Proof Theory of N4-Paraconsistent Logics


Author: Norihiro Kamide,Heinrich Wansing
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781848901674
Category: Mathematics
Page: 414
View: 1110

Continue Reading →

The present book is the first monograph ever with a central focus on the proof theory of paraconsistent logics in the vicinity of the four-valued, constructive paraconsistent logic N4 by David Nelson. The volume brings together a number of papers the authors have written separately or jointly on various systems of inconsistency-tolerant logic. The material covers the structural proof theory of N4, its fragments, including first-degree entailment logic, related logics, such as trilattice logics, connexive systems, systems of symmetric and dual paraconsistent logic, and variations of bi-intuitionistic logic, paraconsistent temporal logics, substructural subsystems of N4, such as paraconsistent intuitionistic linear logics, paraconsistent logics based on involutive quantales, and paraconsistent Lambek logics. Although the proof-theory of N4 and N4-related logics is the central theme of the present monograph, models and model-theoretic semantics also play an important role in the presentation. The relational, Kripke-style models that are dealt with provide a motivating and intuitively appealing insight into the logics with respect to which they are shown to be sound and complete. Nevertheless, the emphasis is on Gentzen-style proof systems -in particular sequent calculi of a standard and less standard kind- for paraconsistent logics, and cut-elimination and its consequences are a central topic throughout. A unifying element of the presentation is the repeated application of embedding theorems in order to transfer results from other logics such as intuitionistic logic to the paraconsistent case.

J. Michael Dunn on Information Based Logics


Author: Katalin Bimbo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319293001
Category: Philosophy
Page: 436
View: 5185

Continue Reading →

This book celebrates and expands on J. Michael Dunn’s work on informational interpretations of logic. Dunn, in his Ph.D. thesis (1966), introduced a semantics for first-degree entailments utilizing the idea that a sentence can provide positive or negative information about a topic, possibly supplying both or neither. He later published a related interpretation of the logic R-mingle, which turned out to be one of the first relational semantics for a relevance logic. An incompatibility relation between information states lends itself to a definition of negation and it has figured into Dunn's comprehensive investigations into representations of various negations. The informational view of semantics is also a prominent theme in Dunn’s research on other logics, such as quantum logic and linear logic, and led to the encompassing theory of generalized Galois logics (or "gaggles"). Dunn’s latest work addresses informational interpretations of the ternary accessibility relation and the very nature of information. The book opens with Dunn’s autobiography, followed by a list of his publications. It then presents a series of papers written by respected logicians working on different aspects of information-based logics. The topics covered include the logic R-mingle, which was introduced by Dunn, and its applications in mathematical reasoning as well as its importance in obtaining results for other relevance logics. There are also interpretations of the accessibility relation in the semantics of relevance and other non-classical logics using different notions of information. It also presents a collection of papers that develop semantics for various logics, including certain modal and many-valued logics. The publication of this book is well timed, since we are living in an "information age.” Providing new technical findings, intellectual history and careful expositions of intriguing ideas, it appeals to a wide audience of scholars and researchers.

Paraconsistent Logic: Consistency, Contradiction and Negation


Author: Walter Carnielli,Marcelo Esteban Coniglio
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319332058
Category: Philosophy
Page: 398
View: 6461

Continue Reading →

This book is the first in the field of paraconsistency to offer a comprehensive overview of the subject, including connections to other logics and applications in information processing, linguistics, reasoning and argumentation, and philosophy of science. It is recommended reading for anyone interested in the question of reasoning and argumentation in the presence of contradictions, in semantics, in the paradoxes of set theory and in the puzzling properties of negation in logic programming. Paraconsistent logic comprises a major logical theory and offers the broadest possible perspective on the debate of negation in logic and philosophy. It is a powerful tool for reasoning under contradictoriness as it investigates logic systems in which contradictory information does not lead to arbitrary conclusions. Reasoning under contradictions constitutes one of most important and creative achievements in contemporary logic, with deep roots in philosophical questions involving negation and consistency This book offers an invaluable introduction to a topic of central importance in logic and philosophy. It discusses (i) the history of paraconsistent logic; (ii) language, negation, contradiction, consistency and inconsistency; (iii) logics of formal inconsistency (LFIs) and the main paraconsistent propositional systems; (iv) many-valued companions, possible-translations semantics and non-deterministic semantics; (v) paraconsistent modal logics; (vi) first-order paraconsistent logics; (vii) applications to information processing, databases and quantum computation; and (viii) applications to deontic paradoxes, connections to Eastern thought and to dialogical reasoning.

