Philosophy of Law


Author: Andrei Marmor
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400838707
Category: Philosophy
Page: 184
View: 8592

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In Philosophy of Law, Andrei Marmor provides a comprehensive analysis of contemporary debates about the fundamental nature of law—an issue that has been at the heart of legal philosophy for centuries. What the law is seems to be a matter of fact, but this fact has normative significance: it tells people what they ought to do. Marmor argues that the myriad questions raised by the factual and normative features of law actually depend on the possibility of reduction—whether the legal domain can be explained in terms of something else, more foundational in nature. In addition to exploring the major issues in contemporary legal thought, Philosophy of Law provides a critical analysis of the people and ideas that have dominated the field in past centuries. It will be essential reading for anyone curious about the nature of law.

Philosophical Logic


Author: John P. Burgess
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691137896
Category: Philosophy
Page: 153
View: 6710

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Philosophical Logic is a clear and concise critical survey of nonclassical logics of philosophical interest written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject. After giving an overview of classical logic, John Burgess introduces five central branches of nonclassical logic (temporal, modal, conditional, relevantistic, and intuitionistic), focusing on the sometimes problematic relationship between formal apparatus and intuitive motivation. Requiring minimal background and arranged to make the more technical material optional, the book offers a choice between an overview and in-depth study, and it balances the philosophical and technical aspects of the subject. The book emphasizes the relationship between models and the traditional goal of logic, the evaluation of arguments, and critically examines apparatus and assumptions that often are taken for granted. Philosophical Logic provides an unusually thorough treatment of conditional logic, unifying probabilistic and model-theoretic approaches. It underscores the variety of approaches that have been taken to relevantistic and related logics, and it stresses the problem of connecting formal systems to the motivating ideas behind intuitionistic mathematics. Each chapter ends with a brief guide to further reading. Philosophical Logic addresses students new to logic, philosophers working in other areas, and specialists in logic, providing both a sophisticated introduction and a new synthesis.

Philosophy of Law

An Introduction
Author: Mark Tebbit
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1315281007
Category: Law
Page: 314
View: 6103

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Philosophy of Law: An Introduction provides an ideal starting point for students of philosophy and law. Setting it clearly against the historical background, Mark Tebbit quickly leads readers into the heart of the philosophical questions that dominate philosophy of law today. He provides an exceptionally wide-ranging overview of the contending theories that have sought to resolve these problems. He does so without assuming prior knowledge either of philosophy or law on the part of the reader. The book is structured in three parts around the key issues and themes in philosophy of law: What is the law? – the major legal theories addressing the question of what we mean by law, including natural law, legal positivism and legal realism. The reach of the law – the various legal theories on the nature and extent of the law’s authority, with regard to obligation and civil disobedience, rights, liberty and privacy. Criminal law – responsibility and mens rea, intention, recklessness and murder, legal defences, insanity and philosophies of punishment. This new third edition has been thoroughly updated to include assessments of important developments in philosophy and law in the early years of the twenty-first century. Revisions include a more detailed analysis of natural law, new chapters on common law and the development of positivism, a reassessment of the Austin–Hart dispute in the light of recent criticism of Hart, a new chapter on the natural law–positivist controversy over Nazi law and legality, and new chapters on criminal law, extending the analysis of the dispute over the viability of the defences of necessity and duress.

Philosophy of Language


Author: Scott Soames
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400833931
Category: Philosophy
Page: 200
View: 4169

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In this book one of the world's foremost philosophers of language presents his unifying vision of the field--its principal achievements, its most pressing current questions, and its most promising future directions. In addition to explaining the progress philosophers have made toward creating a theoretical framework for the study of language, Scott Soames investigates foundational concepts--such as truth, reference, and meaning--that are central to the philosophy of language and important to philosophy as a whole. The first part of the book describes how philosophers from Frege, Russell, Tarski, and Carnap to Kripke, Kaplan, and Montague developed precise techniques for understanding the languages of logic and mathematics, and how these techniques have been refined and extended to the study of natural human languages. The book then builds on this account, exploring new thinking about propositions, possibility, and the relationship between meaning, assertion, and other aspects of language use. An invaluable overview of the philosophy of language by one of its most important practitioners, this book will be essential reading for all serious students of philosophy.

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Law


Author: Roscoe Pound
Publisher: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
ISBN: 1584773278
Category: Law
Page: 307
View: 9219

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Pound, Roscoe. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Law. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1922. 307 pp. Reprinted 2003 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. LCCN 2002044351. ISBN 1-58477-327-8. Cloth. $70. * Pound's Introduction outlines the philosophical foundations that support Anglo-American common law. A written version of the Storrs Lectures delivered at Yale University during the academic year 1921-1922. "Dean Pound has given us a clear, concise introduction to the philosophy of the law. It is so concise that it is impossible to summarize it so as to give any idea of its wealth of learning....An excellent, impartial and concise presentation of the subject..." William Herbert Page, Harvard Law Review 36:115-117 cited in Marke, A Catalogue of the Law Collection at New York University (1953) 922.

