Problems in Algebraic Number Theory


Author: M. Ram Murty,Jody (Indigo) Esmonde
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387269983
Category: Mathematics
Page: 352
View: 5166

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The problems are systematically arranged to reveal the evolution of concepts and ideas of the subject Includes various levels of problems - some are easy and straightforward, while others are more challenging All problems are elegantly solved

Problems in Analytic Number Theory


Author: Maruti Ram Murty
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387951430
Category: Mathematics
Page: 452
View: 8283

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This book gives a problem-solving approach to the difficult subject of analytic number theory. It is primarily aimed at graduate and senior undergraduate students. The goal is to give a rapid introduction of how analytic methods are used to study the distribution of prime numbers. The book also includes an introduction to p-adic analytic methods. It is ideal for a first course in analytic number theory.

Hilbert’s Tenth Problem: An Introduction to Logic, Number Theory, and Computability


Author: M. Ram Murty,Brandon Fodden
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470443996
Category: Hilbert's tenth problem
Page: 239
View: 8424

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Hilbert's tenth problem is one of 23 problems proposed by David Hilbert in 1900 at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris. These problems gave focus for the exponential development of mathematical thought over the following century. The tenth problem asked for a general algorithm to determine if a given Diophantine equation has a solution in integers. It was finally resolved in a series of papers written by Julia Robinson, Martin Davis, Hilary Putnam, and finally Yuri Matiyasevich in 1970. They showed that no such algorithm exists. This book is an exposition of this remarkable achievement. Often, the solution to a famous problem involves formidable background. Surprisingly, the solution of Hilbert's tenth problem does not. What is needed is only some elementary number theory and rudimentary logic. In this book, the authors present the complete proof along with the romantic history that goes with it. Along the way, the reader is introduced to Cantor's transfinite numbers, axiomatic set theory, Turing machines, and Gödel's incompleteness theorems. Copious exercises are included at the end of each chapter to guide the student gently on this ascent. For the advanced student, the final chapter highlights recent developments and suggests future directions. The book is suitable for undergraduates and graduate students. It is essentially self-contained.

A Pythagorean Introduction to Number Theory

Right Triangles, Sums of Squares, and Arithmetic
Author: Ramin Takloo-Bighash
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030026043
Category: Mathematics
Page: 279
View: 799

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Right triangles are at the heart of this textbook’s vibrant new approach to elementary number theory. Inspired by the familiar Pythagorean theorem, the author invites the reader to ask natural arithmetic questions about right triangles, then proceeds to develop the theory needed to respond. Throughout, students are encouraged to engage with the material by posing questions, working through exercises, using technology, and learning about the broader context in which ideas developed. Progressing from the fundamentals of number theory through to Gauss sums and quadratic reciprocity, the first part of this text presents an innovative first course in elementary number theory. The advanced topics that follow, such as counting lattice points and the four squares theorem, offer a variety of options for extension, or a higher-level course; the breadth and modularity of the later material is ideal for creating a senior capstone course. Numerous exercises are included throughout, many of which are designed for SageMath. By involving students in the active process of inquiry and investigation, this textbook imbues the foundations of number theory with insights into the lively mathematical process that continues to advance the field today. Experience writing proofs is the only formal prerequisite for the book, while a background in basic real analysis will enrich the reader’s appreciation of the final chapters.

A Course in Computational Algebraic Number Theory


Author: Henri Cohen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662029456
Category: Mathematics
Page: 536
View: 1274

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A description of 148 algorithms fundamental to number-theoretic computations, in particular for computations related to algebraic number theory, elliptic curves, primality testing and factoring. The first seven chapters guide readers to the heart of current research in computational algebraic number theory, including recent algorithms for computing class groups and units, as well as elliptic curve computations, while the last three chapters survey factoring and primality testing methods, including a detailed description of the number field sieve algorithm. The whole is rounded off with a description of available computer packages and some useful tables, backed by numerous exercises. Written by an authority in the field, and one with great practical and teaching experience, this is certain to become the standard and indispensable reference on the subject.

