Phytoremediation in reed plants treat and clean up polluted environment by petroleum produced water


Author: Ochan Stephen
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3656073406
Category: Science
Page: 38
View: 654

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Bachelor Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject Engineering - Power Engineering, grade: "-", Atlantic International University, course: Petroleum Engineering - Phytoremediation, language: English, abstract: Abstract. Phytoremediation is the use of plants and its associated microorganisms to achieve the conditions necessary to facilitate the breakdown of contaminants and clean-up of the polluted environment. Phytoremediation technology is viewed as the simplest way of handling variety of contaminants in many sectors of oil industry. The community of microorganisms in the rhizosphere has been shown to be involved in degradation of numerous contaminants, including pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum compounds, volatile organic chemicals, and in organics. Also, plants can degrade contaminants during plant metabolic activities; for instance, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene has been shown to be degraded by plant enzymes. Plants can use contaminants as nutrients; nitrate contamination of ground water can serve as a nitrogen source for plants. This involves the achieving condition of ground water, waste oil and produced water from oil facilities. Phytoremediation is recommended because of its establishment at low -cost and with flexibility in wide aspect of soil environmental remediation. Practical field experiments and laboratory water quality test analysis carried out in an oil field in TharJath-south Sudan by using reed species called Phragmites australis has shown promising results. It is common perennial grasses that thrive best in wetlands and temperate tropical part of the world. Southern part of the Sudan being temperate and tropical region is suitable for this reed species to thrive well. This Thesis provides a real analytical test and report on the effective clean up of the polluted environment by the use of reed plants through phytoremediation process. Hence will encourage future studies on remediation of the contaminated soil.

Bioremediation and Bioeconomy


Author: M.N.V Prasad
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128028726
Category: Science
Page: 730
View: 8694

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Bioremediation and Bioeconomy provides a common platform for scientists from various backgrounds to find sustainable solutions to environmental issues, including the ever-growing lack of water resources which are under immense pressure due to land degradation, pollution, population explosion, urbanization, and global economic development. In addition, large amounts of toxic waste have been dispersed in thousands of contaminated sites and bioremediation is emerging as an invaluable tool for environmental clean-up. The book addresses these challenge by presenting innovative and cost-effective solutions to decontaminate polluted environments, including usage of contaminated land and waste water for bioproducts such as natural fibers, biocomposites, and fuels to boost the economy. Users will find a guide that helps scientists from various backgrounds find sustainable solutions to these environmental issues as they address the topical issues crucial for understanding new and innovative approaches for sustainable development. Provides a compilation of new information on phytoremediation not found in other books in the present market The first book to link phytoremediation and the bioeconomy Includes strategies to utilize contaminated soils for producing bioresources and co-generation of value chain and value additions products

Phytoremediation

Management of Environmental Contaminants
Author: Abid A. Ansari,Sarvajeet Singh Gill,Ritu Gill,Guy R. Lanza,Lee Newman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319523813
Category: Science
Page: 514
View: 3680

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This text details the plant-assisted remediation method, “phytoremediation”, which involves the interaction of plant roots and associated rhizospheric microorganisms for the remediation of soil contaminated with high levels of metals, pesticides, solvents, radionuclides, explosives, crude oil, organic compounds and various other contaminants. Many chapters highlight and compare the efficiency and economic advantages of phytoremediation to currently practiced soil and water treatment practices. Volume 5 of Phytoremediation: Management of Environmental Contaminants provides the capstone of the series. Taken together, the five volumes provide a broad–based global synopsis of the current applications of phytoremediation using plants and the microbial communities associated with their roots to decontaminate terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

Petroleum Contaminated Soils

Remediation Techniques, Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment
Author: Paul T. Kostecki
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780873712262
Category: Science
Page: 532
View: 9917

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These three volumes provide valuable information to help bring rational and scientifically feasible solutions to petroleum contaminated soils. State-of-the-art information on both technical and regulatory issues is covered, including environmental fate, health effects, risk assessment and remedial alternatives. They show why petroleum contaminated soils are a problem - and propose solutions for that problem. These books are an excellent reference for regulatory personnel and environmental consultants at all levels.

