explanations of his aims, Billows shows that Antigonos was scarcely influenced by Alexander, seeking to rule West Asia and the Aegean, rather than the whole of Alexander's Empire.

Portraits of the Ptolemies

Greek Kings as Egyptian Pharaohs
Author: Paul Edmund Stanwick
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292787472
Category: Art
Page: 256
View: 4323

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As archaeologists recover the lost treasures of Alexandria, the modern world is marveling at the latter-day glory of ancient Egypt and the Greeks who ruled it from the ascension of Ptolemy I in 306 B.C. to the death of Cleopatra the Great in 30 B.C. The abundance and magnificence of royal sculptures from this period testify to the power of the Ptolemaic dynasty and its influence on Egyptian artistic traditions that even then were more than two thousand years old. In this book, Paul Edmund Stanwick undertakes the first complete study of Egyptian-style portraits of the Ptolemies. Examining one hundred and fifty sculptures from the vantage points of literary evidence, archaeology, history, religion, and stylistic development, he fully explores how they meld Egyptian and Greek cultural traditions and evoke surrounding social developments and political events. To do this, he develops a "visual vocabulary" for reading royal portraiture and discusses how the portraits helped legitimate the Ptolemies and advance their ideology. Stanwick also sheds new light on the chronology of the sculptures, giving dates to many previously undated ones and showing that others belong outside the Ptolemaic period.

Hellenistic History and Culture

Author: Peter Green
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520203259
Category: History
Page: 293
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In a 1988 conference, American and British scholars unexpectedly discovered that their ideas were converging in ways that formed a new picture of the variegated Hellenistic mosaic. That picture emerges in these essays and eloquently displays the breadth of modern interest in the Hellenistic Age. A distrust of all ideologies has altered old views of ancient political structures, and feminism has also changed earlier assessments. The current emphasis on multiculturalism has consciously deemphasized the Western, Greco-Roman tradition, and Nubians, Bactrians, and other subject peoples of the time are receiving attention in their own right, not just as recipients of Greco-Roman culture. History, like Herakleitos' river, never stands still. These essays share a collective sense of discovery and a sparking of new ideas—they are a welcome beginning to the reexploration of a fascinatingly complex age.

Arsinoe of Egypt and Macedon

A Royal Life
Author: Elizabeth Donnelly Carney
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195365518
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 215
View: 1537

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The life of Arsinoë II (c. 316-c.270 BCE), daughter of the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty, is characterized by dynastic intrigue. This book provides the first accessible biography of this fascinating queen.

Egypt in the Age of Cleopatra

History and Society Under the Ptolemies
Author: Michel Chauveau
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801485763
Category: History
Page: 226
View: 2924

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Few other civilizations rival Ancient Egypt in its power to capture the modern imagination, and Cleopatra VII, monarch at the end of the Ptolemaic period, has always been preeminent among its cast of characters. Coming to power just before the unstable state was about to be absorbed into an autocratic empire, Cleopatra oversaw not only Egypt's progress as an influential regional power but also the fragile peace of its ethnically mixed population.Michel Chauveau looks at many facets of life under this queen and her dynasty, drawing on such sources as firsthand accounts, numismatics, and Greek, Demotic, and hieroglyphic inscriptions. His use of such sources helps to free the narrative of dependence on later (and usually hostile) Greek and Roman historians. By taking up such subjects as funeral customs, language and writing, social class structure, religion, and administration, he affords the reader an unprecedented and comprehensive picture of Greek and Egyptian life in both the cities and the countryside.Originally published in French in 1997, Egypt in the Age of Cleopatra fulfills a long-standing need for an accessible introduction to the social, economic, religious, military, and cultural history of Ptolemaic Egypt.

The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt

Author: Toby Wilkinson
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1408810026
Category: History
Page: 672
View: 5119

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A brilliantly readable, beautifully illustrated general history of ancient Egypt, from the builders of the first pyramids to Cleopatra

By the Spear

Philip II, Alexander the Great, and the Rise and Fall of the Macedonian Empire
Author: Ian Worthington
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199929866
Category: History
Page: 388
View: 7103

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Looks at the relationship between Philip II and his son, Alexander the Great, and their roles in the rise of the Macedonian empire.

