Polymer Degradation and Stability Research Developments

Author: Leo B. Albertov
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9781600218279
Category: Science
Page: 315
View: 7342

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Polymer degradation is a change in the properties -- tensile strength, colour, shape, etc -- of a polymer or polymer based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals. These changes may be undesirable, such as changes during use, or desirable, as in biodegradation or deliberately lowering the molecular weight of a polymer. Such changes occur primarily because of the effect of these factors on the chemical composition of the polymer. In a finished product such a change is to be prevented or delayed. However the degradation process can be useful from the view points of understanding the structure of a polymer or recycling/reusing the polymer waste to prevent or reduce environmental pollution. Polymer molecules are very large on the molecular scale which derive their unique and useful properties from their size. This book presents leading-edge research in the field.

Progress in Polymer Degradation and Stability Research

Author: Herbert W. Moeller
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781600218286
Category: Science
Page: 390
View: 4501

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Polymer degradation is a change in the properties - tensile strength, colour, shape, etc - of a polymer or polymer based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals. These changes may be undesirable, such as changes during use, or desirable, as in biodegradation or deliberately lowering the molecular weight of a polymer. Such changes occur primarily because of the effect of these factors on the chemical composition of the polymer. In a finished product such a change is to be prevented or delayed. However, the degradation process can be useful from the view points of understanding the structure of a polymer or recycling/reusing the polymer waste to prevent or reduce environmental pollution. Polymers molecules are very large on the molecular scale which derive their unique and useful properties from their size.

Biodegradable Polymer Blends and Composites from Renewable Resources

Author: Long Yu
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470391553
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 400
View: 8454

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Biodegradable Polymer Blends and Composites from Renewable Resources provides a comprehensive, current overview of biopolymeric blends and composites and their applications in various industries. The book is organized according to the type of blend or composite. For each topic, the relationship between the structure of the blends/composites and their respective properties is explored, with particular focus on interface, compatibility, mechanical, and thermal properties. Real-life applications and potential markets are discussed. This is a premier reference for graduate students and researchers in polymer science, chemical and bio engineering, and materials science.

Science and Technology Against Microbial Pathogens

Research, Development and Evaluation
Author: A Mendez-Vilas
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814458694
Category: Science
Page: 448
View: 7080

