Policing in Russia

Combating Corruption since the 2009 Police Reforms
Author: Serguei Cheloukhine
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319611003
Category: Social Science
Page: 67
View: 3191

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This Brief provides an in-depth look at crime and corruption in Russian Law Enforcement, in the fifteen years since the 2009 police reforms. It focuses on corruption and organized crime at various levels of public services and law enforcement, how these organized crime networks operate, and how to enhance police integrity and legitimacy in this context. It begins with a short overview of the history of law enforcement in the Soviet and Post-Soviet context, and the scope of organized crime on the operations of local businesses, public services, and bureaucratic offices. It provides an in depth examination of how organized crime developed in this context, to fill a void between the supply and demand of various goods and services. Based on an in-depth survey of police integrity and corruption in Russia, it provides key insights into how countries in a transition to democracy can maintain and enhance legitimacy of their police force. This Brief will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with a focus on policing, corruption or organized crime, as well as related disciplines such as political science.

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations


Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319892940
Category: Social Science
Page: 131
View: 1651

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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Impact of Organized Crime on Murder of Law Enforcement Personnel at the U.S.-Mexican Border


Author: Sara Schatz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401792496
Category: Social Science
Page: 114
View: 7520

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This brief fills a gap in the studies of organized crime in Mexico (Kan 2012, Ríos 2011, Dell 2011) by documenting and mapping the post-2008 assassination of Mexican border police chiefs. It traces out a “systematic” of law-enforcement assassination in Northern Tier Mexico, showing how the selective, often sequential, hits by cartels on chiefs in border towns and along key drug-trafficking corridors has proven an effective strategy by organized crime elements to serve several goals: (1) to retaliate for federal, state and local prosecution, (2) to try and neutralize police chiefs, (3) to achieve intermittent local governance and/or to seed corrupt police chiefs at the municipal level, and, (4) to reduce local governmental capacity to obtain greater freedom for movement of goods. It is argued that the tactical advantage of organized crime elements gives them relatively easy physical access to law enforcement targets and thus is thus one prime element facilitating the use of assassination as a strategy. U.S. and Mexican legal, political and judicial institutions have not been able to adequately restrict opportunity for law-enforcement assassinations. The inability to reduce access to weapons and officials, to increase security for police personnel, to reduce corruption and punish offenders sets the stage for the assassination of local law enforcement. Yet, it is the goals of organized crime elements (to clear drug-smuggling routes and to try and gain more pliant governance at the municipal level) that ultimately motivate such killings.

Societal Implications of Community-Oriented Policing and Technology


Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319892975
Category: Social Science
Page: 102
View: 5542

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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize the societal implications of new technologies for community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through strengthed community feeling and lower feeling of insecurity - Reducing the fear of crime and enhancing the perception of security in large, urban environments -Enhancing citizens feelings' of empowerment, belonging, and collective efficacy Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Police-Citizen Relations Across the World

Comparing sources and contexts of trust and legitimacy
Author: Dietrich Oberwittler,Sebastian Roché
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315406640
Category: Social Science
Page: 308
View: 9976

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Police-citizen relations are in the public spotlight following outbursts of anger and violence. Such clashes often happen as a response to fatal police shootings, racial or ethnic discrimination, or the mishandling of mass protests. But even in such cases, citizens’ assessment of the police differs considerably across social groups. This raises the question of the sources and impediments of citizens’ trust and support for police. Why are police-citizen relations much better in some countries than in others? Are police-minority relations doomed to be strained? And which police practices and policing policies generate trust and legitimacy? Research on police legitimacy has been centred on US experiences, and relied on procedural justice as the main theoretical approach. This book questions whether this approach is suitable and sufficient to understand public attitudes towards the police across different countries and regions of the world. This volume shows that the impact of macro-level conditions, of societal cleavages, and of state and political institutions on police-citizen relations has too often been neglected in contemporary research. Building on empirical studies from around the world as well as cross-national comparisons, this volume considerably expands current perspectives on the sources of police legitimacy and citizens’ trust in the police. Combining the analysis of micro-level interactions with a perspective on the contextual framework and varying national conditions, the contributions to this book illustrate the strength of a broadened perspective and lead us to ask how specific national frameworks shape the experiences of policing.