Dividing the Spoils

The War for Alexander the Great's Empire
Author: Robin Waterfield
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199931526
Category: History
Page: 273
View: 2676

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"Dividing the spoils" revives the memory of Alexander's Successors, whose fame has been dimmed only because they stand in his enormous shadow. In fact, Alexander left things in a mess at the time of his death, with no guaranteed succession, no administration in place suitable for such an enormous realm, and huge untamed areas both bordering and within his 'empire'. The Successors consolidated the Conqueror's gains. Their competing ambitions, however, meant that consolidation inevitably led to the break-up of the empire.

From Amyrtaeus to Ptolemy

Egypt in the Fourth Century B.C.
Author: Agnieszka Wojciechowska
Publisher: Harrassowitz
ISBN: 9783447106559
Page: 172
View: 7956

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This book covers the history of Egypt between 404 BC and 305 BC. These are symbolic dates: the first one marked by the Persian empire losing control of Egypt to the native prince Amyrtaeus of the XXVIII dynasty, the second one by the coronation of Ptolemy I, who thus accentuated the beginning of a new Macedonian dynasty and the symbolic end of the Empire of Alexander the Great. From 404 until ca 340 BC Egypt stayed independent under the energetic pharaohs of the XXVIII-XXX dynasties, to reach its height of power during the reigns of Nectanebo I and Nectanebo II. In addition to accounts of classical authors, power and wealth of the pharaohs of the XXX dynasty are evidenced by their massive building program, as shown by the Catalogue of Buildings at the end of the book. Agnieszka Wojciechowska further shows the Second Persian Domination as a period of mostly military occupation contested by large parts of the population of Egypt who offered a more hospitable welcome to Alexander and his Argead successors. In its reconstruction of the history of Egypt this book attempts to go beyond accounts of classical authors, making use of Greek and Egyptian inscriptions, coins, papyri and archaeological evidence. Fourth century papyri, largely sale and marriage contracts and tax documents, show economic and everyday life almost undisturbed by warfare. Their concentration in upper Egypt (Edfu, Elephantine) may suggest that the South of Egypt developed more intensively than the North - all the time exposed to Persian attacks. The evidence of coin hoards shows a very high proportion of local imitation of Athenian drachms among coinage of Egypt in the fourth century BC, with a marked rise of monetization in the Macedonian age.

Ptolemy the second Philadelphus and his world

Author: Paul R. McKechnie,Philippe Guillaume
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004170898
Category: History
Page: 488
View: 379

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Ptolemy II Philadelphus, second Macedonian king of Egypt (282-246BC), captured intellectual high ground by founding the Alexandrian Library and Museum, and cemented celebrity status by bankrolling his courtesans' endeavours in Olympic chariot-racing. In this book scholars analyse a range of key aspects of Phiadelphus' world.

Demosthenes of Athens and the Fall of Classical Greece

Author: Ian Worthington
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190263563
Category: Orators
Page: 416
View: 9491

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In this biography---the first written in English for almost a century---Ian Worthington brings the great orator's career vividly to life. He provides a moving narrative of Demosthenes' humble and difficult beginnings, his fierce rivalries with other Athenian politicians, his victories and defeats in the public Assembly, and finally his posthumous influence as a politician and orator. In doing so, Worthington offers new insights into Demosthenes' motives and how he shaped his policy to achieve political power. Set against the rich backdrop of late classical Athens and Macedonia, this biography will appeal to all readers interested in the history and heritage of ancient Greece. All quotations from Demosthenes' speeches are translated and briefly discussed in order for both professional and non-professional readers to appreciate his rhetorical genius.

The House of the Eagle

Author: Duncan Sprott
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780571223251
Category: Alexandria (Egypt)
Page: 445
View: 8360

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The first volume of The Ptolemies Quartet, the start of a spellbinding saga that triumphantly spans the ancient world. Chronicles the golden years of the first three Ptolemies and their tragic queens, pampered mistresses and turbulent children.