Constructive Negations and Paraconsistency


Author: Sergei Odintsov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402068676
Category: Philosophy
Page: 242
View: 2447

Continue Reading →

Here is an account of recent investigations into the two main concepts of negation developed in the constructive logic: the negation as reduction to absurdity, and the strong negation. These concepts are studied in the setting of paraconsistent logic.

The Worldwide List of Alternative Theories and Critics


Author: Jean de Climont
Publisher: Editions d Assailly
ISBN: 2902425171
Category: Science
Page: 2127
View: 588

Continue Reading →

This directory includes the scientists found in the Internet. The scientists of the directory are only those involved in physics (natural philosophy). The list includes 9000 names of scientists, doctors or engineers for more than 50%. Their position is shortly presented together with their proposed alternative theory when applicable. There are more than 1000 such theories, all amazingly very different from one another. Ce répertoire, exclusivement disponible en langue anglaise, inclut les scientifiques, exclusivement dans le domaine de la physique, référencés sur Internet. La liste comporte plus de 9000 noms de scientifiques, docteurs ou ingénieurs à plus de 50%. Elle précise leur position de manière succincte et expose, le cas échéant, les lignes directrices de la solution alternative qu'ils proposent. Il y a ainsi plus de 1000 théories, toutes remarquablement différentes.

Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft


Author: Carl F Gethmann
Publisher: Meiner, F
ISBN: 9783787319435
Category: Philosophy
Page: 1480
View: 2738

Continue Reading →

Unter dem Titel "Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft" hat der XXI. Deutsche Kongreß für Philosophie (Essen 2008) Fragen thematisiert, die an der Nahtstelle von philosophischem Denken und fachwissenschaftlichen Forschungen einerseits sowie philosophischem Denken und aktuellen gesellschaftlichen Problemlagen andererseits liegen. Das Kongreßthema spielte unübersehbar auf Husserls Krisis-Schrift an, in der das Verhältnis von Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft mit Blick auf die Fragen der theoretischen Philosophie als Begründungsverhältnis, mit Blick auf die Fragen der praktischen Philosophie als Aufklärungsverhältnis expliziert wurde. Im Verhältnis von Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft sah Husserl das Fundament des "Europäischen Menschentums", d. h. die Basis für die Selbstverständigung einer wissenschaftlich-technischen Kultur über ihre theoretischen und praktischen Grundlagen. Fragestellungen des angesprochenen Typs werden heute gemeinhin unter den Titel der "Angewandten Ethik" oder "Angewandten Philosophie " subsumiert. Dazu gehören die Themengruppen des technischen Handelns, des Umgangs mit der Natur und der medizinischen Ethik. Diese drei Bereiche haben im Kongreßprogramm eine wichtige Rolle gespielt. Unter Rückgriff auf eine von Hermann Krings eingeführte Redeweise können diese Fragen den exoterischen Aufgaben der Philosophie in Abgrenzung zu den esoterischen Aufgaben zugeordnet werden. Der Kongreß hatte somit auch das Ziel, der Gesellschaft und der Öffentlichkeit zu demonstrieren, was die professionelle Philosophie für die Gesellschaft durch ihr Denken "tut". Der Band enthält alle Beiträge zu den Kolloquien des Kongresses so wie die Texte der öffentlichen Abendvorträge von Jürgen Habermas, Wolfram Hogrebe und Julian Nida-Rümelin.

In Contradiction


Author: Graham Priest
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199263299
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 327
View: 8080

Continue Reading →

Priest advocates and defends the view that there are true contradictions (dialetheism), a perspective that flies in the face of orthodoxy in Western philosophy since Aristole and remains at the centre of philosophical debate. This edition contains the author's reflections on developments since 1987.

