Political Public Relations

Principles and Applications
Author: Jesper Stromback,Spiro Kiousis
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1135194130
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 352
View: 5866

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Political Public Relations maps and defines this emerging field, bringing together scholars from various disciplines—political communication, public relations and political science— to explore the area in detail, and to establish a research agenda for future studies.

Organizational Public Relations

A Political Perspective
Author: Christopher Spicer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136688188
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 344
View: 9623

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Public relations practitioners are often called upon to help chart their organization's strategic development, thus functioning as managerial decision makers linking the organization to its larger environment. This book is about understanding organizations, especially the role played by organizational decision making in the development and implementation of public relations programs and activities. It emphasizes the ways in which an organization's culture and decision making processes ultimately influence the success or failure of their public relations efforts. The research, case studies, and author's interpretations and suggestions explore the often confusing netherworld of organizational mindsets -- particularly as those world views affect the organization's relations with clients and other stakeholders. Understanding organizational politics is the way to understanding how and why decisions are made by the organization's dominant coalition. The primary goal of this text is to enhance our understanding of the ways in which organizations "work" -- the political process that accompanies organizational decision making. As an instrumental participant in the organizational political process, the public relations practitioner must posess knowledge and understanding of the organization's political process in order to succeed within that organization. Given the need for public relations practitioners to form coalitions, negotiate consensus, and advocate organizational interests, the political system metaphor is most approriate for understanding the relationship between organizational power and organizational public relations. This book, then, "steps back" from a focus solely on the design of public relations programs, and instead examines how the impetus for those programs emerges within the organization as a result of organizational politics in action. Its special features include: * practitioner responses at the end of each chapter providing commentary on the usefulness of the ideas presented; * sidebars from popular sources illustrating theories; * new case studies; * merging of management and organizational theory and research with communication theory and research; * a focus on external stakeholders from both an advocacy and a collaborative frame resulting in the creation of a "collaborative advocacy" framework for external communication; and * an extended examination of ethical considerations pertaining to organizational decision making and communication.

Political Communication

Politics, Press, and Public in America
Author: Richard M. Perloff
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136688463
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 504
View: 9934

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In this political communication text, Richard M. Perloff examines the various ways in which messages are constructed and communicated from public officials and politicians through the mass media to the ultimate receivers-the people. With a focus on the history of political communication, he provides an overview of the most significant issues in the study of politics and the media. In addition to synthesizing facts and theories, and highlighting the scholarly contributions made to the understanding of political communication effects, Political Communication addresses such factors as the rhetorical accomplishments of American presidents, the ongoing tangles between the press and the presidency, and the historical roots of politics as it is practiced and studied today. It also addresses major issues about the press and politics that continually resurface, such as question of press bias and the use and manipulation of media by politicians to accomplish national goals. As a comprehensive and engaging introduction to contemporary political communication, this volume provides all readers with a historical perspective on American politics and press and offers a unique appreciation of the strengths and virtues of political communication in America.

Visual Public Relations

Strategic Communication Beyond Text
Author: Simon Collister,Sarah Roberts-Bowman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351662058
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 232
View: 5891

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This book brings together a broad and diverse range of new and radical approaches to public relations focussing on the increasingly vital role that visual, sensory and physical elements factors play in shaping communication. Engaging with recent developments in critical and cultural theories, it outlines how non-textual and non-representational forces play a central role in the efficacy and reception of public relations. Challenging the dominant accounts of public relations which center on the purely representational uses of text and imagery, the book critiques the suitability of accepted definitions of the field and highlights future directions for conceptualizing strategic communication within a multi-sensory environment. Drawing on the work of global researchers in public relations, visual culture and communication, design and cultural theory, it brings a welcome inter-disciplinary approach which pushes the boundaries of public relations scholarship in a global cultural context. This exciting analysis will be of great interest to public relations scholars, advanced students of strategic communication, as well as communication researchers from cultural, media and critical studies exploring PR as a socio-cultural phenomenon.