Phyto

Principles and Resources for Site Remediation and Landscape Design
Author: Kate Kennen,Niall Kirkwood
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317599012
Category: Gardening
Page: 346
View: 9643

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Winner of the 2017 CBHL Literature Award of Excellence in Landscape Design and Architecture Phyto presents the concepts of phytoremediation and phytotechnology in one comprehensive guide, illustrating when plants can be considered for the uptake, removal or mitigation of on-site pollutants. Current scientific case studies are covered, highlighting the advantages and limitations of plant-based cleanup. Typical contaminant groups found in the built environment are explained, and plant lists for mitigation of specific contaminants are included where applicable. This is the first book to address the benefits of phytotechnologies from a design point of view, taking complex scientific terms and translating the research into an easy-to-understand reference book for those involved in creating planting solutions. Typically, phytotechnology planting techniques are currently employed post-site contamination to help clean up already contaminated soil by taking advantage of the positive effects that plants can have upon harmful toxins and chemicals. This book presents a new concept to create projective planting designs with preventative phytotechnology abilities, ‘phytobuffering’ where future pollution may be expected for particular site programs. Filled with tables, photographs and detailed drawings, Kennen and Kirkwood's text guides the reader through the process of selecting plants for their aesthetic and environmental qualities, combined with their contaminant-removal benefits.

Earth Repair

A Grassroots Guide to Healing Toxic and Damaged Landscapes
Author: Leila Darwish
Publisher: New Society Publishers
ISBN: 1550925296
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 336
View: 9009

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Resistance is fertile - bioremediation techniques to heal the earth.

Treatment Wetlands, Second Edition


Author: Robert H. Kadlec,Scott Wallace
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420012514
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 1016
View: 1154

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Completely revised and updated, Treatment Wetlands, Second Edition is still the most comprehensive resource available for the planning, design, and operation of wetland treatment systems. The book addresses the design, construction, and operation of wetlands for water pollution control. It presents the best current procedures for sizing these systems, and describing the intrinsic processes that combine to quantify performance. The Second Edition covers: New methods based on the latest research Wastewater characterization and regulatory framework analyses leading to detailed design and economics State-of-the-art procedures for analyzing hydraulics, hydrology, substrates and wetlands biogeochemistry Definition of performance expectations for traditional pollutants such as solids, oxygen demand, nutrients and pathogens, as well as for metals and a wide variety of individual organic and inorganic chemicals Discussion of methods of configuration, construction, and vegetation establishment and startup considerations Ancillary benefits of human use and wildlife habitat Specific examples of numerous applications Extensive reference base of current information The book provides a complete reference that includes: detailed information on wetland ecology, design for consistent performance, construction guidance and operational control through effective monitoring. Case histories of operational wetland treatment systems illustrate the variety of design approaches presented allowing you to tailor them to the needs of your wetlands treatment projects. The sheer amount of information found in Treatment Wetlands, Second Edition makes it the resource you will turn to again and again.

Mycelium Running

How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World
Author: Paul Stamets
Publisher: Ten Speed Press
ISBN: 1607741245
Category: Nature
Page: 356
View: 7525

