Problems and Process

International Law and How We Use It
Author: Rosalyn Higgins
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198764106
Category: Law
Page: 274
View: 8022

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The greatest possible honor for an international lawyer is to be invited to deliver the Hague Academy General Course in International Law. Rosalyn Higgins was so honored and this volume is the revised text of the lectures she delivered there. Its purpose is to show that there is an essential and unavoidable choice to be made between the perception of international law as either a system of neutral rules or as a system of decision-making directed towards the attainment of specific declared values. This book focuses on resolving this in addition to many other difficult and unanswered issues in contemporary international law. The topics she addresses include human rights, allocating competence, self determination, and the individual use of force in international law. This accessible volume will be particularly useful to scholars and students of international law who seek a better understanding of the subject and desire to see how the great web of inter-related concepts which comprise international law are held together as a coherent and cohesive whole.

Problems and Process

International Law and how We Use it
Author: Rosalyn Higgins
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780198762027
Category: International law
Page: 274
View: 9203

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4. Allocating competence: jurisdiction

Themes and Theories

Selected Essays, Speeches, and Writings in International Law
Author: Rosalyn Higgins
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: N.A
Category: International law
Page: 1421
View: 3623

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As President of the International Court of Justice, Dame Rosalyn Higgins is the world's most senior judge. This two volume set collects together all of her most important writings as a scholar, a member of the UN Human Rights Committee, and as judge and President of the International Court of Justice. During these years Dame Rosalyn has written on a wide range of topics including legal theory, United Nations Law, humanitarian law, the use of force, state and diplomatic immunities, human rights, and natural resources law. As President and Judge of the International Court of Justice, Dame Rosalyn has played her part in the formulation of the Judgments and Opinions of the principal judicial organ of the UN. She has sought to ensure the ICJ - the senior international court - operates in a modern and efficient manner, and in cordial relationship with the many new courts and tribunals now existing. These aspirations are reflected in her speeches during the years 2006 to 2008, most of which have not hitherto been published. This volume boasts a comprehensive collection of all her Separate Opinions, amongst other writings, divided into ten Parts by subject matter. This includes specially written introductory passages by Dame Rosalyn to present the catalogue of her writings and the correlative developments in international law by theme.

The Break-up of Yugoslavia and International Law


Author: Peter Radan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134525451
Category: Political Science
Page: 288
View: 7507

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The demise of the former Yugoslavia was brought about by various secessionist movements seeking international recognition of statehood. This book provides a critical analysis from an international law perspective of the break-up of Yugoslavia. Although international recognition was granted to the former Yugoslav republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina and Macedonia, the claims of secessionist movements that sought a revision of existing internal federal borders were rejected. The basis upon which the post-secession international borders were accepted in international law involved novel applications of international law principles of self-determination of peoples and uti possidetis. This book traces the developments of these principles, and the historical development of Yugoslavia's internal borders.

Politics of International Law and International Justice


Author: Edwin Egede
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748684522
Category: Political Science
Page: 352
View: 4855

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A textbook introduction to international law and justice is specially written for students studying law in other departments, such as politics and IR. Students will engage with debates surrounding sovereignty and global governance, sovereign and diplomati

International Organizations and the Idea of Autonomy

Institutional Independence in the International Legal Order
Author: Richard Collins,Nigel D. White
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136806059
Category: Law
Page: 464
View: 706

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International Organizations and the Idea of Autonomy is an exploratory text looking at the idea of intergovernmental organizations as autonomous international actors. In the context of concerns over the accountability of powerful international actors exercising increasing levels of legal and political authority, in areas as diverse as education, health, financial markets and international security, the book comes at a crucial time. Including contributions from leading scholars in the fields of international law, politics and governance, it addresses themes of institutional autonomy in international law and governance from a range of theoretical and subject-specific contexts. The collection looks internally at aspects of the institutional law of international organizations and the workings of specific regimes and institutions, as well as externally at the proliferation of autonomous organizations in the international legal order as a whole. Although primarily a legal text, the book takes a broad, thematic and inter-disciplinary approach. In this respect, International Organizations and the Idea of Autonomy offers an excellent resource for both practitioners and students undertaking courses of advanced study in international law, the law of international organizations, global governance, as well as aspects of international relations and organization.