Philosophy of Physics

Space and Time
Author: Tim Maudlin
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691143099
Category: Philosophy
Page: 183
View: 2457

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Introduces non-physicists to core philosophical issues surrounding the nature & structure of space & time, & is also an ideal resource for physicists interested in the conceptual foundations of space-time theory. Provides a broad historical overview, from Aristotle to Einstein, & covers the Twins Paradox, Galilean relativity, time travel, & more.

Philosophy of Biology


Author: Peter Godfrey-Smith
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400850444
Category: Science
Page: 200
View: 4035

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This is a concise, comprehensive, and accessible introduction to the philosophy of biology written by a leading authority on the subject. Geared to philosophers, biologists, and students of both, the book provides sophisticated and innovative coverage of the central topics and many of the latest developments in the field. Emphasizing connections between biological theories and other areas of philosophy, and carefully explaining both philosophical and biological terms, Peter Godfrey-Smith discusses the relation between philosophy and science; examines the role of laws, mechanistic explanation, and idealized models in biological theories; describes evolution by natural selection; and assesses attempts to extend Darwin's mechanism to explain changes in ideas, culture, and other phenomena. Further topics include functions and teleology, individuality and organisms, species, the tree of life, and human nature. The book closes with detailed, cutting-edge treatments of the evolution of cooperation, of information in biology, and of the role of communication in living systems at all scales. Authoritative and up-to-date, this is an essential guide for anyone interested in the important philosophical issues raised by the biological sciences.

Truth


Author: Alexis G. Burgess,John P. Burgess
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400838691
Category: Philosophy
Page: 176
View: 3716

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This is a concise introduction to current philosophical debates about truth. Combining philosophical and technical material, the book is organized around, but not limited to, the view known as deflationism. In clear language, Burgess and Burgess cover a wide range of issues, including the nature of truth, the status of truth-value gaps, the relationship between truth and meaning, relativism and pluralism about truth, and semantic paradoxes from Alfred Tarski to Saul Kripke and beyond. The book provides a rich picture of contemporary philosophical theorizing about truth, one that will be essential reading for philosophy students as well as philosophers specializing in other areas.

Hobbes and the Law of Nature


Author: Perez Zagorin
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691139806
Category: History
Page: 177
View: 7809

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Thomas Hobbes remains one of the most controversial of early modern philosophers, and debates persist about the interpretation of many of his ideas, particularly his views about natural law and natural right. This book argues that these two concepts are the twin foundations of the entire structure of Hobbes's moral and political thought.

Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature


Author: Richard Rorty
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691141329
Category: Philosophy
Page: 439
View: 1822

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Includes the previously unpublished essay "The philosopher as expert."

Philosophy of Law

Introducing Jurisprudence
Author: Jeffrey Brand
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1623568897
Category: Philosophy
Page: 304
View: 4504

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Organized around specific questions, theses and arguments, Philosophy of Law: Introducing Jurisprudence helps students get to grips with the fascinating yet often complex realm of legal philosophy. This comprehensive introduction explores fundamental questions about legal systems, legal reasoning, and legal concepts, covering a wide range of topics in jurisprudence including: • Liability • Punishment • Causation • Discretion • Precedent • Constitutional disobedience • The rule of law Packed with boxed case studies, chapter discussion questions, guides to further reading, a glossary of key terms and online resources for lecturers and students, Jeffrey Brand guides the reader through ideas in an accessible way. Philosophy of Law is ideal for use as a core textbook or as a companion to a set of primary sources.

Philosophical Foundations of Language in the Law


Author: Andrei Marmor,Scott Soames
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199572380
Category: Law
Page: 272
View: 7352

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This collection brings together the best contemporary work in the area of philosophy of language and the law. The first area concerns a critical assessment of the foundational role of language in understanding the nature of law itself. The second main area concerns a number of ways in which an understanding of language can resolve some of the issues prevalent in legal interpretation, the third general topic concerns the role of language in the context of particular legal doctrines and legal solutions to practical problems.