Shifting Nicaraguan Mediascapes

Authoritarianism and the Struggle for Social Justice
Author: Julie Cupples,Kevin Glynn
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319643193
Category: Social Science
Page: 82
View: 1000

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This book explores the mediated struggles for autonomy, land rights and social justice in a context of growing authoritarianism and persistent coloniality in Nicaragua. To do so, it draws on in-depth fieldwork, analysis of media texts, and decolonial and other cultural theories. There are two main threats to the authoritarian rule of the Nicaraguan government led by Daniel Ortega: the first is the Managua-based NGO and civil society sector led largely by educated dissident Sandinistas, and the second is the escalating struggle for autonomy and land rights being fought by Nicaragua’s indigenous and Afro-descended inhabitants on the country’s Caribbean coast. In order to confront these threats and, it seems, secure indefinite political tenure, the government engages in a set of centralizing and anti-democratic political strategies characterized by secrecy, institutional power grabs, highly suspect electoral practices, clientelistic anti-poverty programmes, and the control through purchase or co-optation of much of the nation's media. The social movements that threaten Ortega’s rule are however operating through dispersed and topological modalities of power and the creative use of emergent spaces for the circulation of counter-discourses and counter-narratives within a rapidly transforming media environment. The primary response to these mediated tactics is a politics of silence and a refusal to acknowledge or respond to the political claims made by social movements. In the current conjuncture, the authors identify a struggle for hegemony whose strategies and tactics include the citizenship-stripping activities of the state and the citizenship-claiming activities of black, indigenous and dissident actors and activists. This struggle plays out in part through the mediated circulation and counter-circulation of discourses and the infrastructural dynamics of media convergence.

Women and the Mafia

Female Roles in Organized Crime Structures
Author: Giovanni Fiandaca
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387365427
Category: Social Science
Page: 300
View: 9417

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The insightful essays in this book shine a new light on the roles of women within criminal networks, roles that in reality are often less traditional than researchers used to think. The book seeks to answer questions from a wide range of academic disciplines and traces the portrait of women tied to organized crime in Italy and around the world. The book offers up accounts of mafia women, and also tales of severe abuse and violence against women.

Regulatory Theory

Foundations and applications
Author: Peter Drahos
Publisher: ANU Press
ISBN: 1760461024
Category: Law
Page: 783
View: 7337

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This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.

Find Me I'm Yours


Author: Hillary Carlip
Publisher: RosettaBooks
ISBN: 0795343272
Category: Fiction
Page: 176
View: 8915

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"If you believe in destiny like I do, and you think there's even a remote possibility we're meant to be together, then find me I'm yours." —Mr. WTF In one sentence—one serendipitous moment—everything Mags Marclay, an offbeat, wry, 24-year-old struggling artist living in L.A., has ever known is forever changed as she is led on a treasure hunt to find her soul mate. Find Me I’m Yours is a highly entertaining, unconventional virtual page-turner. Become immersed in Mags’s world through original artwork, hand-written lists, graphics, and Instagram photos within the book. You can go even deeper into the Find Me I’m Yours universe by clicking on embedded links leading to interactive content that’s expertly woven through the novel, including: • Original rom-com style VIDEOS that star the handsome stranger Mags dubs “Mr. WTF,” who gives clues to the hunt. • Thirty-three unique, custom-designed WEBSITES that further the narrative, blur the lines between fiction and reality, and offer endless ways for you to enjoy additional original content, including reality and comedy series featuring A-list talent. • OPPORTUNITIES for you to share your own content (artwork, stories, songs, apologies, wishes, etc.), interact, connect, and personally engage with the story. This revolutionary CLICK LIT® novel was conceived from the get-go as an ever-expanding, multi-platform entertainment experience. Created, written, and designed by award-winning author, artist, and digital innovator Hillary Carlip, and co-created, directed, and produced by Golden Globe-winning and Emmy-nominated TV comedy writer/producer/director Maxine Lapiduss, Find Me I’m Yours is a game changer in the way that stories are told and experienced.

Producing Bias-Free Policing

A Science-Based Approach
Author: Lorie A. Fridell
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319331752
Category: Social Science
Page: 117
View: 2785

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This Brief provides specific recommendations for police professionals to reduce the influence of implicit bias on police practice, which will improve both effectiveness (in a shift towards evidence-based, rather than bias-based) practices and police legitimacy. The author is donating her proceeds from this book to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (nleomf.org).

The Rule of Law in an Era of Change

Responses to Transnational Challenges and Threats
Author: George J. Andreopoulos,Rosemary L. Barberet,Mahesh K. Nalla
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319899082
Category: Social Science
Page: 181
View: 9242

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This forward-thinking volume examines the rule of law from a global perspective, in the context of a growing array of transnational challenges and threats As the United Nations (UN) notes, the rule of law constitutes the basis “on which fair and just societies are built.” The contributions to this volume provide insights to several emerging debates about what the rule of law means in the modern era of warfare and of massive and systematic human rights violations that call for robust and transparent accountability mechanisms and processes. The authors of this work examine several controversial topics, including: -The growing use of drones, and the morality of long distance use -The UN Security Council’s evolving counterterrorism policies and practices -Victims’ Rights and the effort to provide meaning and justice to victims and survivors of terrorism - The relationship between the International Criminal Court (ICC) and Truth and Reconciliation Commissions (TRCs) -The effectiveness of the international criminal justice process overall, with an eye to procedural fairness and justice. This timely work will be of interest to researchers in criminal justice, particularly with a focus on counter-terrorism and international justice, as well as international law, human rights, and international studies.