Public Relations History

From the 17th to the 20th Century: The Antecedents
Author: Scott M. Cutlip
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136688528
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 320
View: 4277

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This important volume documents events and routines defined as public relations practice, and serves as a companion work to the author's The Unseen Power: Public Relations which tells the history of public relations as revealed in the work and personalities of the pioneer agencies. This history opens with the 17th Century efforts of land promoters and colonists to lure settlers from Europe -- mainly England -- to this primitive land along the Atlantic Coast. They used publicity, tracts, sermons, and letters to disseminate rosy, glowing accounts of life and opportunity in the new land. The volume closes with a description of the public relations efforts of colleges and other non-profit agencies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, thus providing a bridge across the century line. This study of the origins of public relations provides helpful insight into its functions, its strengths and weaknesses, and its profound though often unseen impact on our society. Public relations or its equivalents -- propaganda, publicity, public information -- began when mankind started to live together in tribal camps where one's survival depended upon others of the tribe. To function, civilization requires communication, conciliation, consensus, and cooperation -- the bedrock fundamentals of the public relations function. This volume is filled with robust public struggles -- the struggles of which history is made and a nation built: * the work of the Revolutionaries, led by the indomitable Sam Adams, to bring on the War of Independence that gave birth to a New Nation; * the propaganda of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in the Federalist papers to win ratification of the U.S. Constitution -- prevailing against the propaganda of the AntiFederalists led by Richard Henry Lee; * the battle between the forces of President Andrew Jackson, led by Amos Kendall, and those of Nicholas Biddle and his Bank of the United States which presaged corporate versus government campaigns common today: * the classic presidential campaign of 1896 which pitted pro-Big Business candidate William McKinley against the Populist orator of the Platte, William Jennings Bryan. This book details the antecedents of today's flourishing, influential vocation of public relations whose practitioners -- some 150,000 professionals -- make their case for their clients or their employers in the highly competitive public opinion marketplace.

Discourse Power Address

The Politics of Public Communication
Author: Stuart Price
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351943782
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 264
View: 3269

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'Discourse Power Address' identifies the existence of 'directive' address, a form of strategic communication which is employed in a number of dominant practices, including Advertising, Politics, Public Relations and Corporate representation. Stuart Price argues that the simulation of intimacy in authoritarian address masks a drive to power, in which the creation of propositions by powerful social actors is based on the 'timeliness' of utterance rather than any real adherence to truth or genuine explanation. Election broadcasts, political speeches, TV commercials and corporate advertisements are all scrutinised in order to evaluate competing perspectives on the creation and circulation of meaning; particular reference is made to theories of discourse, ideology and address. In the course of his argument, the author proposes an original method for determining how authoritarian address attempts to make an impact on audiences. Providing a cross-disciplinary contribution to the fields of Communication, Language, Media and Political Studies, this book provides an original, clear-sighted contribution to the debate on language and power, and will provide an essential resource for lecturers, researchers, students, activists and policy-makers.

Positioning Theory and Strategic Communication

A new approach to public relations research and practice
Author: Melanie James
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134615329
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 242
View: 9406

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In public relations, people talk about positioning an idea, a persona, a political ideal, an ideology – but what are they talking about? Why do some positions taken by organizations crystallize in the minds of audiences, while others fail? Whilst positioning is not something new in public relations, this book is the first to explicate what it involves, how it works and how to do it. This is the first in-depth exploration of the possibilities of Positioning Theory for the public relations field and it adds a new perspective to the growing body of multidisciplinary work in this rich theoretical area, moving the discussion away from the traditional communication plans of previous decades, which fail to accommodate the changing media and opinion landscapes. The author pulls together various strands of socio-cultural theory into an analytical framework, providing readers with a tool to analyse the organizational implications of public relations decisions, guiding strategic decision making through realistic scenario planning. This thought-provoking book provides an alternative path to studying communication in increasingly complex environments and as such, will be vital reading for researchers and educators, advanced communication and public relations students, and for senior public relations practitioners.

International Public Relations

Perspectives from deeply divided societies
Author: Ian Somerville,Owen Hargie,Maureen Taylor,Margalit Toledano
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317507908
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 260
View: 5582

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International Public Relations: Perspectives from deeply divided societies is positioned at the intersection of public relations (PR) practice with socio-political environments in divided, conflict and post-conflict societies. While most studies of PR focus on the activity as it is practiced within stable democratic societies, this book explores perspectives from contexts that have tended to be marginalized or uncharted. Presenting research from a diverse range of societies still deeply divided along racial, ethnic, religious or linguistic lines, this collection engages with a variety of questions including how PR practice in these societies may contribute to our understanding of PR theory building. Importantly, it highlights the role of communication strategies for actors that still deploy political violence to achieve their goals, as well as those that use it in building peace, resolving conflict, and assisting in the development of civil society. Featuring a uniquely wide range of original empirical research, including studies from Israel/Palestine, Mozambique, Northern Ireland, former Yugoslavia, former Czechoslovakia, Spain, Malaysia and Turkey, this groundbreaking book will be of interest not only to scholars of public relations, but also political communication, international relations, and peace and conflict studies. With a Foreword by Krishnamurthy Sriramesh, Editor of The Global Public Relations Handbook