Antigonus the One-Eyed

Greatest of the Successors
Author: Jeff Champion
Publisher: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 1783030429
Category: History
Page: 240
View: 7898

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Plutarch described Antigonus the One Eyed (382-301 BC) 'as 'the oldest and greatest of Alexander's successors,' Antigonus loyally served both Philip II and Alexander the Great as they converted his native Macedonia into an empire stretching from India to Greece. After Alexander's death, Antigonus, then governor of the obscure province of Phrygia, seemed one of the least likely of his commanders to seize the dead king's inheritance. Yet within eight years of the king's passing, through a combination of military skill and political shrewdness, he had conquered the Asian portion of the empire.?His success caused those who controlled the European and Egyptian parts of the empire to unite against him. For another fourteen years he would wage war against a coalition of the other Successors, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, Seleucus and Cassander. In 301 he would meet defeat and death in the Battle of Ipsus. The ancient writers saw Antigonus' life as a cautionary tale about the dangers of hubris and vaulting ambition. Despite his apparent defeat, his descendants would continue to rule as kings and create a dynasty that would rule Macedonia for over a century. Jeff Champion narrates the career of this titanic figure with the focus squarely on the military aspects.


City of the Western Mind
Author: Theodore Vrettos
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 9781451603484
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 4085

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Alexandria was the greatest cultural capital of the ancient world. Accomplished classicist and author Theodore Vrettos now tells its story for the first time in a single volume. His enchanting blend of literary and scholarly qualities makes stories that played out among architectural wonders of the ancient world come alive. His fascinating central contention that this amazing metropolis created the western mind can now take its place in cultural history. Vrettos describes how and why the brilliant minds of the ages -- Greek scholars, Roman emperors, Jewish leaders, and fathers of the Christian Church -- all traveled to the shining port city Alexander the Great founded in 332 B.C. at the mouth of the mighty Nile. There they enjoyed learning from an extraordinary population of peaceful citizens whose rich intellectual life would quietly build the science, art, faith, and even politics of western civilization. No one has previously argued that, unlike the renowned military centers of the Mediterranean such as Rome, Carthage, and Sparta, Alexandria was a city of the mind. In a brief section on the great conqueror and founder Alexander, we learn that he himself was a student of Aristotle. In Part Two of his majestic story, Vrettos shows that in the sciences the city witnessed an explosion: Aristarchus virtually invented modern astronomy; Euclid wrote the elements of geometry and founded mathematics; amazingly, Eratosthenes precisely figured the circumference of the earth; and 2,500 years before Freud, the renowned Alexandrian physician Erasistratus identified a mysterious connection between sexual problems and nervous breakdowns. What could so cerebral a community care about geopolitics? As Vrettos explains in the third part of this epic saga, if Rome wanted power and prestige in the Mediterranean, the emperors had to secure the good will of the ruling class in Alexandria. Julius Caesar brought down the Roman Republic, and then almost immediately had to go to Alexandria to secure his power base. So begins a wonderfully told story of political intrigue that doesn't end until the Battle of Actium in 33 B.C. when Augustus Caesar defeated the first power couple, Anthony and Cleopatra. The fourth part of Alexandria focuses on the sphere of religion, and for Vrettos its center is the famous Alexandrian Library. The chief librarian commissioned the Septuagint, the oldest Greek version of the Old Testament, which was completed by Jewish intellectuals. Local church fathers Clement and Origen were key players in the development of Christianity; and the Coptic religion, with its emphasis on personal knowledge of God, flourished. Vrettos has blended compelling stories with astute historical insight. Having read all the ancient sources in Ancient Greek, Hebrew, and Latin himself, he has an expert's knowledge of the everyday reality of his characters and setting. No reader will ever forget walking with him down this lost city's beautiful, dazzling streets.

The Ptolemies, the Sea and the Nile

Studies in Waterborne Power
Author: Kostas Buraselis,Mary Stefanou,Dorothy J. Thompson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107355516
Category: History
Page: N.A
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With its emphasis on the dynasty's concern for control of the sea – both the Mediterranean and the Red Sea – and the Nile, this book offers a new and original perspective on Ptolemaic power in a key period of Hellenistic history. Within the developing Aegean empire of the Ptolemies, the role of the navy is examined together with that of its admirals. Egypt's close relationship to Rhodes is subjected to scrutiny, as is the constant threat of piracy to the transport of goods on the Nile and by sea. Along with the trade in grain came the exchange of other products. Ptolemaic kings used their wealth for luxury ships and the dissemination of royal portraiture was accompanied by royal cult. Alexandria, the new capital of Egypt, attracted poets, scholars and even philosophers; geographical exploration by sea was a feature of the period and observations of the time enjoyed a long afterlife.