International Handbook of Juvenile Justice


Author: Scott H. Decker,Nerea Marteache
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319450905
Category: Social Science
Page: 550
View: 8406

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This comprehensive reference work presents an in-depth analysis of juvenile justice systems across the world. The second edition of this Handbook has been updated with 13 new chapters, now covering a total of 34 countries, across North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East from an international and comparative perspective. The International Handbook of Juvenile Justice is the result of research conducted by a group of outstanding scholars working in the field of juvenile justice. It reflects a collective concern about trends in juvenile justice over the past two decades, trends that have begun to blur the difference between criminal and juvenile justice. Also new to the second edition, each chapter is formatted to increase the comparative aspect of the book, highlighting: · The legal status of juveniles · Age of majority · The country’s stance toward the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child · Trends in juvenile crime over the period 2004-2014 · Causes of juvenile crime · Policing and juveniles · Courts and juveniles · Custodial rules for juveniles (detention, prison, mixing juveniles with adults) · Alternative sanctions for juveniles: home confinement, restorative justice, restitution, etc. · Differences in treatment of boys and girls This seminal work highlights similarities and differences between the various systems, and will be an important reference for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly interested in juvenile delinquency and youth crime, as well as related disciplines like sociology, social work, and public policy.

Perspectives on Violence and Othering in India


Author: R.C. Tripathi,Purnima Singh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132226135
Category: Social Science
Page: 237
View: 2710

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This volume brings together important and original perspectives from South Asia on the relationship between violence---an increasingly important issue in multicultural societies---and the process of othering. The contributors state that societies create 'others' through deliberate acts of selection over a period of time. The objective of the process of othering is to deny rights and privileges that one sets for one's own group. This volume affirms that central to the understanding of violence in any society is the understanding of othering processes. Violence and nonviolence are influenced by the nature of othering processes as well as the kinds of others in a society. Groups engaged in mutual othering are also the ones that are often involved in violent relationships. Renowned scholars from diverse fields provide multidisciplinary perspectives on violence and othering, discussing the concepts of violence and nonviolence in multicultural societies, communal harmony, constructions of the other, truth commissions, state censorship of 'sensitive' issues, fundamentalism and secularism in multifaith societies, and specific cases from recent violence-prone areas. This volume focuses on the South Asian, and more specifically, the Indian context, but is relevant for researchers seeking to understand these issues anywhere in the world.

Handbook of LGBT Communities, Crime, and Justice


Author: Dana Peterson,Vanessa R. Panfil
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461491886
Category: Social Science
Page: 587
View: 2772

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Contemporary scholars have begun to explore non-normative sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression in a growing victimization literature, but very little research is focused on LGBTQ communities’ patterns of offending (beyond sex work) and their experiences with police, the courts, and correctional institutions. This Handbook, the first of its kind in Criminology and Criminal Justice, will break new ground by presenting a thorough treatment of all of these under-explored issues in one interdisciplinary volume that features current empirical work.

Youth On Religion

The development, negotiation and impact of faith and non-faith identity
Author: Nicola Madge,Peter Hemming,Kevin Stenson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317914562
Category: Psychology
Page: 256
View: 7581

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Globalisation has led to increasing cultural and religious diversity in cities around the world. What are the implications for young people growing up in these settings? How do they develop their religious identities, and what roles do families, friends and peers, teachers, religious leaders and wider cultural influences play in the process? Furthermore, how do members of similar and different cultural and faith backgrounds get on together, and what can young people tell us about reducing conflict and promoting social solidarity amid diversity? Youth On Religion outlines the findings from a unique large-scale project investigating the meaning of religion to young people in three multi-faith locations. Drawing on survey data from over 10,000 young people with a range of faith positions, as well as a series of fascinating interviews, discussion groups and diary reports involving 160 adolescents, this book examines myriad aspects of their daily lives. It provides the most comprehensive account yet of the role of religion for young people growing up in contemporary, multicultural urban contexts. Youth On Religion is a rigorous and engaging account of developing religiosity in a changing society. It presents young people’s own perspectives on their attitudes and experiences and how they negotiate their identities. The book will be an instructive and valuable resource for psychologists, sociologists, criminologists, educationalists and anthropologists, as well as youth workers, social workers and anyone working with young people today. It will also provide essential understanding for policy makers tackling issues of multiculturalism in advanced societies.

