Poverty Policy And Poverty Research


Author: Robert H. Haveman
Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
ISBN: 9780299111540
Category: Political Science
Page: 307
View: 4560

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The War on Poverty, instituted in 1965 during the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson, was one of the chief elements of that president's Great Society initiative. This book describes and assesses the major social science research effort that grew up with, and in part because of, these programs. Robert H. Haveman's objective is to illuminate the process by which social and political developments have an impact on the direction of progress in the social sciences. Haveman identifies the policy measures most closely tied to the War on Poverty and the Great Society and describes the nature of these policies and their growth from 1965 to 1980. He examines the extent and growth of resources devoted to the poverty-related research that accompanied these programs, and assesses the impact of the growth in this research commitment over the 1965-1980 period. Haveman's was the first full overview of recent poverty-related research and an overview of methodological developments in the social sciences in the post-1965 period which were stimulated by the antipoverty effort.

Poverty Knowledge

Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in Twentieth-Century U.S. History
Author: Alice O'Connor
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400824745
Category: History
Page: 392
View: 2911

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Progressive-era "poverty warriors" cast poverty in America as a problem of unemployment, low wages, labor exploitation, and political disfranchisement. In the 1990s, policy specialists made "dependency" the issue and crafted incentives to get people off welfare. Poverty Knowledge gives the first comprehensive historical account of the thinking behind these very different views of "the poverty problem," in a century-spanning inquiry into the politics, institutions, ideologies, and social science that shaped poverty research and policy. Alice O'Connor chronicles a transformation in the study of poverty, from a reform-minded inquiry into the political economy of industrial capitalism to a detached, highly technical analysis of the demographic and behavioral characteristics of the poor. Along the way, she uncovers the origins of several controversial concepts, including the "culture of poverty" and the "underclass." She shows how such notions emerged not only from trends within the social sciences, but from the central preoccupations of twentieth-century American liberalism: economic growth, the Cold War against communism, the changing fortunes of the welfare state, and the enduring racial divide. The book details important changes in the politics and organization as well as the substance of poverty knowledge. Tracing the genesis of a still-thriving poverty research industry from its roots in the War on Poverty, it demonstrates how research agendas were subsequently influenced by an emerging obsession with welfare reform. Over the course of the twentieth century, O'Connor shows, the study of poverty became more about altering individual behavior and less about addressing structural inequality. The consequences of this steady narrowing of focus came to the fore in the 1990s, when the nation's leading poverty experts helped to end "welfare as we know it." O'Connor shows just how far they had traveled from their field's original aims.

The Great Society and the War on Poverty: An Economic Legacy in Essays and Documents


Author: John R. Burch Jr.
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440833885
Category: Social Science
Page: 434
View: 4583

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An ideal resource for students as well as general readers, this book comprehensively examines the Great Society era and identifies the effects of its legacy to the present day. • Documents the evolution of key issues addressed in the Great Society—such as civil rights, immigration, and the chasm between rich and poor—that are still challenging us today • Shows how young people were able to influence massive political and social change—in a time without the benefit of instant communication and social media • Includes dozens of primary documents, including Lyndon B. Johnson's 1964 State of the Union Address; the Civil Rights Act of 1964; Lyndon B. Johnson's "Stepping Up the War on Poverty" address; "Where Do We Go From Here?," delivered by Martin Luther King Jr. at the SCLC Convention Atlanta, GA; and remarks given by President Obama at the Civil Rights Summit at the LBJ Presidential Library in April 2014 • Includes content related to the themes of the National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies and the Common Core requirements for primary documents and critical thinking exercises

The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Poverty


Author: David Brady,Linda M. Burton,James B Duke Professor of Sociology Linda M Burton
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199914052
Category: Poverty
Page: 936
View: 2291

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Despite remarkable economic advances in many societies during the latter half of the twentieth century, poverty remains a global issue of enduring concern. Poverty is present in some form in every society in the world, and has serious implications for everything from health and well-being to identity and behavior. Nevertheless, the study of poverty has remained disconnected across disciplines. The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Poverty builds a common scholarly ground in the study of poverty by bringing together an international, inter-disciplinary group of scholars to provide their perspectives on the issue. Contributors engage in discussions about the leading theories and conceptual debates regarding poverty, the most salient topics in poverty research, and the far-reaching consequences of poverty on the individual and societal level. The volume incorporates many methodological perspectives, including survey research, ethnography, and mixed methods approaches, while the chapters extend beyond the United States to provide a truly global portrait of poverty. A thorough examination of contemporary poverty, this Handbook is a valuable tool for non-profit practitioners, policy makers, social workers, and students and scholars in the fields of public policy, sociology, political science, international development, anthropology, and economics.