The Unseen Power

Public Relations: A History
Author: Scott M. Cutlip
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113669000X
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 832
View: 9720

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Based largely on primary sources, this book presents the first detailed history of public relations from 1900 through the 1960s. The author utilized the personal papers of John Price Jones, Ivy L. Lee, Harry Bruno, William Baldwin III, John W. Hill, Earl Newsom as well as extensive interviews -- conducted by the author himself -- with Pendleton Dudley, T.J. Ross, Edward L. Bernays, Harry Bruno, William Baldwin, and more. Consequently, the book provides practitioners, scholars, and students with a realistic inside view of the way public relations has developed and been practiced in the United States since its beginnings in mid-1900. For example, the book tells how: * President Roosevelt's reforms of the Square Deal brought the first publicity agencies to the nation's capital. * Edward L. Bernays, Ivy Lee, and Albert Lasker made it socially acceptable for women to smoke in the 1920s. * William Baldwin III saved the now traditional Macy's Thanksgiving Day parade in its infancy. * Ben Sonnenberg took Pepperidge Farm bread from a small town Connecticut bakery to the nation's supermarket shelves -- and made millions doing it. * Two Atlanta publicists, Edward Clark and Bessie Tyler, took a defunct Atlanta bottle club, the Ku Klux Klan, in 1920 and boomed it into a hate organization of three million members in three years, and made themselves rich in the process. * Earl Newsom failed to turn mighty General Motors around when it was besieged by Ralph Nader and Congressional advocates of auto safety. This book documents the tremendous role public relations practitioners play in our nation's economic, social, and political affairs -- a role that goes generally unseen and unobserved by the average citizen whose life is affected in so many ways by the some 150,000 public relations practitioners.

Political Reputation Management

The Strategy Myth
Author: Christian Schnee
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317634322
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 214
View: 558

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It is widely assumed that a competitive political environment of public distrust and critical media forces political parties to manage communications and reputations strategically, but is this really true? Comprehensive control of communications in a fast-moving political and media setting isoften upset by events outside the communicator’s control, taking over the news agenda andchanging the political narrative. Based on interviews with leading communicators and journalists, this book explores the tensions between a planned, strategic communications approach and a reactive, tactical one. The interviewees, who over the past 15 years have been instrumental in presenting and shaping the public persona of party leaders and Prime Ministers, include, amongst others, William Hague, Ian Duncan-Smith, Michael Howard, David Cameron, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.It draws a unique picture of how political reputations are managed and, ultimately, confirms the discrepancy between what political communications management is thought to be, and how communications practitioners actually operate. This book empirically reviews political communications practice in order to analyse to what degree reality matches the concepts of strategic communications management. This will be essential reading for researchers, educators and advanced students in public relations, communications studies and marketing.

Applied Public Relations

Cases in Stakeholder Management
Author: Kathy Brittain McKee,Larry F. Lamb
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 0415999154
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 288
View: 3038

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Analyzes how contemporary businesses and organizations interact with key groups and influences. This book examines how real organizations develop and maintain their relationships, offering insights into contemporary business and organizational management practices.

The Global Public Relations Handbook

Theory, Research, and Practice
Author: Krishnamurthy Sriramesh,Dejan Vercic
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135645485
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 600
View: 4820

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This handbook represents the state of the public relations profession throughout the world, with contributions from the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa. A resource for scholars and advanced students in public relations & international business.

Public Relations and Nation Building

Influencing Israel
Author: Margalit Toledano,David McKie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136678832
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 208
View: 6305

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All public relations emerges from particular environments, but the specific conditions of Israel offer an exceptional study of the accelerators and inhibitors of professional development in the history of a nation. Documenting and analyzing the contribution of one profession to building one specific nation, this book tells the previously-untold story of Israeli public relations practitioners. It illustrates their often-unseen, often-unacknowledged and often-strategic shaping of the events, narratives and symbols of Israel over time and their promotion of Israel to the world. It links the profession’s genesis – including the role of the Diaspora and early Zionist activists – to today’s private and public sector professionals by identifying their roots in Israel’s cultural, economic, media, political, and social systems. It reveals how professional communicators and leaders nurtured and valued collectivism, high consensus, solidarity, and unity over democracy and free speech. It investigates such key underpinning concepts as Hasbara and criticizes non-democratic and sometimes unethical propaganda practices. It highlights unprecedented fundraising and lobbying campaigns that forged Israeli identity internally and internationally. In situating Israeli ideas on democracy in the context of contemporary public relations theory, Public Relations and Nation Building seeks to point ways forward for that theory, for Israel and for the public relations of many other nations.

