Primitive Classification


Author: Emile Durkheim,Marcel Mauss
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226173344
Category: Science
Page: 96
View: 5188

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Emile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss maintain that society is the source of the very categories of human thought. First published in the Année Sociologique in 1903, this classic essay has been translated by Rodney Needham, who also provides a critical introduction. "[Primitive Classification] will impress the reader with its quiet elegance, its direct, logical form, its clarity of style, its spirit of careful, yet bold, exploration."—Harry Alpert, American Journal of Sociology "Particularly instructive for anyone who wonders what social anthropology is: how, if at all, it differs from sociology and whether it has any unifying theoretical problem."—F. K. Lehman, American Sociological Review

Primitive Classification (Routledge Revivals)


Author: Emile Durkheim,Marcel Mauss
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135174318
Category: Philosophy
Page: 102
View: 3404

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In this influential work, first published in English in 1963, Durkheim and Mauss claim that the individual mind is capable of classification and they seek the origin of the ‘classificatory function’ in society. On the basis of an intensive examination of forms and principles of symbolic classification reported from the Australian aborigines, the Zuñi and traditional China, they try to establish a formal correspondence between social and symbolic classification. From this they argue that the mode of classification is determined by the form of society and that the notions of space, time, hierarchy, number, class and other such cognitive categories are products of society. Dr Needham’s introduction assesses the validity of Durkhiem and Mauss’s argument, traces its continued influence in various disciplines, and indicates its analytical value for future researches in social anthropology.

Primitive Classification (Routledge Revivals)


Author: Émile Durkheim,Marcel Mauss
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 041556283X
Category: Philosophy
Page: 96
View: 1017

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Claims that the individual mind is capable of classification and they seek the origin of the 'classificatory function' in society. This title argues that the mode of classification is determined by the form of society and that the notions of space, time, hierarchy, number, class and other such cognitive categories are products of society.

Categories and Classifications

Maussian Reflections on the Social
Author: N. J. Allen
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9781571818089
Category: Social Science
Page: 165
View: 5739

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Marcel Mauss (1872-1950), Durkheim's nephew, was a key figure among Durkheimians and helped to found the distinctive French tradition in the social sciences at the start of the 20th century. He dominated the teaching of social anthropology in Paris between the Wars, and his Essay on the Gift (1925) is a well established classic. However, it is only recently that the breadth and freshness of his oeuvre as a whole is being reassessed and is gaining wider appreciation. Having found inspiration in Mauss's texts for over twenty years, the author here explores not only what he thought but also how his ideas can be developed and applied in new ways. Thus Durkheim and Mauss's notion of "primitive classification," often misunderstood, is well exemplified by Indo-European ideology as analysed by Georges Dumezil and current comparativists, and it is argued that this ancient ideology influenced the Durkheimian classification of "social facts." Mauss's reflections on kinship and social aggregation point us towards aspects of proto-human societies that are underemphasized by contemporary palaeoanthropology, and his vision of world history in terms of emic categories - fundamental ideas such as person, space, totality, substance - casts new light on much we take for granted, as well as on The Gift. Mauss specialized in religion, and his treatment of the rubric goes beyond his uncle's unitary definition in terms of the sacred. In assembling and presenting his essays on this intellectual giant, the author tries both to convey the range and quality of Mauss's mind and to take further his scattered and partial insights.

To Take Place

Toward Theory in Ritual
Author: Jonathan Z. Smith
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226763613
Category: Religion
Page: 183
View: 6190