The Experts' War on Poverty

Social Research and the Welfare Agenda in Postwar America
Author: Romain D. Huret
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501712179
Category: History
Page: 240
View: 6167

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In the critically acclaimed La Fin de la Pauverté, Romain D. Huret identifies a network of experts who were dedicated to the post-World War II battle against poverty in the United States. John Angell’s translation of Huret’s work brings to light for an English-speaking audience this critical set of intellectuals working in federal government, academic institutions, and think tanks. Their efforts to create a policy bureaucracy to support federal socio-economic action spanned from the last days of the New Deal to the late 1960s when President Richard M. Nixon implemented the Family Assistance Plan. Often toiling in obscurity, this cadre of experts waged their own war not only on poverty but on the American political establishment. Their policy recommendations, as Huret clearly shows, often militated against the unscientific prejudices and electoral calculations that ruled Washington D.C. politics. The Experts’ War on Poverty highlights the metrics, research, and economic and social facts these social scientists employed in their work, and thereby reveals the unstable institutional foundation of successive executive efforts to grapple with gross social and economic disparities in the United States. Huret argues that this internal war, coming at a time of great disruption due to the Cold War, undermined and fractured the institutional system officially directed at ending poverty. The official War on Poverty, which arguably reached its peak under President Lyndon B. Johnson, was thus fomented and maintained by a group of experts determined to fight poverty in radical ways that outstripped both the operational capacity of the federal government and the political will of a succession of presidents.

Legacies of the War on Poverty


Author: Martha J. Bailey,Sheldon Danziger
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610448146
Category: Political Science
Page: 324
View: 6142

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Many believe that the War on Poverty, launched by President Johnson in 1964, ended in failure. In 2010, the official poverty rate was 15 percent, almost as high as when the War on Poverty was declared. Historical and contemporary accounts often portray the War on Poverty as a costly experiment that created doubts about the ability of public policies to address complex social problems. Legacies of the War on Poverty, drawing from fifty years of empirical evidence, documents that this popular view is too negative. The volume offers a balanced assessment of the War on Poverty that highlights some remarkable policy successes and promises to shift the national conversation on poverty in America. Featuring contributions from leading poverty researchers, Legacies of the War on Poverty demonstrates that poverty and racial discrimination would likely have been much greater today if the War on Poverty had not been launched. Chloe Gibbs, Jens Ludwig, and Douglas Miller dispel the notion that the Head Start education program does not work. While its impact on children’s test scores fade, the program contributes to participants’ long-term educational achievement and, importantly, their earnings growth later in life. Elizabeth Cascio and Sarah Reber show that Title I legislation reduced the school funding gap between poorer and richer states and prompted Southern school districts to desegregate, increasing educational opportunity for African Americans. The volume also examines the significant consequences of income support, housing, and health care programs. Jane Waldfogel shows that without the era’s expansion of food stamps and other nutrition programs, the child poverty rate in 2010 would have been three percentage points higher. Kathleen McGarry examines the policies that contributed to a great success of the War on Poverty: the rapid decline in elderly poverty, which fell from 35 percent in 1959 to below 10 percent in 2010. Barbara Wolfe concludes that Medicaid and Community Health Centers contributed to large reductions in infant mortality and increased life expectancy. Katherine Swartz finds that Medicare and Medicaid increased access to health care among the elderly and reduced the risk that they could not afford care or that obtaining it would bankrupt them and their families. Legacies of the War on Poverty demonstrates that well-designed government programs can reduce poverty, racial discrimination, and material hardships. This insightful volume refutes pessimism about the effects of social policies and provides new lessons about what more can be done to improve the lives of the poor.