Negative Political Advertising

Coming of Age
Author: Karen S. Johnson-Cartee,Gary Copeland
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135439257
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 332
View: 3008

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This volume provides a unique synthesis of the relevant literature from academic studies in the fields of political science, marketing, advertising, speech communication, telecommunication, and public relations combined with the practical wisdom of professional consultants. Offering the reader both the theory and practical applications associated with negative political advertising, this is the first book devoted exclusively to the various forms of negative campaigning in the United States. After developing a typology of negative political spots for greater clarity in explaining and evaluating them, the book addresses effectiveness questions such as: What works? When? Why? and How?

Power, Diversity and Public Relations


Author: Lee Edwards
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135088071
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 136
View: 5140

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Power, Diversity and Public Relations addresses the lack of diversity in PR by revealing the ways in which power operates within the occupation to construct archetypal practitioner identities, occupational belonging and exclusion. It explores the ways in which the field is normatively constructed through discourse, and examines how the experiences of practitioners whose ethnicity and class differ from the ‘typical’ PR background, shape alternative understandings of the occupation and their place within it. The book applies theoretical perspectives ranging from Bourdieuvian and occupational sociology to postcolonial and critical race theory, to a variety of empirical data from the UK PR industry. Diversity emerges as a product of the dialectics between occupational structures, norms and practitioners’ reactions to those constraints; it follows that improving diversity is best understood as an exercise in democracy, where all practitioner voices are heard, valued, and encompass the potential for change. This insightful text will be essential reading for researchers and students in Public Relations, Communications, Media Studies, Promotional Industries, as well as all scholars interested in the sociology of race and work relations.

Public Relations and Social Theory

Key Figures, Concepts and Developments
Author: Øyvind Ihlen,Magnus Fredriksson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351984454
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 454
View: 2643

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Public Relations and Social Theory: Key Figures, Concepts and Developments broadens the theoretical scope of public relations studies by applying the work of a group of prominent social theorists to make sense of the practice. The volume focuses on the work of key social theorists, including Max Weber, Karl Marx, John Dewey, Jürgen Habermas, Niklas Luhmann, Michel Foucault, Ulrich Beck, Pierre Bourdieu, Anthony Giddens, Robert Putnam, Erving Goffman, Peter L. Berger, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Bruno Latour, Dorothy Smith, Zygmunt Bauman, Harrison White, John W. Meyer, Luc Boltanski and Chantal Mouffe. Each chapter is devoted to an individual theorist, providing an overview of that theorist’s key concepts and contributions, and exploring how these can be applied to public relations as a practice. Each chapter also includes a box giving a short and concise presentation of the theorist, along with recommendation of key works and secondary literature.

The Media, Political Participation and Empowerment


Author: Richard Scullion,Roman Gerodimos,Daniel Jackson,Darren Lilleker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134621043
Category: Political Science
Page: 264
View: 6693

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Technological, cultural and economic forces are transforming political communication, posing challenges and opportunities for politicians and media organisations, while at the same time many governments and civil society express concerns about the extent and nature of political empowerment and civic engagement. This book offers an international perspective on current thinking and practice about civic and audience empowerment, focusing on the ways and means through which media can empower or dis-empower citizens as audiences. It features theoretical and empirical chapters that draw specific attention to a reappraisal of the theories, methods and issues that inform our understanding of citizens and audiences in contemporary politics. The authors address the following questions: How much and what sorts of civic and audience empowerment are most desirable, and how does this differ cross-nationally? How do citizens relate to private and public spaces? How do citizens function in online, networked, liminal and alternative spaces? How do audiences of ‘non-political’ media spaces relate their experiences to politics? How are political parties and movements utilising audiences as co-creators of political communication and what are the consequences for democracy? With examples from the UK, USA, Holland, France, Germany, The Middle East, South Africa and Mexico, this innovative volume will be of interest to students and scholars of political science, marketing, journalism, cultural studies, public relations, media and international relations.