Religious Actors and International Law


Author: Ioana Cismas
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019102189X
Category: Law
Page: 440
View: 8096

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This book assesses whether a new category of religious actors has been constructed within international law. Religious actors, through their interpretations of the religion(s) they are associated with, uphold and promote, or indeed may transform, potentially oppressive structures or discriminatory patterns. This study moves beyond the concern that religious texts and practices may be incompatible with international law, to provide an innovative analysis of how religious actors themselves are accountable under international law for the interpretations they choose to put forward. The book defines religious actors as comprising religious states, international organizations, and non-state entities that assume the role of interpreting religion and so claim a 'special' legitimacy anchored in tradition or charisma. Cutting across the state / non-state divide, this definition allows the full remit of religious bodies to be investigated. It analyses the crucial question of whether religious actors do in fact operate under different international legal norms to non-religious states, international organizations, or companies. To that end, the Holy See-Vatican, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and churches and religious organizations under the European Convention on Human Rights regime are examined in detail as case studies. The study ultimately establishes that religious actors cannot be seen to form an autonomous legal category under international law: they do not enjoy special or exclusive rights, nor incur lesser obligations, when compared to their respective non-religious peers. Going forward, it concludes that a process of two-sided legitimation may be at stake: religious actors will need to provide evidence for the legality of their religious interpretations to strengthen their legitimacy, and international law itself may benefit from religious actors fostering its legitimacy in different cultural contexts.

International Criminal Justice at the Yugoslav Tribunal

A Judge's Recollection
Author: Mohamed Shahabuddeen
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191649856
Category: Law
Page: 264
View: 895

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International criminal justice has undergone rapid recent development. Since the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in 1993, and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in the following year, the field has changed beyond recognition. The traditional immunity of presidents or heads of government, prime ministers, and other functionaries acting in an official capacity no longer prevails; the doctrine of superior orders is inapplicable except, where appropriate, as in mitigation; and the gap between international armed conflict and non-international armed conflict has closed. More generally, the bridge has been crossed between the irresponsibility of the state and the criminal responsibility of the individual. As a result, the traditional impunity of the state has practically gone. This book, by one of the former judges of the ICTY, ICTR, and the International Court of Justice, assesses some of the workings of the ICTY that have shaped these developments. In it, Judge Shahabuddeen provides an insightful overview of the nature of this criminal court, established on behalf of the whole of the international community. He reflects on its transformation into one of the leading fora for the growth of international criminal law first-hand, offering a unique perspective on the challenges it has faced. Judge Shahabuddeen's experience in international criminal justice makes this volume essential reading for those interested in, or working with, international criminal law.

Government Law and Policy

Commercial Aspects
Author: Bryan Horrigan
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862872578
Category: Law
Page: 446
View: 4808

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This topical book focuses on select aspects of government law and policy which significantly affect the commercial/business sectors or which involve government in these sectors. Written with a strong practical focus, it covers law, policy and practicalities at all levels of government. Commercial lawyers who act for or against government, government lawyers and government officials and policy advisers will find this new volume indispensable.

Public International Law

Contemporary Principles and Perspectives
Author: Gideon Boas
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857939564
Category: Law
Page: 400
View: 507

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'Gideon Boas's experience as an international litigator and his renown as an academic practitioner means he was well-placed to write a book on international law that both covers this growing field and enters it at key moments to illustrate important themes. This book accomplishes the difficult task of offering a wide-ranging perspective on the whole field, as well as conveying the ferment that surrounds it. Students of international law will derive great benefit from it.' – Gerry Simpson, University of Melbourne, Australia Public International Law offers a comprehensive understanding of international law as well as a fresh and highly accessible approach. While explaining the theory and development of international law, this work also examines how it functions in practice. Case studies and recent examples are infused in the discussion on each topic, and critical perspectives on the principles are given prominence, building an understanding of how and why the international legal system operates in the way it does and where it is heading. For each principle, the book starts by explaining the theoretical foundations in detail before illustrating how these principles function in practice. Features include: • a focus on fundamental principles of international law rather than specialist sub-topics; • integrated and contextual explanation of political and extra-legal dimension of international legal system; • principles of international law placed within a contemporary real-life context; • traditional and contemporary case studies explained in the context of legal principles; and • uniform structure to facilitate understanding. With insight founded on the author's many years of experience as a practitioner and academic in the field of international law, this work will offer legal practitioners, policy makers and students, both undergraduate and postgraduate, an invaluable insight into the field of international law.