Politics and the Professors

The Great Society in Perspective
Author: Henry Aaron
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815717775
Category: Political Science
Page: 185
View: 2300

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In the early 1960s America was in a confident mood and embarked on a series of efforts to solve the problems of poverty, racial discrimination, unemployment, and inequality of educational opportunity. The programs of the Great Society and the War on Poverty were undergirded by a broad consensus about what our problems as a nation were and how we should solve them. But by the early seventies both political and scholarly tides had shifted. Americans were divided and uncertain about what to do abroad, fearful of military inferiority, and pessimistic about the capacity of government to deal affirmatively with domestic problems. A new administration renounced the rhetoric of the Great Society and changed the emphasis of many programs. On the scholarly front, new research called into question the old faiths on which liberal legislation had been based. In this book, the sixteenth volume in the Brookings series in Social Economics, Henry Aaron describes both the initial consensus and its subsequent decline. He examines the evolution of attitude and pronouncements by scholars and popular writers on the role of the federal government and its capacity to bring about beneficial change in three broad areas: poverty and discrimination, education and training, and unemployment and inflation. He argues that the political eclipse of the Great Society depended more on events external to it—war in Vietnam, dissolution of the civil rights coalition, and, finally, the Watergate scandal and all its repercussions—than on its intrinsic failings. Aaron concludes that both the initial commitment to use national polices to solve social and economic problems and the subsequent disillusionment of scholars and laymen alike rest largely on preconceptions and faiths that have little to do with research themselves.

Fighting Poverty and Social Exclusion in the EU

A Chance in Europe 2020
Author: Matteo Jessoula,Ilaria Madama
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131739626X
Category: Political Science
Page: 226
View: 5474

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In the field of anti-poverty policies, the interplay between the Europe 2020 overarching strategy and the 'Semester' have marked major discontinuity vis-à-vis the Open Method of Coordination for social protection and social inclusion (Social OMC) of the Lisbon phase. This book therefore asks whether and how Europe matters in the fight against poverty and social exclusion by assessing the emergence and possible institutionalisation of a European multi-level, multi-stakeholder and integrated policy arena in the new institutional framework. Supranational developments, multi-level interactions, as well as the strategy effects at the national level are analysed in six European countries - Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, UK and Sweden – with the aim to identify the key factors affecting the implementation of the Europe 2020 anti-poverty strategy. This book will be of key interest to students, scholars and practitioners in social policy, political science and European governance, and more broadly to European Union politics, European integrations studies, sociology and economics.

The Creation of Wealth and Poverty

Means and Ways
Author: Hassan Bougrine
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317596870
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 166
View: 6224

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There is a failure of governments to provide the citizens of developing countries with the necessary ingredients for growth and development. This can only be explained by their inability to secure the sources of financing which ultimately allow them to "command" these ingredients. The Creation of Wealth and Poverty is a study of the means and ways by which wealth and poverty are created in both developed and developing countries. It puts a particular emphasis on the role played by economic policy in shaping the stratification of modern societies through specific programmes dealing with issues of job creation, poverty and environmental degradation. This book is concerned with the social effects of the ongoing crisis in finance, development and the environment. By focusing on the political, legal and financial institutions that govern society and the economy, the book provides an analysis of wealth and poverty from a historical perspective. It shows how economic and social policies of the neoliberal model have led to a rise in unemployment, poverty and inequality and, therefore, made societies more polarized. This volume will be of great interest to policymakers, academics and students who study political economy, development economics and macroeconomics.

Changing Poverty, Changing Policies


Author: Maria Cancian,Sheldon Danziger
Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610445988
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 440
View: 1144

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Poverty declined significantly in the decade after Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 declaration of “War on Poverty.” Dramatically increased federal funding for education and training programs, social security benefits, other income support programs, and a growing economy reduced poverty and raised expectations that income poverty could be eliminated within a generation. Yet the official poverty rate has never fallen below its 1973 level and remains higher than the rates in many other advanced economies. In this book, editors Maria Cancian and Sheldon Danziger and leading poverty researchers assess why the War on Poverty was not won and analyze the most promising strategies to reduce poverty in the twenty-first century economy. Changing Poverty, Changing Policies documents how economic, social, demographic, and public policy changes since the early 1970s have altered who is poor and where antipoverty initiatives have kept pace or fallen behind. Part I shows that little progress has been made in reducing poverty, except among the elderly, in the last three decades. The chapters examine how changing labor market opportunities for less-educated workers have increased their risk of poverty (Rebecca Blank), and how family structure changes (Maria Cancian and Deborah Reed) and immigration have affected poverty (Steven Raphael and Eugene Smolensky). Part II assesses the ways childhood poverty influences adult outcomes. Markus Jäntti finds that poor American children are more likely to be poor adults than are children in many other industrialized countries. Part III focuses on current antipoverty policies and possible alternatives. Jane Waldfogel demonstrates that policies in other countries—such as sick leave, subsidized child care, and schedule flexibility—help low-wage parents better balance work and family responsibilities. Part IV considers how rethinking and redefining poverty might take antipoverty policies in new directions. Mary Jo Bane assesses the politics of poverty since the 1996 welfare reform act. Robert Haveman argues that income-based poverty measures should be expanded, as they have been in Europe, to include social exclusion and multiple dimensions of material hardships. Changing Poverty, Changing Policies shows that thoughtful policy reforms can reduce poverty and promote opportunities for poor workers and their families. The authors’ focus on pragmatic measures that have real possibilities of being implemented in the United States not only provides vital knowledge about what works but real hope for change.