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The aim of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in science and technology against microbial pathogens presented at the first edition of the ICAR Conference Series (ICAR2010) held in Valladolid, Spain, in November 2010. This volume is a compilation of 86 chapters written by active researchers that offer information and experiences and afford critical insights into anti-microbe strategies in a general context marked by the threat posed by the increasing antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic microorganisms. “Anti” is here taken in a wide sense as “against cell cycle, adhesion, or communication”, and when harmful for the human health (infectious diseases, chemotherapy etc.) and industry or economy (food, agriculture, water systems etc.) The book examines this interesting subject area from antimicrobial resistance (superbugs, emerging and re-emerging pathogens etc.), to the use of natural products or microbes against microbial pathogens, not forgetting antimicrobial chemistry, physics and material science. Readers will find in a single volume, up-to-date information of the current knowledge in antimicrobial research. The book is recommended for researchers from a broad range of academic disciplines that are contributing in the battle against harmful microorganisms, not only those more traditionally involved in this research area (microbiologists, biochemists, geneticists, clinicians etc.), but also experimental and theoretical/computational chemists, physicists or engineers. Contents:Antimicrobial Peptides:A new class of Scots pine antimicrobial proteins, which act by binding β-glucan (Sanjeewani Sooriyaarachchi, Adrian Suárez Covarrubias, Wimal Ubhayasekera, Frederick O Asiegbu and Sherry L Mowbray)Antimicrobial aza-β3-peptides: Structure-activity relationship? (B Legrand, M Laurencin, C Zatylny-Gaudin, J Henry, A Bondon and M Baudy Floc'h)Differential antimicrobial activities of Human Beta-Defensins against Methicillin Resistant (MRSA) and Methicillin sensitive (MSSA) Staphylococcus aureus (N D S Herathge, J T George and D A Rowley)Non-antibiotics Biocides:Evaluation of biocidal activity of Evolyse, a disinfectant based on hydrogen peroxide and silver nitrate (M Barbara Pisano, V Altana, M Elisabetta Fadda, L Mura, M Deplano and S Cosentino)Increased resistance to detergent in Enterococcus faecalis (Jacqueline Keyhani and Ezzatollah Keyhani)Legionella pneumophila isolation rate in a Spanish hospital pre- and post-installation of an electrochemical activation system for potable water disinfection (Jose-Maria Rivera, Juan-Jose Granizo, Jose-Maria Aguiar, Ana Vos-Arenilla, Maria-Jose Giménez and Lorenzo Aguilar)Antimicrobial Evaluation: Clinical and Pre-clinical Trials:Adherence to ART and its associated factors among HIV Aids Patients in Addis Ababa (Ezra Muluneh)Effectiveness and safety of miconazole with hydrocortisone (Daktacort) feminine care cream in the treatment of vulvar candidiasis (J Perez-Peralta and G Balaccua)Natural Products: Terrestrial and Marine Organisms:Analysis of the 2-Phenylethyl isothiocyanate present in Brassica leaves and their potential application as antimicrobial agent against bacteria strains isolated from Human and Pig gastrointestinal tracts (A Aires, C Dias, R N Bennett, E A S Rosa and M J Saavedra)Antimicrobial effect of carvacrol on Escherichia coli K12 growth at different temperatures (C M Belda-Galbis, A Martínez and D Rodrigo)Bacteriostatic effect of cocoa powder rich in polyphenols to control Cronobacter sakazakii proliferation on infant milk formula (M C Pina-Pérez, D Rodrigo and A Martínez-López)Antimicrobial Surfaces. Biofilms. Quorum Sensing. Consumer Products:Antimicrobial active packaging films based on sorbic acid (C Hauser, J Wunderlich and G Ziegleder)Bacteriophages actions on Salmonella Enteritidis biofilm (A A Ferreira, R C S Mendonça, H M Hungaro, M M Carvalho and J A M Pereira)Biocompatibility and antibacterial property of cold sprayed ZnO/Titanium composite coating (Noppakun Sanpo, Chen Hailan, Kelvin Loke, Koh Pak Keng, Philip Cheang, C C Berndt and K A Khor)Methods and Techniques. Mechanisms of Action. Physics:A new approach for detection of bacterial contamination in cooling lubricants (D Oberschmidt, A Spielvogel, C Hein, J E Langbein, D Lorenz, U Stahl and E Uhlmann)Development of a liquid-medium assay for screening antimicrobial natural products against marine bacteria (M Geiger, J Dupont, O Grovel, Y F Pouchus and P Hess)Experimental planning can help to optimize the selective photoinactivation of microorganisms (J R Perussi, P L Fernandes, C Bernal and H Imasato)Resistance and Susceptibility:A 3-year review on the profile of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative in a tertiary teaching hospital inMalaysia (H Habsah, Z Z Deris, M Zeehaida, A R Zaidah, H Siti Asma' and I Nabilah)Antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring of mecA and lukFS-PV genes in Northern Portugal (N Silva, C Prudêncio, C Tomaz and R Fernandes)Antimicrobial susceptibility profile and effect of stem bark extracts of Curtisia dentata on multi-drug resistant verotoxic Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter spp. isolates obtained from water and wastewater samples (Hamuel James Doughari, Patrick Alois Ndakidemi, Izanne Susan Human and Spinney Benade)Chemistry:Antimicrobial cyclic pseudopeptides including Aza-β3-amino acids (M Laurencin, B Legrand, L Mouret, A Bondon, Y Fleury and M Baudy Floc'h)Effect of paracetamol on the pharmacokinetics of cephalexin in dogs (N A Afifi, M Atef, K Abo-El-Sooud and N El-Mokadem)Importance of the C9 absolute configuration for the antifungal activity of natural and semisynthetic sesquiterpenes (M Derita, M Di Liberto and S Zacchino)Antimicrobial Microbes and Viruses. Biosynthesis of Antibiotics:Antimicrobial properties of Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia (DSM 21380) and Inducia (DSM 21379) (M Rätsep, P Hütt, R Avi, M Utt and E Songisepp)Cell growth control by tRNase ribotoxins from bacteria and yeast (Eyemen Kheir, Christian Bär, Daniel Jablonowski and Raffael Schaffrath)Comparison of anti-listerial effect spectrum of bacteriocins (Selin Kalkan, Emel Ünal and Zerrin Erginkaya)and other papers Readership: Professionals - microbiologists, biochemists, geneticists, clinicians, chemists, physicists, engineers. Keywords:Antimicrobial Research;Antimicrobial Resistance;Antimicrobial in Natural Products;Antimicrobial Microbes;Antimicrobial Materials Science and Surface Chemistry;Microbial Pathogens;Antibacterial;Antifungal;ICAR2010 Conference Proceedings Book;Mendez-VilasKey Features:The book examines this interesting subject area from antimicrobial resistance (superbugs, emerging and re-emerging pathogens etc.), to the use of natural products or microbes against microbial pathogens, not forgetting the antimicrobial chemistry, physics and material scienceReaders will be able to find updated information of the current knowledge in antimicrobial research