The Individual in the International Legal System

Continuity and Change in International Law
Author: Kate Parlett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139499971
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 7009

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Kate Parlett's study of the individual in the international legal system examines the way in which individuals have come to have a certain status in international law, from the first treaties conferring rights and capacities on individuals through to the present day. The analysis cuts across fields including human rights law, international investment law, international claims processes, humanitarian law and international criminal law in order to draw conclusions about structural change in the international legal system. By engaging with much new literature on non-state actors in international law, she seeks to dispel myths about state-centrism and the direction in which the international legal system continues to evolve.

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights in Armed Conflict


Author: Gilles Giacca
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191026913
Category: Law
Page: 414
View: 8427

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This book addresses the international legal obligation to protect economic, social, and cultural human rights in times of armed conflict and other situations of armed violence. These rights provide guarantees to individuals of their fundamental rights to work, to an adequate standard of living (food, water, housing), to education, and to health. Armed violence can take many forms, from civil unrest or protest and other forms of internal disturbances and tensions to higher levels of violence that may amount to armed conflict, whether of an international or of a non-international character. However, in all such cases the protection of ESC rights is sorely challenged. Situations of actual or potential violence present a number of challenges to the application and implementation of human rights law in general and socio-economic rights obligations more specifically. This book sets out the legal framework, defining what constitutes a minimum universal standard of human rights protection applicable in all circumstances. It assesses the concept and content of ESC rights' obligations, and evaluates how far they can be legally applicable in various scenarios of armed violence. By looking at the specific human rights treaty provisions, it discusses how far ESC rights obligations can be affected by practical and legal challenges to their implementation. The book addresses the key issues facing the protection of such rights in times of armed conflict: the legal conditions to limit ESC rights on security grounds, including the use of force; the extraterritorial applicability of international human rights treaties setting out ESC rights; the relationship between human rights law and international humanitarian law; and the obligations of non-state actors under human rights law and with particular relevance to the protection of ESC rights. The book assesses the nature of these potential challenges to the protection of ESC rights, and offers solutions to reinforce their continued application.

The Individual in the International Legal System

Continuity and Change in International Law
Author: Kate Parlett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139499971
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 8941

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Kate Parlett's study of the individual in the international legal system examines the way in which individuals have come to have a certain status in international law, from the first treaties conferring rights and capacities on individuals through to the present day. The analysis cuts across fields including human rights law, international investment law, international claims processes, humanitarian law and international criminal law in order to draw conclusions about structural change in the international legal system. By engaging with much new literature on non-state actors in international law, she seeks to dispel myths about state-centrism and the direction in which the international legal system continues to evolve.

Complicity in International Law


Author: Miles Jackson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191056758
Category: Law
Page: 272
View: 7768

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This book examines how international law prohibits state and individual complicity. Complicity is a derivative form of responsibility that links an accomplice to the wrongdoing of a principal actor. Whenever a legal system prohibits complicity, it must address certain questions as to the content and structure of the rules. To understand how international law answers these questions, this book proposes an analytical framework in which complicity rules may be assessed and defends a normative claim as to how they should be structured. Anchored by this framework and normative claim, this book shows that international criminal law regulates individual complicity in a comprehensive way, using the doctrines of instigation and aiding and abetting to inculpate complicit participants in international crimes. By contrast, international law's regulation of state complicity was historically marked by an absence of complicity rules. This is changing. In respect of state complicity in the wrongdoing of another state, international law now imposes both specific and general complicity obligations, the latter prohibiting states from aiding or assisting another state in the commission of any internationally wrongful act. In respect of the ways that states participate in harms caused by non-state actors, the traditional normative structure of international law, which imposed obligations only on states, foreclosed the possibility of prohibiting the state's participation as a form of complicity. As that traditional normative structure has evolved, so the possibility of holding states responsible for complicity in the wrongdoing of non-state actors has emerged. More and more, both the wrongs that international actors commit, and the wrongs they help or encourage others to commit, matter.

Public Interest Rules of International Law

Towards Effective Implementation
Author: Professor Teruo Komori,Professor Karel Wellens
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 140949683X
Category: Law
Page: 510
View: 7017

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This book clarifies factors that play an important role in securing the effectiveness of legal regimes that aim to protect public interests of the international community.