Five million children

a statistical profile of our poorest young citizens
Author: Columbia University. National Center for Children in Poverty
Publisher: Natl Center for Children
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 96
View: 9317

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This document presents, for the first time in one volume, a comprehensive view of the five million children under six who live in poverty in the United States. It reports on who these children are - nearly one out of four of all U. S. children under six - & where they live; their ethnic & racial diversity; the structure of their families; their parents' education & employment status; & their sources of financial support. The report replaces a 'monolithic' view of poverty with a multifaceted portrait of children living in many diverse situations. Conclusions for policy & program implementation appear in Chapter Four. Information for the 96-page text, which includes 31 figures & tables, was derived from U. S. Census Bureau surveys & other sources. Cost: $9.95 plus $3 postage-handling. Checks for $12.95 should be mailed to the publisher. (Notice to bookstores & book distributors: This is a nonprofit press; all orders must be paid in full. No returns).

The Undeserving Poor

America's Enduring Confrontation with Poverty: Fully Updated and Revised
Author: Michael B. Katz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199933952
Category: History
Page: 353
View: 5549

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The Undeserving Poor is a history of the ideas that underlie America's enduring confrontation with poverty. The book shows that poverty remains a national disgrace in part because of the way we define and think about it - which, in turn, shapes the energy we put, or don't put, into its eradication.

Urban Poverty, Political Participation, and the State

Lima, 1970–1990
Author: Henry Dietz
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
ISBN: 9780822971931
Category: Political Science
Page: 396
View: 6578

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Urban Poverty, Political Participation, and the State offers an unparalleled longitudinal view of how the urban poor saw themselves and their neighborhoods and how they behaved and organized to provide their neighborhoods with basic goods and services. Grounding research on theoretical notions from Albert Hirschman and an analytical framework from Verba and Nie, Dietz produces findings that hold great interest for comparativists and students of political behavior in general.

The Other America


Author: Michael Harrington
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 068482678X
Category: Political Science
Page: 231
View: 5795

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Presents the original report on poverty in America that led President Kennedy to initiate the federal poverty program

Poverty Knowledge

Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in Twentieth-Century U.S. History
Author: Alice O'Connor
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400824745
Category: History
Page: 392
View: 323

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Progressive-era "poverty warriors" cast poverty in America as a problem of unemployment, low wages, labor exploitation, and political disfranchisement. In the 1990s, policy specialists made "dependency" the issue and crafted incentives to get people off welfare. Poverty Knowledge gives the first comprehensive historical account of the thinking behind these very different views of "the poverty problem," in a century-spanning inquiry into the politics, institutions, ideologies, and social science that shaped poverty research and policy. Alice O'Connor chronicles a transformation in the study of poverty, from a reform-minded inquiry into the political economy of industrial capitalism to a detached, highly technical analysis of the demographic and behavioral characteristics of the poor. Along the way, she uncovers the origins of several controversial concepts, including the "culture of poverty" and the "underclass." She shows how such notions emerged not only from trends within the social sciences, but from the central preoccupations of twentieth-century American liberalism: economic growth, the Cold War against communism, the changing fortunes of the welfare state, and the enduring racial divide. The book details important changes in the politics and organization as well as the substance of poverty knowledge. Tracing the genesis of a still-thriving poverty research industry from its roots in the War on Poverty, it demonstrates how research agendas were subsequently influenced by an emerging obsession with welfare reform. Over the course of the twentieth century, O'Connor shows, the study of poverty became more about altering individual behavior and less about addressing structural inequality. The consequences of this steady narrowing of focus came to the fore in the 1990s, when the nation's leading poverty experts helped to end "welfare as we know it." O'Connor shows just how far they had traveled from their field's original aims.