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In this broad-ranging inquiry into ritual and its relation to place, Jonathan Z. Smith prepares the way for a new approach to the comparative study of religion. Smith stresses the importance of place—in particular, constructed ritual environments—to a proper understanding of the ways in which "empty" actions become rituals. He structures his argument around the territories of the Tjilpa aborigines in Australia and two sites in Jerusalem—the temple envisioned by Ezekiel and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The first of these locales—the focus of one of the more important contemporary theories of religious ritual—allows Smith to raise questions concerning the enterprise of comparison. His close examination of Eliade's influential interpretation of the Tjilpa tradition leads to a powerful critique of the approach to religion, myth, and ritual that begins with cosmology and the category of "The Sacred." In substance and in method, To Take Place represents a significant advance toward a theory of ritual. It is of great value not only to historians of religion and students of ritual, but to all, whether social scientists or humanists, who are concerned with the nature of place. "This book is extraordinarily stimulating in prompting one to think about the ways in which space, or place, is perceived, marked, and utilized religiously. . . . A provocative example of the application of humanistic geography to our understanding of what takes place in religion."—Dale Goldsmith, Interpretation

Culture

Critical Concepts in Sociology
Author: Chris Jenks
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415226905
Category: Social Science
Page: 1668
View: 6513

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Offers various views on the concept of culture, including articles by such authors as Walter Benjamin, Georg Simmel, T.S. Eliot, and Bronislaw Malinowski.

Classical Approaches to the Study of Religion

Aims, Methods, and Theories of Research
Author: Jacques Waardenburg
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110163285
Category: Religion
Page: 742
View: 3092

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Originally published in 1973 (The Hague: Mouton) at a time when the field was blossoming; this edition includes a new preface. The book consists of two major parts. The first is an essay by Waardenburg, who was affiliated with the U. of Lausanne, Switzerland, following the rise and development of the academic study of religion in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The second is an anthology of articles about religion written by over 40 scholars in fields including psychology, sociology, philosophy, and anthropology. Waardenburg intended this book to be an examination of classical texts, and thus acknowledges that these authors often had a narrow approach to religion, ignoring anything not of European origin. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Principles of Tzeltal Plant Classification

An Introduction to the Botanical Ethnography of a Mayan-Speaking, People of Highland, Chiapas
Author: Brent Berlin,Dennis E. Breedlove,Peter H. Raven
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483220982
Category: Science
Page: 684
View: 9552

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Principles of Tzeltal Plant Classification: An Introduction to the Botanical Ethnography of a Mayan-Speaking People of Highland Chiapas covers the underlying classificatory principles used by the Tzeltal to order the vast array of organisms of the plant world. The book describes the setting of the research, both from a botanical and ethnographic view; the general outline of Tzeltal plant classification and nomenclature; and the methods used to collect data. The text also discusses the rich ethnolinguistic terminology used by the Tzeltal in describing and discussing the structure of plants, referred to as ethnophytography; and the cultural significance of plants to the Tzeltal in agriculture, food types, house building, and other areas of material culture where plants and plant products are of major importance. The individual description of all known Tzeltal plant classes is also encompassed in detail. Botanists and ethnobotanists will find the book invaluable.

Race and Racism in Modern East Asia

Western and Eastern Constructions
Author: Rotem Kowner,Walter Demel
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004237291
Category: Social Science
Page: 593
View: 3799

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Race and Racism in Modern East Asia juxtaposes Western racial constructions of East Asians with constructions of race and their outcomes in modern East Asia. This groundbreaking volume also offers an analysis of these constructions, their evolution and their interrelations.

Debating Durkheim


Author: Hermino Martins,William Pickering
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135087830
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 1526

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First published in 1994. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

The Forest of Symbols

Aspects of Ndembu Ritual
Author: Victor Witter Turner
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801491016
Category: Social Science
Page: 405
View: 6933

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Collection of 10 articles previously published on various aspects of ritual symbolism among the Ndembu of Zambia; p.83-4; brief mention of C.P. Mountford on Aboriginal colour symbolism; Primarly for use in cultural comparison.