Fermat's Last Theorem

A Genetic Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory
Author: Harold M. Edwards
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387950020
Category: Mathematics
Page: 407
View: 4343

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This introduction to algebraic number theory via the famous problem of "Fermats Last Theorem" follows its historical development, beginning with the work of Fermat and ending with Kummers theory of "ideal" factorization. The more elementary topics, such as Eulers proof of the impossibilty of x+y=z, are treated in an uncomplicated way, and new concepts and techniques are introduced only after having been motivated by specific problems. The book also covers in detail the application of Kummers theory to quadratic integers and relates this to Gauss'theory of binary quadratic forms, an interesting and important connection that is not explored in any other book.

A Course in Algebraic Number Theory


Author: Robert B. Ash
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486477541
Category: Mathematics
Page: 112
View: 7041

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This text for a graduate-level course covers the general theory of factorization of ideals in Dedekind domains as well as the number field case. It illustrates the use of Kummer's theorem, proofs of the Dirichlet unit theorem, and Minkowski bounds on element and ideal norms. 2003 edition.

Elementary Methods in Number Theory


Author: Melvyn B. Nathanson,Springer-Verlag
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387989129
Category: Mathematics
Page: 513
View: 1197

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Elementary Methods in Number Theory begins with "a first course in number theory" for students with no previous knowledge of the subject. The main topics are divisibility, prime numbers, and congruences. There is also an introduction to Fourier analysis on finite abelian groups, and a discussion on the abc conjecture and its consequences in elementary number theory. In the second and third parts of the book, deep results in number theory are proved using only elementary methods. Part II is about multiplicative number theory, and includes two of the most famous results in mathematics: the Erdös-Selberg elementary proof of the prime number theorem, and Dirichlets theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions. Part III is an introduction to three classical topics in additive number theory: Warings problems for polynomials, Liouvilles method to determine the number of representations of an integer as the sum of an even number of squares, and the asymptotics of partition functions. Melvyn B. Nathanson is Professor of Mathematics at the City University of New York (Lehman College and the Graduate Center). He is the author of the two other graduate texts: Additive Number Theory: The Classical Bases and Additive Number Theory: Inverse Problems and the Geometry of Sumsets.

Elements of Number Theory


Author: John Stillwell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387955872
Category: Mathematics
Page: 256
View: 1936

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Solutions of equations in integers is the central problem of number theory and is the focus of this book. The amount of material is suitable for a one-semester course. The author has tried to avoid the ad hoc proofs in favor of unifying ideas that work in many situations. There are exercises at the end of almost every section, so that each new idea or proof receives immediate reinforcement.

Additive Number Theory: Inverse Problems and the Geometry of Sumsets


Author: Melvyn B. Nathanson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387946559
Category: Mathematics
Page: 296
View: 362

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Many classical problems in additive number theory are direct problems, in which one starts with a set A of natural numbers and an integer H -> 2, and tries to describe the structure of the sumset hA consisting of all sums of h elements of A. By contrast, in an inverse problem, one starts with a sumset hA, and attempts to describe the structure of the underlying set A. In recent years there has been ramrkable progress in the study of inverse problems for finite sets of integers. In particular, there are important and beautiful inverse theorems due to Freiman, Kneser, Plünnecke, Vosper, and others. This volume includes their results, and culminates with an elegant proof by Ruzsa of the deep theorem of Freiman that a finite set of integers with a small sumset must be a large subset of an n-dimensional arithmetic progression.

A Course in Analytic Number Theory


Author: Marius Overholt
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470417065
Category: Mathematics
Page: 371
View: 9601

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This book is an introduction to analytic number theory suitable for beginning graduate students. It covers everything one expects in a first course in this field, such as growth of arithmetic functions, existence of primes in arithmetic progressions, and the Prime Number Theorem. But it also covers more challenging topics that might be used in a second course, such as the Siegel-Walfisz theorem, functional equations of L-functions, and the explicit formula of von Mangoldt. For students with an interest in Diophantine analysis, there is a chapter on the Circle Method and Waring's Problem. Those with an interest in algebraic number theory may find the chapter on the analytic theory of number fields of interest, with proofs of the Dirichlet unit theorem, the analytic class number formula, the functional equation of the Dedekind zeta function, and the Prime Ideal Theorem. The exposition is both clear and precise, reflecting careful attention to the needs of the reader. The text includes extensive historical notes, which occur at the ends of the chapters. The exercises range from introductory problems and standard problems in analytic number theory to interesting original problems that will challenge the reader. The author has made an effort to provide clear explanations for the techniques of analysis used. No background in analysis beyond rigorous calculus and a first course in complex function theory is assumed.