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Mycelium Running is a manual for the mycological rescue of the planet. That’s right: growing more mushrooms may be the best thing we can do to save the environment, and in this groundbreaking text from mushroom expert Paul Stamets, you’ll find out how. The basic science goes like this: Microscopic cells called “mycelium”--the fruit of which are mushrooms--recycle carbon, nitrogen, and other essential elements as they break down plant and animal debris in the creation of rich new soil. What Stamets has discovered is that we can capitalize on mycelium’s digestive power and target it to decompose toxic wastes and pollutants (mycoremediation), catch and reduce silt from streambeds and pathogens from agricultural watersheds (mycofiltration), control insect populations (mycopesticides), and generally enhance the health of our forests and gardens (mycoforestry and myco-gardening). In this comprehensive guide, you’ll find chapters detailing each of these four exciting branches of what Stamets has coined “mycorestoration,” as well as chapters on the medicinal and nutritional properties of mushrooms, inoculation methods, log and stump culture, and species selection for various environmental purposes. Heavily referenced and beautifully illustrated, this book is destined to be a classic reference for bemushroomed generations to come. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Advanced Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment: A Road to Safer Society and Environment


Author: Petr Hlavinek,Igor Winkler,Jiri Marsalek,Ivana Mahrikova
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400702795
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 353
View: 1496

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Stable, safe, secure and readily available water supply is one of the key factors in ensuring a good level of the public health and a stable society. Scientific assessments show that about 80 % of diseases and one-third of the total death toll in the developing countries are caused by the low quality of the drinking water. Other countries are also suffering from water shortages and insufficient quality of the drinking water. Many rivers in Europe and in other parts of the world are significantly polluted by insufficiently treated or untreated wastewater discharge. This book is based on the discussions and papers prepared for the NATO Advanced Research Workshop that took place in Lviv, Ukraine, and addressed recent advances in water supply and wastewater treatment as a prerequisite for a safer society and environment. The contributions critically assess the existing knowledge on urban water management and provide an overview of the current water management issues, especially in the countries in transition in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Mediterranean Dialogue countries.

Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Water


Author: Norman Terry,Gary S. Banuelos
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439822654
Category: Science
Page: 408
View: 9308

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Phytoremediation is an exciting, new technology that utilizes metal-accumulating plants to rid soil of heavy metal and radionuclides. Hyperaccumulation plants are an appealing and economical alternative to current methods of soil recovery. Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Water is the most thorough literary examination of the subject available today. The successful implementation of phytoremediation depends on identifying plant material that is well adapted to specific toxic sites. Gentle remediation is then applied in situ, or at the contamination site. No soil excavation or transport is necessary. This severely contains the potential risk of the pollutants entering the food chain. And it's cost effective. The progress of modern man has created many sites contaminated with heavy metals. The effected land is toxic to plants and animals , which creates considerable public interest in remediation. But the commonly used remedies are ex situ, which poses an expensive dilemma and an even greater threat. Phytoremediation offers the prospect of a cheaper and healthier way to deal with this problem. Read Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Water to learn just how far this burgeoning technology has developed.

Bioremediation: Applications for Environmental Protection and Management


Author: Sunita J. Varjani,Avinash Kumar Agarwal,Edgard Gnansounou,Baskar Gurunathan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811074852
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 411
View: 3019

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This book examines bioremediation technologies as a tool for environmental protection and management. It provides global perspectives on recent advances in the bioremediation of various environmental pollutants. Topics covered include comparative analysis of bio-gas electrification from anaerobic digesters, mathematical modeling in bioremediation, the evaluation of next-generation sequencing technologies for environmental monitoring in wastewater abatement; and the impact of diverse wastewater remediation techniques such as the use of nanofibers, microbes and genetically modified organisms; bioelectrochemical treatment; phytoremediation; and biosorption strategies. The book is targeted at scientists and researchers working in the field of bioremediation.

Recent Advances Towards Improved Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Pollution


Author: David W.M. Leung
Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers
ISBN: 1608057879
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 151
View: 643

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Heavy metal pollution represents a global challenge to both public health and environmental sustainability. Any means to reduce heavy metal pollution in the environment is of considerable economic significance. The use of green plants to clean up heavy metal pollution is an environmentally friendly as well as a low-cost approach to the problem. This plant-based biotechnology is commonly known as ‘phytoremediation’. Presently, there is limited application of this technology because useful plants with enhanced heavy metal resistance/tolerance are still needed to assist remediation of environments polluted with heavy metals. A key to improved phytoremediation of heavy metal pollution lies in research seeking for a better understanding of the mechanism(s) of heavy metal resistance/tolerance in plants. This E-book presents a unique treatment of the topics that have never been comprehensively brought together before in a single advanced reference. The volume explores aspects of plant biology that are critical for employing phytoremedation techniques to combat heavy metal contamination such as the specific plant biology, seed biology, plant tissue culture and enzymology. This E-book will be a useful reference to plant biologists, biotechnologists and environmental engineers seeking information about phytoremediation of heavy metals from the environment.