Epistemic Cultures

How the Sciences Make Knowledge
Author: Karin Knorr Cetina
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674039681
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 352
View: 5362

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How does science create knowledge? Epistemic cultures, shaped by affinity, necessity, and historical coincidence, determine how we know what we know. In this book, Karin Knorr Cetina compares two of the most important and intriguing epistemic cultures of our day, those in high energy physics and molecular biology. Her work highlights the diversity of these cultures of knowing and, in its depiction of their differences--in the meaning of the empirical, the enactment of object relations, and the fashioning of social relations--challenges the accepted view of a unified science. By many accounts, contemporary Western societies are becoming knowledge societies--which run on expert processes and expert systems epitomized by science and structured into all areas of social life. By looking at epistemic cultures in two sample cases, this book addresses pressing questions about how such expert systems and processes work, what principles inform their cognitive and procedural orientations, and whether their organization, structures, and operations can be extended to other forms of social order. The first ethnographic study to systematically compare two different scientific laboratory cultures, this book sharpens our focus on epistemic cultures as the basis of the knowledge society.

Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion


Author: Michael Banton
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136538291
Category: Social Science
Page: 224
View: 2093

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As the basic questions of social structure were elucidated there came a quickening of interest among social anthropologists in the study of religion. Chapters in this book include: · Religion as a Cultural System (Clifford Geertz) · Colour Classification in Ndembu Religion (Victor W. Turner) · Religion: Problems of Definition and Explanation (Melford E. Spiro) · Fathers, Elders and Ghosts in Edo Religion (R.E. Bradbury) · Territorial Groupings and Relgion among the Iraqw (Edward H. Winter). First published in 1966.

The Possibility of Anthropological Fideism

An Essay on Symbol, Interpretation, and Enigmas in Cross-cultural Inquiries
Author: Da Zhi Zhong
Publisher: University Press of America
ISBN: 9780761827443
Category: Social Science
Page: 228
View: 3719

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In this book, D. Z. Zhong establishes a methodological principle for cross-cultural research, called anthropological fideism. While anthropologists take for granted that natives don't really believe the unintelligible or inexplicable things they say, and what they say should express a deeper social meaning, Zhong contends that if we have a translation manual that can interpret a foreign language, and if natives are asserting honestly, then what natives say still express natives' belief, no matter how absurd it seems. His anthropological fideism entails that in fact we can, and indeed we should, happily live with others' differences while taking them literal.

Grenzenlos guter Geschmack

Die feinen Unterschiede des Musikhörens
Author: Oliver Berli
Publisher: transcript Verlag
ISBN: 3839427363
Category: Social Science
Page: 300
View: 9481

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Ein breit aufgestellter Musikgeschmack gilt heute für viele als Ausweis kultureller Offenheit. Die Kombination von Vorlieben für unterschiedliche Musikstile wie beispielsweise Klassik, Indie und HipHop mit der dazugehörigen Absage an Kultursnobismus bedeutet aber noch nicht, dass symbolische und soziale Abgrenzungen generell an Bedeutung verlieren. Oliver Berli rekonstruiert im Anschluss an Bourdieu die Prozesse und Formen des Ordnens und Wertens von Musik sowie des Abgrenzens mittels Musik. In Auseinandersetzungen mit empirischen Daten schlägt er eine Modifikation bestehender soziologischer Deutungen vor und untersucht »grenzüberschreitenden Musikgeschmack« auf seine Grenzen hin.

Epistemology and Practice

Durkheim's The Elementary Forms of Religious Life
Author: Anne Warfield Rawls
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139441322
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 5460

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In this original and controversial book Professor Rawls argues that Durkheim's The Elementary Forms of Religious Life is the crowning achievement of his sociological endeavour and that since its publication in English in 1915 it has been consistently misunderstood. Rather than a work on primitive religion or the sociology of knowledge, Rawls asserts that it is an attempt by Durkheim to establish a unique epistemological basis for the study of sociology and moral relations. By privileging social practice over beliefs and ideas, it avoids the dilemmas inherent in philosophical approaches to knowledge and morality that are based on individualism and the tendency to privilege beliefs and ideas over practices, both tendencies that dominate western thought. Based on detailed textual analysis of the primary text, this book will be an important and original contribution to contemporary debates on social theory and philosophy.