The Finnish Yearbook of International Law 1997


Author: Martti Koskenniemi,Kari Takamaa
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9789041111302
Category: Law
Page: 528
View: 7254

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Despite its Finnish initiative and pedigrees, "The Finnish Yearbook of International Law" does not restrict itself to purely 'Finnish' topics. On the contrary, it reflects the many connections in law between the national and the international. "The Finnish Yearbook of International Law" annually publishes, in both English and French, articles of high quality dealing with all aspects of international law, including international law aspects of European law, with close attention to developments that affect Finland. Its offerings include: - longer articles of a theoretical nature, exploring new avenues and approaches; - shorter polemics; - commentaries on current international law developments; - book reviews; and - documentation of relevance to Finland's foreign relations not easily available elsewhere. "The Finnish Yearbook" offers a fertile ground for the expression of and reflection on the connections between Finnish law and international law as a whole and insight into the richness of this interaction.

Contracting with Sovereignty

State Contracts and International Arbitration
Author: Ivar Alvik
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847316220
Category: Law
Page: 346
View: 1122

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The application of international law to state contracts with foreign private companies was the cause of continuing controversy throughout much of the twentieth century. State contractual undertakings with foreign investors raise a number of legal issues that do not fit well into the traditional pattern of international law as a law between states, but which also cannot be satisfactorily resolved by the exclusive application of the municipal law of the contracting state. In recent years the controversy has gained new prominence as a result of the advent of a new form of international dispute settlement, namely the mechanism of investment treaty arbitration. The main feature of this model of dispute resolution is that foreign investors are entitled to bring claims against states directly before international arbitral tribunals. This model, which emerged strongly in the late 1990s, has generated a rapidly expanding body of arbitral case law and in the process become one of the most significant new developments in modern international law. Many of the disputes subject to investment treaty arbitration have their origin in contractual commitments made by states toward foreign investors. At the same time international commercial arbitration continues to be the preferred means of dispute resolution in contracts between foreign investors and states or state entities. This book explores how contract claims against states are dealt with in the two parallel processes of treaty-based and contract-based arbitration. The book charts the development of commercial arbitration into an international legal remedy in this field, discusses the theoretical problems which it creates for international law, and outlines the most significant substantive features of the international law applicable to contract claims as developed by arbitral tribunals on the basis of treaty standards and customary law.

Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law

Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy
Author: Steven R. Ratner,Jason S. Abrams,James L. Bischoff
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191018678
Category: Political Science
Page: 536
View: 5873

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This book explores the promises and limitations of holding individuals accountable for violations of international human rights and humanitarian law. It analyses the principal crimes under international law, such as genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, and appraises both prosecutorial and other key mechanisms developed to bring individuals to justice. After applying their conclusions in a detailed case study, the authors offer a series of compelling conclusions on the prospects for accountability. This fully updated new edition contains expanded coverage of national trials under universal jurisdiction, international criminal tribunals including the International Criminal Court, new hybrid tribunals in Cambodia and elsewhere, truth commissions, and lustration. It also explores individual accountability for terrorist acts and for abuses committed in the name of counter-terrorism policy.

Deference in International Courts and Tribunals

Standard of Review and Margin of Appreciation
Author: Lukasz Gruszczynski,Wouter Werner
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191026506
Category: Law
Page: 400
View: 7383

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International courts and tribunals are often asked to review decisions originally made by domestic decision-makers. This can often be a source of tension, as the international courts and tribunals need to judge how far to defer to the original decisions of the national bodies. As international courts and tribunals have proliferated, different courts have applied differing levels of deference to those originial decisions, which can lead to a fragmentation in international law. International courts in such positions rely on two key doctrines: the standard of review and the margin of appreciation. The standard of review establishes the extent to which national decisions relating to factual, legal, or political issues arising in the case are re-examined in the international court. The margin of appreciation is the extent to which national legislative, executive, and judicial decision-makers are allowed to reflect diversity in their interpretation of human rights obligations. The book begins by providing an overview of the margin of appreciation and standard of review, recognising that while the margin of appreciation explicitly acknowledges the existence of such deference, the standard of review does not: it is rather a procedural mechanism. It looks in-depth at how the public policy exception has been assessed by the European Court of Justice and the WTO dispute settlement bodies. It examines how the European Court of Human Rights has taken an evidence-based approach towards the margin of appreciation, as well as how it has addressed issues of hate speech. The Inter-American system is also investigated, and it is established how far deference is possible within that legal organisation. Finally, the book studies how a range of other international courts, such as the International Criminal Court, and the Law of the Sea Tribunal, have approached these two core doctrines.