Victorian Environments

Acclimatizing to Change in British Domestic and Colonial Culture
Author: Grace Moore,Michelle J. Smith
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137573376
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 317
View: 1522

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This collection will draw attention to new ideas in both Victorian studies and in the emerging area of literature and the environment. Adopting a broad interpretation of the term ‘environment’ the work aims to draw together new approaches to Victorian texts and cultures that conceptualise and are influenced by environments ranging from rural to urban, British to Antipodean, and from the terrestrial to the aquatic.With the pressures of industrialism and the clustering of workers in urban centres, the Victorians were acutely aware that their environment was changing. Torn between nostalgia for a countryside that was in jeopardy and exhilaration at the rapidity with which their surroundings altered, the literature and culture produced by the Victorians reflects a world undergoing radical change. Colonization and assisted emigration schemes expanded the scope of the environment still further, pushing the boundaries of the ‘home’ on an unprecedented scale and introducing strange new worlds. These untamed physical environments enabled new freedoms, but also posed challenges that invited attempts to control, taxonomize and harness the natural world. Victorian Environments draws together leading and emerging international scholars for an examination of how various kinds of environments were constructed, redefined, and transformed, in British and colonial texts and cultures, with particular attention to the relationship between Australia and Britain.

Understanding Lone Wolf Terrorism

Global Patterns, Motivations and Prevention
Author: Ramon Spaaij
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400729812
Category: Social Science
Page: 119
View: 3975

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What drives the lone wolf terrorist to commit mass violence? What are their ideologies and motivations? How do they plan and carry out their attacks, and who do they target? How can lone wolf terrorism be effectively countered? One of the first in-depth analyses of lone wolf terrorism, this publication sets out to answer these questions. Drawing on extensive international data and qualitative case studies, it examines the global patterns in and key features of lone wolf terrorism over the past four decades. This engaging text will be essential reading for students and researchers on terrorism and violent conflict and offers unique and invaluable insights to those working to prevent or minimize the effects of terrorism and political violence.

Counterterrorism in Areas of Political Unrest

The Case of Russia's Northern Caucasus
Author: Ethan S. Burger,Serguei Cheloukhine
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146145140X
Category: Social Science
Page: 61
View: 1232

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​​Political transitions often create new law enforcement challenges. This Brief provides an examination of such special law enforcement challenges in the Northern Caucasas, both due to the unique structure of the crime groups that are active in the region, and to the unique social and political environment in which they operate. In 2002, Russian President Vladamir Putin declared the end of the war in Chechnya. In 2006, he announced the insurgency was defeated. Yet today, Russia maintains a significant Internal Police presence in the Northern Caucasus to contain approximately 700 insurgents at a cost estimated to be more than the equivalent of $1 billion per year. Russian law enforcement, armed forces, and their local proxies are fighting irregular forces that operate in a manner akin to organized crime groups or terrorist cells. These groups have formed flexible networks which can sustain heavy losses, including the “decapitation” of their leaders, only to reconstitute themselves ready to fight another day. Beginning with a historical overview of the police and military structures in the region, this Brief provides a case study into the origins, structures, and unique strategies for counter-terrorism policing in these complex conditions. It also provides recommendations for the future, and a framework for understanding similar cases of terrorist operations in areas of political unrest, an increasing global threat.​

Resistance in Everyday Life

Constructing Cultural Experiences
Author: Nandita Chaudhary,Pernille Hviid,Giuseppina Marsico,Jakob Waag Villadsen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811035814
Category: Psychology
Page: 328
View: 3088

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This book is about resistance in everyday life, illustrated through empirical contexts from different parts of the world. Resistance is a widespread phenomenon in biological, social and psychological domains of human cultural development. Yet, it is not well articulated in the academic literature and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems. The contributors deal with strategies for handling dissent by individuals or groups, specifically dissent through resistance. Resistance can be a location of intense personal, interpersonal and cultural negotiation, and that is the primary reason for interest in this phenomenon. Ordinary life events contain innumerable instances of agency and resistance. This volume discusses their manifestations, and it is therefore of interest for academics and researchers of cultural psychology, cultural studies, anthropology, sociology, and human development.

Russian Organized Corruption Networks and their International Trajectories


Author: Serguei Cheloukhine,M.R. Haberfeld
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441909909
Category: Social Science
Page: 181
View: 9821

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Countries undergoing major social and legal transitions typically experience a light, but relatively insignificant, increase in crime. However, in the past decade, many transitional countries in Eastern Europe, and Russia in particular, have experienced a surge in criminal activities that came about through the collaboration of diverse players—such as criminals, state officials, businesspersons, and law enforcement—into organized networks aimed to obtain financial and economic gains.