David Hilbert's Lectures on the Foundations of Arithmetic and Logic 1917-1933


Author: William Ewald,Wilfried Sieg
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3540694447
Category: Mathematics
Page: 1062
View: 4093

Continue Reading →

The core of Volume 3 consists of lecture notes for seven sets of lectures Hilbert gave (often in collaboration with Bernays) on the foundations of mathematics between 1917 and 1926. These texts make possible for the first time a detailed reconstruction of the rapid development of Hilbert’s foundational thought during this period, and show the increasing dominance of the metamathematical perspective in his logical work: the emergence of modern mathematical logic; the explicit raising of questions of completeness, consistency and decidability for logical systems; the investigation of the relative strengths of various logical calculi; the birth and evolution of proof theory, and the parallel emergence of Hilbert’s finitist standpoint. The lecture notes are accompanied by numerous supplementary documents, both published and unpublished, including a complete version of Bernays’s Habilitationschrift of 1918, the text of the first edition of Hilbert and Ackermann’s Grundzüge der theoretischen Logik (1928), and several shorter lectures by Hilbert from the later 1920s. These documents, which provide the background to Hilbert and Bernays’s monumental Grundlagen der Mathematik (1934, 1938), are essential for understanding the development of modern mathematical logic, and for reconstructing the interactions between Hilbert, Bernays, Brouwer, and Weyl in the philosophy of mathematics.

Klinische Ethikberatung

Ein Praxisbuch für Krankenhäuser und Einrichtungen der Altenpflege
Author: Andrea Dörries,Gerald Neitzke,Alfred Simon,Jochen Vollmann
Publisher: Kohlhammer Verlag
ISBN: 3170274228
Category: Medical
Page: 242
View: 6767

Continue Reading →

Dieses bereits in zweiter Auflage erscheinende Buch ist eine interdisziplinäre, praxisorientierte Einführung in die Tätigkeitsfelder Klinischer Ethikberatung und spiegelt die Erfahrungen der Autoren aus eigener Unterrichts- bzw. Beratungspraxis wider. Behandelt werden unter anderem medizinethische Grundlagen, verschiedene Modelle, Strategien zur Implementierung sowie Organisations- und Rechtsfragen. Für die zweite Auflage wurde der Band aktualisiert und um ein ausführliches Kapitel zur Ethikberatung in der Altenpflege erweitert.

Menschenzucht

Frühe Ideen und Strategien 1500-1870
Author: Maren Lorenz
Publisher: Wallstein Verlag
ISBN: 3835343025
Category: History
Page: 416
View: 5678

Continue Reading →

Der Mensch nach Maß - Bevölkerungspolitik und Proto-Eugenik in der Frühen Neuzeit. Nicht erst seit der Moderne wünscht man sich den optimal leistungsfähigen Menschen. Utopien der Menschenzucht sind vielleicht so alt wie die menschliche Zivilisation selbst. Bereits in der Renaissance und ausgerechnet während der Aufklärung gewannen Fragen der Bevölkerungspolitik in Europa und den jungen USA an Relevanz. Nicht nur Ökonomen, Politiker und Mediziner entwarfen Szenarien und suchten nach Wegen zur Produktion perfekter "Untertanen". Auch Literaten, Journalisten, Philosophen, Sexualaufklärer, Theologen, religiöse Utopisten und erste Frauenrechtlerinnen forderten staatliche Regulation und Kontrolle über die menschliche Reproduktion. Dieses vorher religiös bestimmte Thema sollte sich nun allein am Staatswohl und nicht am Recht des Individuums orientieren. Maren Lorenz untersucht Utopien und Konzepte der Menschenzucht im Alten Reich, Großbritannien, Frankreich und den USA. Sie betrachtet wissenschaftliche, religiöse und politische Diskurse ebenso wie Literatur, Zeitschriften und Sexual- und Eheratgeber. Die Vielzahl der Beispiele zeigt, wie sich die Grenzen des öffentlich Sagbaren und sozial Machbaren immer weiter verschoben, bis sich Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts die Eugenik als eigene Wissenschaft etablierte.