Polymer Research Developments

Author: Robert K. Bregg
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9781594547423
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 223
View: 8088

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Polymers are substances containing a large number of structural units joined by the same type of linkage. These substances often form into a chain-like structure. Starch, cellulose, and rubber all possess polymeric properties. Today, the polymer industry has grown to be larger than the aluminium, copper and steel industries combined. Polymers already have a range of applications that far exceeds that of any other class of material available to man. Current applications extend from adhesives, coatings, foams, and packaging materials to textile and industrial fibres, elastomers, and structural plastics. Polymers are also used for most composites, electronic devices, biomedical devices, optical devices, and precursors for many newly developed high-tech ceramics. This book presents leading-edge research in this rapidly-changing and evolving field.

Research Developments in Wood Engineering and Technology

Author: Aguilera, Alfredo
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1466645555
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 410
View: 2469

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"This book examines the latest research advances and technological developments for wood material as an engineering product and the innovation it provides for environmental friendly materials"--Provided by publisher.


Author: Wolfgang Grellmann,Sabine Seidler
Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
ISBN: 3446443908
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 760
View: 5609

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Die enormen Zuwachsraten in der Kunststofferzeugung und -anwendung erhöhen die Forderung nach aussagekräftigen Mess- und Auswerteverfahren in der Kunststoffprüfung. Durch die Fortschritte in der elektronischen Messtechnik haben sich sowohl die klassischen Prüfverfahren weiterentwickelt als auch völlig neuartige Methoden etabliert. Die Aussagekraft dieser Kenngrößen zur Quantifizierung der Zusammenhänge zwischen der Mikrostruktur und den makroskopischen Eigenschaften wird dargestellt. Zusätzliche Informationen über die ablaufenden Schädigungsprozesse und -mechanismen können durch die Anwendung gekoppelter zerstörungsfreier Kunststoffprüfverfahren bzw. hybrider Methoden der Kunststoffdiagnostik gewonnen werden. An Hand von Beispielen zur Optimierung von Kunststoffen und Verbunden sowie zur Bewertung von Bauteileigenschaften wird ein werkstoffwissenschaftlich begründeter Einblick in die moderne Kunststoffprüfung vermittelt.

Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells

Author: Frederik C. Krebs
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119952514
Category: Science
Page: 360
View: 5371

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Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are a new generation of solar cells with the potential to offer very short energy pay back times, mechanical flexibility and significantly lower production costs compared to traditional crystalline photovoltaic systems. A weakness of OPV is their comparative instability during operation and this is a critical area of research towards the successful development and commercialization of these 3rd generation solar cells. Covering both small molecule and polymer solar cells, Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells summarizes the state of the art understanding of stability and provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms by which degradation occurs. Following an introductory chapter which compares different photovoltaic technologies, the book focuses on OPV degradation, discussing the origin and characterization of the instability and describing measures for extending the duration of operation. Topics covered include: Chemical and physical probes for studying degradation Imaging techniques Photochemical stability of OPV materials Degradation mechanisms Testing methods Barrier technology and applications Stability and Degradation of Organic and Polymer Solar Cells is an essential reference source for researchers in academia and industry, engineers and manufacturers working on OPV design, development and implementation.

Thermal Stability of Engineering Heterochain Thermoresistant Polymers

Author: Kalugina,Gumargalieva,Gennady Zaikov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9047414225
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 279
View: 3608

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This book presents investigation results of thermal transformations in thermoresistant polymers: polysulfones, polyester-imides, aliphatic-aromatic polyimides and polyamides, liquid-crystal aromatic co-polyesters, polyphenylquinoxalines at temperatures of materials and articles processing and operation. An important result of investigations is the determination of thermooxidative degradation regularities for aliphatic-aromatic heterochain polymers and description of the degradation mechanism. The applied aspect of this work is the approach to stabilization of thermoresistant polymers and composite materials derived from them using additives and analysis of the mechanism of high-temperature inhibited oxidation. The book presents results which have been obtained through many years of research until recently, mostly obtained by scientists of G.S. Petrov Research Institute of Polymeric Materials (Moscow, Russia) – one of the leading Institutes in this branch - which have not been available in international scientific publications before.