The Public Relations of Everything

The Ancient, Modern and Postmodern Dramatic History of an Idea
Author: Robert E. Brown
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136181024
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 218
View: 8730

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The public relations of "everything" takes the radical position that public relations is a profoundly different creature than a generation of its scholars and teachers have portrayed it. Today, it is clearly no longer limited, if it ever has been, to the management of communication in and between organizations. Rather, it has become an activity engaged in by everyone, and for the most basic human reasons: as an act of self-creation, self-expression, and self-protection. The book challenges both popular dismissals and ill-informed repudiations of public relations, as well as academic and classroom misconceptions. In the age of digitization and social media, everyone with a smart phone, Twitter and Facebook accounts, and the will and skill to use them, is in the media. The PR of everything – the ubiquitousness of public relations – takes a perspective that is less concerned with ideas of communication and information than with experience and drama, a way of looking at public relations inside out, upside down and from a micro rather than a macro level. Based on a combination of the research of PR practice and critical-thinking analysis of theory, and founded in the author’s extensive corporate experience, this book will be invaluable reading for scholars and practitioners alike in Public Relations, Communications and Social Media.

Entertainment-Education

A Communication Strategy for Social Change
Author: Arvind Singhal,Everett Rogers
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135669422
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 280
View: 1194

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Arvind Singhal and Everett M. Rogers have developed this unique volume focused on the history and development of entertainment-education. This approach to communication is the process of designing and implementing a media message to both entertain and educate to increase audience members' knowledge about an educational issue, create favorable attitudes, and change overt behavior. It uses the universal appeal of entertainment to show individuals how they can live safer, healthier, and happier lives. Entertainment formats such as soap operas, rock music, feature films, talk shows, cartoons, comics, and theater are utilized in various countries to promote messages about educational issues. This book presents a balanced picture of the entertainment-education strategy, identifying ethical and other problems that accompany efforts to bring about social change.

Effective Fund-Raising Management


Author: Kathleen S. Kelly
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135693994
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 680
View: 1900

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In a ground-breaking departure from existing works, almost all of which are how-to manuals based on anecdotal evidence, this is the first academic textbook on fund raising. By integrating practical knowledge with social science theory and research, it presents a comprehensive approach to the function, from its legal and ethical principles to the managerial process by which gifts are raised. Territory previously uncharted in the literature is explored, such as the historical and organizational contexts of contemporary practice. Explanations of programs, techniques, and publics introduce a new system for understanding fund raising's major concepts. Unlike efforts in established fields, most of the material represents original scholarship undertaken to produce a first-time text. The book's main purpose is to teach students about fund raising--a high-demand, high-paying occupation that will continue to expand into the 21st century as the need for trained practitioners exceeds the supply. During the last decade, fund-raising education moved into the formal classroom and away from an apprenticeship tradition of senior practitioners mentoring newcomers. Yet until now, there has not been a textbook to support this evolving professionalism. Faculty have been reluctant to define fund raising as an academic subject in the absence of a theory-based teaching resource, and courses usually have been assigned to part-time instructors hired from the practice. This textbook addresses the void. It is designed for graduate and upper-level undergraduate courses dealing with fund raising as a primary or secondary subject. Among its features, each chapter points out research gaps and opportunities--such as problems and theories for master's theses and doctoral dissertations--and ends with a list of suggested readings. The text is appropriate for the diverse academic areas in which fund raising, nonprofit management, and philanthropy are taught, including public administration, management, arts and humanities, education, social work, economics, and sociology. Because of its public relations orientation, it is particularly suited for courses offered in that discipline. Additional audiences are practitioners enrolled in professional development programs; CEOs, trustees, and others interested in self-study; and scholars who need serious literature on the subject. PROFESSIONAL PROMO PIECE COPY..............Recently, the field of fundraising seems to have taken a giant step backward. Rather than conducting principled efforts to support common political, educational, financial, or social causes, the entire process is making headlines as a venue offering opportunities for influence peddling, corruption and self-promotion. The need for a guide to ethical fund-raising management is greater than ever. Effective Fund-Raising Management addresses this need. The most successful fundraisers understand why certain practices are more effective than others. What works in one situation may not work in another similar--but slightly different--situation. That is why theoretical understanding is vital to fundraising professionals. To be an expert practitioner, one must have have enough theoretical understanding to adapt one's practice to a variety of situations. That is the purpose of Effective Fund-Raising Management--to provide the underlying theoretical and conceptual understandings that enable an effective practitioner to become an expert practitioner. Indispensable to fund-raising professionals, this invaluable resource: * reviews the entire scope of the fund-raising profession-- from its historical antecedents to the current legal, ethical, organizational, and theoretical principles underlying its practice today; * provides concise definitions and explanations of the fund-raising process and its position within the field of public relations; * links effective fund-raising practices to ethical considerations; and * examines four of the major methods of fund raising-- annual giving, major gifts, planned giving, and capital campaigns.