Poverty, Agency, and Human Rights


Author: Diana Tietjens Meyers
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199396906
Category: Philosophy
Page: 336
View: 9914

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Poverty, Agency, and Human Rights collects thirteen new essays that analyze how human agency relates to poverty and human rights respectively as well as how agency mediates issues concerning poverty and social and economic human rights. No other collection of philosophical papers focuses on the diverse ways poverty impacts the agency of the poor, the reasons why poverty alleviation schemes should also promote the agency of beneficiaries, and the fitness of the human rights regime to secure both economic development and free agency. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1 considers the diverse meanings of poverty both from the standpoint of the poor and from that of the relatively well-off. Part 2 examines morally appropriate responses to poverty on the part of persons who are better-off and powerful institutions. Part 3 identifies economic development strategies that secure the agency of the beneficiaries. Part 4 addresses the constraints poverty imposes on agency in the context of biomedical research, migration for work, and trafficking in persons.

Social Science and Policy-Making

A Search for Relevance in the Twentieth Century
Author: David Lee Featherman,Maris Arvids Vinovskis
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 9780472023318
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 354

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This collection of essays examines how the social sciences in America were developed as a means of social reform and later, especially after World War II, as a tool in federal policymaking and policy analysis. It also uses arenas of policymaking, such as early childhood education and welfare and its reform, as case studies in which social research was used, in policy decisions or in setting and evaluating policy goals. The book is written to aid students of public policy to appreciate the complex relationship of information--principally, of social science research--to policymaking at the federal level. David L. Featherman is Professor of Sociology and Psychology, Director and Senior Research Scientist, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Maris A. Vinovskis is Bentley Professor of History, Senior Research Scientist, Institute for Social Research, Faculty member, School of Public Policy, University of Michigan.

Reconsidering Culture and Poverty


Author: David Harding,Michele Lamont,Mario Luis Small
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412988977
Category: Social Science
Page: 225
View: 8601

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Culture has returned to the poverty research agenda. Over the past decade, sociologists, demographers, and even economists have begun asking questions about the role of culture in many aspects of poverty, at times even explaining the behavior of low-income populations in reference to cultural factors. Unlike their predecessors, contemporary researchers rarely claim that culture will sustain itself for multiple generations regardless of structural changes, and they almost never use the term “pathology,” which implied in an earlier era that people would cease to be poor if they changed their culture. The new generation of scholars conceives of culture in substantially different ways. In this latest issue of the ANNALS, readers are treated to thought-provoking articles that attempt to bridge the gap between poverty and culture scholarship, highlighting new trends in poverty research. This volume is vital reading, not only for sociologists but also for researchers across the social sciences as a whole.

The Economics of Poverty

History, Measurement, and Policy
Author: Martin Ravallion
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190212772
Category:
Page: 720
View: 2143

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While there is no denying that the world has made huge progress against absolute poverty over the last 200 years, until recent times the bulk of that progress had been made in wealthy countries only. The good news is that we have seen greater progress against poverty in the developing world in recent times-indeed, a faster pace of progress against extreme poverty than the rich world saw over a period of 100 years or more of economic development. However, continuing progress is far from assured. High and rising inequality has stalled progress against poverty in many countries. We are seeing generally rising relative poverty in the rich world as a whole over recent decades. And even in the developing world, there has been less progress in reaching the poorest, who risk being left behind, and a great many people in the emerging middle class remain highly vulnerable to falling back into poverty. The Economics of Poverty strives to support well-informed efforts to put in place effective policies to assure continuing success in reducing poverty in all its dimensions. The book reviews critically the past and present debates on the central policy issues of economic development everywhere. How much poverty is there? Why does poverty exist? What can be done to eliminate poverty? Martin Ravallion provides an accessible new synthesis of current knowledge on these issues. It does not assume that readers know economics already. Those new to economics get a lot of help along the way in understanding its concepts and methods. Economics lives though its relevance to real world problems, and here the problem of global poverty is both the central focus and a vehicle for learning.