ADDCON World 2004

The @10th International Plastics Additives and Modifiers Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 28-29 September 2004
Author: N.A
Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing
ISBN: 9781859574515
Category: Plastics
Page: 256
View: 1878

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Addcon World is the leading Additives, Modifiers and Compounding Conference. It has run for the last nine years. The conference focused on the technical advances and issues facing the plastics additives and modifiers industry. Papers at this year's event discussed the latest developments and the future of the additives business. Addcon conferences are two-day meetings for people who are interested in knowing something about all the major ingredients of a modern plastics product, and not just the one they currently research, manufacture or sell. In this respect they are different from meetings where the focus is on a single type of additive, and where recent developments in related fields can easily be overlooked. Since additives can interact with each other, and even neutralise each other's effects (as anyone combining certain light stabilisers with certain flame retardants knows) a conference that updates your appreciation of the wider technical scene is well worth considering. Additives today play an essential role in enabling plastics to continue to compete with other materials such as wood, metals, paper and glass. several years, and there is still scope for further expansion, especially in Central and Eastern Europe, but this trend cannot simply be taken for granted. The industry faces challenging problems, including a steady increase in European regulatory directives, and the need to compete with low cost manufacturers in Asia and elsewhere. Several large producers in Western Europe have been struggling to maintain their position in the face of difficult market conditions. Improved additives will be needed to produce end products economically, so that they comply with present and future regulations, and in sufficiently high quality to satisfy increasingly demanding customers.

Thermal Stability of Polymers

Author: T. R Crompton
Publisher: Smithers Rapra
ISBN: 1847355153
Category: Science
Page: 216
View: 4082

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In recent years numerous research papers have been published on the changes in chemical structure and in physical properties of polymers when they are exposed to heat over a range of temperatures. For example, these changes can occur at any time during the injection moulding of the plastic, in the subsequent processing and in its end-use application when exposed to elevated temperatures. Thermal stability is a very important parameter which must be taken into account when selecting polymers whether for their use as constructional or engineering applications or in the packaging of food at high temperatures. The mechanisms by which such changes occur are many and it is important to know what these are and to be able to measure the rate of change of polymer structure and its dependence on temperature and time. Development of an understanding of the mechanisms of thermal degradation will help the chemist to develop materials with better thermal stability. This is particularly important in newer developments in engineering and aerospace. This book reviews in nine chapters the measurement of these properties in the main types of polymers in use today. Numerous techniques are discussed ranging from thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance based methods to pyrolytic techniques such as those based on pyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The book is aimed at those engaged in the manufacture of polymers and the development of end-use applications. It is essential that students of polymer science should have a thorough understanding of polymer stability and an additional aim of the book is to help in the development of such an interest.

Thermal Degradation of Polymeric Materials

Author: Krzysztof Pielichowski,James Njuguna
Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing
ISBN: 9781859574980
Category: Science
Page: 306
View: 9562

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Understanding the thermal degradation of polymers is of paramount importance for developing a rational technology of polymer processing and higher-temperature applications. Controlling degradation requires understanding of many different phenomena, including chemical mechanisms, the influence of polymer morphology, the complexities of oxidation chemistry, and the effects of stabilisers, fillers and other additives. This book offers a wealth of information for polymer researchers and processors requiring an understanding of the implications of thermal degradation on material and product performance.

Polymer Biomaterials in Solution, As Interfaces And As Solids

A Festschrift Honoring the 60th Birthday of Dr. Allan S. Hoffman
Author: Stuart L. Cooper,C. H. Bamford,Teiji Tsuruta,T. Tsuruta
Publisher: VSP
ISBN: 9789067641807
Category: Science
Page: 1
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The articles collected in this publication have previously been published in eight special issues of the Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, in honour of Dr. Allan S. Hoffman, who is known as a pioneer, a leader and a mentor in the field of biomaterials. The papers from renowned scientists from all parts of the world, representing the state-of-the-art in polymeric biomaterials today, have been rearranged into a logical order of sections, each having a distinct focus. The topics covered are: Surface Modification, Characterization and Properties; Protein Adsorption; Blood Interactions; Cell Interactions; Immobilized Cell Receptor Ligands and Immobilized Cells; Immobilized Biomolecules and Synthetic Derivatives of Biomolecules; New Polymers and Applications; Biodegradable Polymers and Drug Delivery; Water-Soluble Biomolecules, Sunthetic Polymers, and their Conjugates; Hydrogels.