Phytoremediation: Role of Aquatic Plants in Environmental Clean-Up


Author: Bhupinder Dhir
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 8132213076
Category: Science
Page: 111
View: 5023

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Contamination of the different components of environment through industrial and anthropogenic activities have guided new eras of research. This has lead to development of strategies/methodologies to curtail/minimize environmental contamination. Research studies conducted all over the globe established that bioremediation play a promising role in minimizing environmental contamination. In the last decade, phytoremediation studies have been conducted on a vast scale. Initial research in this scenario focused on screening terrestrial plant species that remove contaminants from soil and air. Later, scientific community realized that water is a basic necessity for sustaining life on earth and quality of which is getting deteriorated day by day. This initiated studies on phytoremediation using aquatic plants. Role of aquatic plant species in cleaning water bodies was also explored. Many of the aquatic plant species showed potential to treat domestic, municipal and industrial wastewaters and hence their use in constructed wetlands for treating wastewaters was emphasized. The present book contains five chapters. First two chapters provide information about types of contaminants commonly reported in wastewaters and enlists some important and well studied aquatic plant species known for their potential to remove various contaminants from wastewater. Subsequent chapters deal with mechanisms involved in contaminant removal by aquatic plant species, and also provide detailed information about role of aquatic plant species in wetlands. Potential of constructed wetlands in cleaning domestic and industrial wastewaters has also been discussed in detail. The strategy for enhancing phytoremediation capacity of plants by different means and effectiveness of phytoremediation technology in terms of monitory benefits has been discussed in last chapter. Last chapter also emphasizes the future aspects of this technology.

Mine Wastes

Characterization, Treatment and Environmental Impacts
Author: Bernd Lottermoser
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642124198
Category: Science
Page: 400
View: 5250

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This book is not designed to be an exhaustive work on mine wastes. It aims to serve undergraduate students who wish to gain an overview and an understanding of wastes produced in the mineral industry. An introductory textbook addressing the science of such wastes is not available to students despite the importance of the mineral industry as a resource, wealth and job provider. Also, the growing imp- tance of the topics mine wastes, mine site pollution and mine site rehabilitation in universities, research organizations and industry requires a textbook suitable for undergraduate students. Until recently, undergraduate earth science courses tended to follow rather classical lines, focused on the teaching of palaeontology, cryst- lography, mineralogy, petrology, stratigraphy, sedimentology, structural geology, and ore deposit geology. However, today and in the future, earth science teachers and students also need to be familiar with other subject areas. In particular, earth science curriculums need to address land and water degradation as well as rehabili- tion issues. These topics are becoming more important to society, and an increasing number of earth science students are pursuing career paths in this sector. Mine site rehabilitation and mine waste science are examples of newly emerging disciplines. This book has arisen out of teaching mine waste science to undergraduate and graduate science students and the frustration at having no appropriate text which documents the scienti?c fundamentals of such wastes.