A Classical Introduction to Modern Number Theory


Author: Kenneth Ireland,Michael Rosen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 147572103X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 394
View: 8874

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This well-developed, accessible text details the historical development of the subject throughout. It also provides wide-ranging coverage of significant results with comparatively elementary proofs, some of them new. This second edition contains two new chapters that provide a complete proof of the Mordel-Weil theorem for elliptic curves over the rational numbers and an overview of recent progress on the arithmetic of elliptic curves.

Algebraic Number Theory


Author: A. Fröhlich,M. J. Taylor,Martin J. Taylor
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521438346
Category: Mathematics
Page: 355
View: 1464

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This book provides a brisk, thorough treatment of the foundations of algebraic number theory on which it builds to introduce more advanced topics. Throughout, the authors emphasize the systematic development of techniques for the explicit calculation of the basic invariants such as rings of integers, class groups, and units, combining at each stage theory with explicit computations.

Number Theory


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080873329
Category: Mathematics
Page: 434
View: 6361

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This book is written for the student in mathematics. Its goal is to give a view of the theory of numbers, of the problems with which this theory deals, and of the methods that are used. We have avoided that style which gives a systematic development of the apparatus and have used instead a freer style, in which the problems and the methods of solution are closely interwoven. We start from concrete problems in number theory. General theories arise as tools for solving these problems. As a rule, these theories are developed sufficiently far so that the reader can see for himself their strength and beauty, and so that he learns to apply them. Most of the questions that are examined in this book are connected with the theory of diophantine equations - that is, with the theory of the solutions in integers of equations in several variables. However, we also consider questions of other types; for example, we derive the theorem of Dirichlet on prime numbers in arithmetic progressions and investigate the growth of the number of solutions of congruences.

A Course in Number Theory and Cryptography


Author: Neal Koblitz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441985921
Category: Mathematics
Page: 235
View: 9343

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This is a substantially revised and updated introduction to arithmetic topics, both ancient and modern, that have been at the centre of interest in applications of number theory, particularly in cryptography. As such, no background in algebra or number theory is assumed, and the book begins with a discussion of the basic number theory that is needed. The approach taken is algorithmic, emphasising estimates of the efficiency of the techniques that arise from the theory, and one special feature is the inclusion of recent applications of the theory of elliptic curves. Extensive exercises and careful answers are an integral part all of the chapters.

Additive Number Theory The Classical Bases


Author: Melvyn B. Nathanson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387946566
Category: Mathematics
Page: 342
View: 1842

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[Hilbert's] style has not the terseness of many of our modem authors in mathematics, which is based on the assumption that printer's labor and paper are costly but the reader's effort and time are not. H. Weyl [143] The purpose of this book is to describe the classical problems in additive number theory and to introduce the circle method and the sieve method, which are the basic analytical and combinatorial tools used to attack these problems. This book is intended for students who want to lel?Ill additive number theory, not for experts who already know it. For this reason, proofs include many "unnecessary" and "obvious" steps; this is by design. The archetypical theorem in additive number theory is due to Lagrange: Every nonnegative integer is the sum of four squares. In general, the set A of nonnegative integers is called an additive basis of order h if every nonnegative integer can be written as the sum of h not necessarily distinct elements of A. Lagrange 's theorem is the statement that the squares are a basis of order four. The set A is called a basis offinite order if A is a basis of order h for some positive integer h. Additive number theory is in large part the study of bases of finite order. The classical bases are the squares, cubes, and higher powers; the polygonal numbers; and the prime numbers. The classical questions associated with these bases are Waring's problem and the Goldbach conjecture.

Algebra


Author: Serge Lang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387953854
Category: Mathematics
Page: 914
View: 2729

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This book is intended as a basic text for a one year course in algebra at the graduate level or as a useful reference for mathematicians and professionals who use higher-level algebra. This book successfully addresses all of the basic concepts of algebra. For the new edition, the author has added exercises and made numerous corrections to the text. From MathSciNet's review of the first edition: "The author has an impressive knack for presenting the important and interesting ideas of algebra in just the "right" way, and he never gets bogged down in the dry formalism which pervades some parts of algebra."