Phytoremediation Potential of Bioenergy Plants


Author: Kuldeep Bauddh,Bhaskar Singh,John Korstad
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811030847
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 472
View: 2378

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The globally escalating population necessitates production of more goods and services to fulfil the expanding demands of human beings which resulted in urbanization and industrialization. Uncontrolled industrialization caused two major problems – energy crisis and accelerated environmental pollution throughout the world. Presently, there are technologies which have been proposed or shown to tackle both the problems. Researchers continue to seek more cost effective and environmentally beneficial pathways for problem solving. Plant kingdom comprises of species which have the potential to resolve the couple problem of pollution and energy. Plants are considered as a potential feedstock for development of renewable energy through biofuels. Another important aspect of plants is their capacity to sequester carbon dioxide and absorb, degrade, and stabilize environmental pollutants such as heavy metals, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, poly-aromatic biphenyls, radioactive materials, and other chemicals. Thus, plants may be used to provide renewable energy generation and pollution mitigation. An approach that could amalgamate the two aspects can be achieved through phytoremediation (using plants to clean up polluted soil and water), and subsequent generation of energy from the phyto-remediator plants. This would be a major advance in achieving sustainability that focuses on optimizing ‘people’ (social issues), ‘planet’ (environmental issues), and ‘profit’ (financial issues). The “Phytoremediation-Cellulosic Biofuels” (PCB) process will be socially beneficial through reducing pollution impacts on people, ecologically beneficial through pollution abatement, and economically viable through providing revenue that supplies an energy source that is renewable and also provides less dependence on importing foreign energy (energy-independence). The utilization of green plants for pollution remediation and energy production will also tackle some other important global concerns like global climate change, ocean acidification, and land degradation through carbon sequestration, reduced emissions of other greenhouse gases, restoration of degraded lands and waters, and more. This book addresses the overall potential of major plants that have the potential to fulfil the dual purposes of phytoremediation and energy generation. The non-edible bioenergy plants that are explored for this dual objective include Jatropha curcas, Ricinus communis, Leucaena leucocephalla, Milletia pinnata, Canabis sativa, Azadirachta indica, and Acacia nilotica. The book addresses all possible aspects of phyto-remediaton and energy generation in a holistic way. The contributors are one of most authoritative experts in the field and have covered and compiled the best content most comprehensively. The book is going to be extremely useful for researchers in the area, research students, academicians and also for policy makers for an inclusive understanding and assessment of potential in plant kingdom to solve the dual problem of energy and pollution.

Phytoremediation of Environmental Pollutants


Author: Ram Chandra,N.K. Dubey,Vineet Kumar
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351665626
Category: Science
Page: 510
View: 6859

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Phytoremediation aids to augment bioremediation as it uses broad range plants to remediate soil, sediment, surface water and ground water that have been contaminated with toxic metals, organic, pesticides and radionuclides. This book serves to disseminate detailed up to date knowledge regarding the various aspects of phytoremediation and plant-microbe interaction. The book highlights process and molecular mechanisms for industrial waste detoxification during phytoremediation in wetland plants, role of endophytic bacteria for phytoremediation of environmental pollutants, constructed wetland treatment system for treatment and recycling of hazardous wastewater, amongst other relevant topics. Key Features: Focuses on phytoremediation process for different pollutants, mainly heavy metal detoxification in the presence of other co-pollutants. Includes plant-soil-microbe interactions in phytoremediations and remediation of contaminated water. Explores life cycle assessment of industrial waste contaminated site with organic pollutants. Discusses hyperaccumulator versus non-hyperaccumulator plants for environmental waste management. Includes bacterial assisted phytoremediation and siderophore formation in specific environmental conditions.

Environmental Materials and Waste

Resource Recovery and Pollution Prevention
Author: M.N.V Prasad,Kaimin Shih
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012803906X
Category: Nature
Page: 750
View: 1590

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Environmental Materials and Waste: Resource Recovery and Pollution Prevention contains the latest information on environmental sustainability as a wide variety of natural resources are increasingly being exploited to meet the demands of a worldwide growing population and economy. These raw materials cannot, or can only partially, be substituted by renewable resources within the next few decades. As such, the efficient recovery and processing of mineral and energy resources, as well as recycling such resources, is now of significant importance. The book takes a multidisciplinary approach to fully realize the number of by-products which can be remanufactured, providing the foundation needed across disciplines to tackle this issue. As awareness and opportunities to recover valuable resources from process and bleed streams is gaining interest, sustainable recovery of environmental materials, including wastewater, offers tremendous opportunity to combine profitable and sustainable production. Presents a state-of-the-art guide to environmental sustainability Provides an overview of the field highlighting recent and emerging issues in environmental resource recovery that cover a wide array of by-products for remanufacture potential Details a multidisciplinary approach to fully realize the number of by-products which can be remanufactured, providing the foundation needed across disciplines to tackle these global issues

Environmental Bioengineering


Author: Lawrence K. Wang,Joo-Hwa Tay,Stephen Tiong Lee Tay,Yung-Tse Hung
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781603270311
Category: Science
Page: 867
View: 5559

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The past 30 years have seen the emergence of a growing desire worldwide that positive actions be taken to restore and protect the environment from the degrading effects of all forms of pollution – air, water, soil, and noise. Since pollution is a direct or indirect consequence of waste production, the seemingly idealistic demand for “zero discharge” can be construed as an unrealistic demand for zero waste. However, as long as waste continues to exist, we can only attempt to abate the subsequent pollution by converting it to a less noxious form. Three major questions usually arise when a particular type of pollution has been identi ed: (1) How serious is the pollution? (2) Is the technology to abate it available? and (3) Do the costs of abatement justify the degree of abatement achieved? This book is one of the volumes of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series. The principal intention of this series is to help readers formulate answers to the above three questions. The traditional approach of applying tried-and-true solutions to speci c pollution problems has been a major contributing factor to the success of environmental engineering, and has accounted in large measure for the establishment of a “methodology of pollution control. ” However, the realization of the ever-increasing complexity and interrelated nature of current environmental problems renders it imperative that intelligent planning of pollution abatement systems be undertaken.

Plant Adaptation and Phytoremediation


Author: M. Ashraf,M. Ozturk,M. S. A. Ahmad
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048193707
Category: Science
Page: 481
View: 9586

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The problems engendered by the conflicting imperatives of development and ecology show no sign of ending, and every day more locations are added to the list of landscapes poisoned by human activity. This vital book, featuring an international set of authors, is a key reference for researchers and environmental managers, as well as anyone involved in the mining industry or landscape remediation. The comprehensive coverage of current approaches to phytoremediation begins by examining the problem. It looks at natural and human-induced toxins, and their effects on natural vegetation as well as agricultural crops. Particular attention is paid to the two largest challenges to remediation – heavy metals, and the salt stress that is impeding agricultural productivity worldwide. The text moves on to focus on the efficacy of different plant species in removing toxic pollutants from the environment. Along with analysis of a number of case studies, this section includes new and updated information on the mechanism of toxin-tolerance in plants.

Oil in Freshwater: Chemistry, Biology, Countermeasure Technology

Proceedings of the Symposium of Oil Pollution in Freshwater, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Author: John H. Vandermeulen,Steve E. Hrudey
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483148793
Category: Science
Page: 526
View: 2344

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Oil In Freshwater: Chemistry, Biology, Countermeasure Technology presents the proceedings of the Symposium of Oil Pollution held in Freshwater, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada represents a collection of scientific knowledge on state-of-the-art monitoring and cleanup of oil pollution in fresh waters. The book covers the major subject areas of the physical and chemical fates of oil and petroleum in freshwater environments; biological and ecological effects, biodegradability and microbiological considerations, fate in runoff and wastewater treatment, and aquifer contamination. The book discusses the solubilities of substances from tar sands and heavy oils; the physical and chemical behavior of oils; and the carcinogenic and toxic effects of oil and oil products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on freshwater communities and ecosystems. The text also describes microbial biodegradability; oil related pollutants in road and urban runoff and during municipal and industrial wastewater treatment; and cleanup and disposal technologies. Oil pollution of aquifers has been thoroughly covered.