Philosophy of Mathematics


Author: Øystein Linnebo
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400885248
Category: Philosophy
Page: 216
View: 5228

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A sophisticated, original introduction to the philosophy of mathematics from one of its leading contemporary scholars Mathematics is one of humanity's most successful yet puzzling endeavors. It is a model of precision and objectivity, but appears distinct from the empirical sciences because it seems to deliver nonexperiential knowledge of a nonphysical reality of numbers, sets, and functions. How can these two aspects of mathematics be reconciled? This concise book provides a systematic yet accessible introduction to the field that is trying to answer that question: the philosophy of mathematics. Written by Øystein Linnebo, one of the world's leading scholars on the subject, the book introduces all of the classical approaches to the field, including logicism, formalism, intuitionism, empiricism, and structuralism. It also contains accessible introductions to some more specialized issues, such as mathematical intuition, potential infinity, the iterative conception of sets, and the search for new mathematical axioms. The groundbreaking work of German mathematician and philosopher Gottlob Frege, one of the founders of analytic philosophy, figures prominently throughout the book. Other important thinkers whose work is introduced and discussed include Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, David Hilbert, Kurt Gödel, W. V. Quine, Paul Benacerraf, and Hartry H. Field. Sophisticated but clear and approachable, this is an essential introduction for all students and teachers of philosophy, as well as mathematicians and others who want to understand the foundations of mathematics.

Philosophy of Logics


Author: Susan Haack
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521293297
Category: Philosophy
Page: 276
View: 6080

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Haack's book has established an international reputation for its clarity, thorough scholarship and careful analyses.

Philosophy of Mathematics

Selected Readings
Author: Paul Benacerraf,Hilary Putnam
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107268133
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 9778

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The twentieth century has witnessed an unprecedented 'crisis in the foundations of mathematics', featuring a world-famous paradox (Russell's Paradox), a challenge to 'classical' mathematics from a world-famous mathematician (the 'mathematical intuitionism' of Brouwer), a new foundational school (Hilbert's Formalism), and the profound incompleteness results of Kurt Gödel. In the same period, the cross-fertilization of mathematics and philosophy resulted in a new sort of 'mathematical philosophy', associated most notably (but in different ways) with Bertrand Russell, W. V. Quine, and Gödel himself, and which remains at the focus of Anglo-Saxon philosophical discussion. The present collection brings together in a convenient form the seminal articles in the philosophy of mathematics by these and other major thinkers. It is a substantially revised version of the edition first published in 1964 and includes a revised bibliography. The volume will be welcomed as a major work of reference at this level in the field.

Logic

The Laws of Truth
Author: Nicholas Jeremy Josef Smith
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691151636
Category: Philosophy
Page: 528
View: 8342

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Provides an essential introduction to classical logic.

Converging Realities

Toward a Common Philosophy of Physics and Mathematics
Author: Roland Omnès
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691115306
Category: Mathematics
Page: 264
View: 3897

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The mysterious beauty, harmony, and consistency of mathematics once caused philosopher Hilary Putnam to term its existence a "miracle." Now, advances in the understanding of physics suggest that the foundations of mathematics are encompassed by the laws of nature, an idea that sheds new light on both mathematics and physics. The philosophical relationship between mathematics and the natural sciences is the subject of Converging Realities, the latest work by one of the leading thinkers on the subject. Based on a simple but powerful idea, it shows that the axioms needed for the mathematics used in physics can also generate practically every field of contemporary pure mathematics. It also provides a foundation for current investigations in string theory and other areas of physics. This approach to the nature of mathematics is not really new, but it became overshadowed by formalism near the end of nineteenth century. The debate turned eventually into an exclusive dialogue between mathematicians and philosophers, as if physics and nature did not exist. This unsatisfactory situation was enforced by the uncertain standing of physical reality in quantum mechanics. The recent advances in the interpretation of quantum mechanics (as described in Quantum Philosophy, also by Omnès) have now reconciled the foundations of physics with objectivity and common sense. In Converging Realities, Roland Omnès is among the first scholars to consider the connection of natural laws with mathematics.

Philosophy of Language

A Contemporary Introduction
Author: William G. Lycan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135907633
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 240
View: 8064

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Philosophy of Language: A Contemporary Introduction introduces the student to the main issues and theories in twentieth century philosophy of language, focusing specifically on linguistic phenomena. Topics are structured in four parts in the book. Part I, Reference and Referring Expressions, includes topics such as Russell's Theory of Desciptions, Donnellan's distinction, problems of anaphora, the description theory of proper names, Searle's cluster theory, and the causal-historical theory. Part II, Theories of Meaning, surveys the competing theories of linguistic meaning and compares their various advantages and liabilities. Part III, Pragmatics and Speech Acts, introduces the basic concepts of linguistic pragmatics, includes a detailed discussion of the problem of indirect force and surveys approaches to metaphor. Part IV, new to this edition, examines the four theories of metaphor. Features of Philosophy of Language include: new chapters on Frege and puzzles, inferentialism, illocutionary theories of meaning and relevance theory chapter overviews and summaries clear supportive examples study questions annotated further reading glossary.

Epistemology


Author: Ernest Sosa
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400883059
Category: Philosophy
Page: 256
View: 8189

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In this concise book, one of the world's leading epistemologists provides a sophisticated, revisionist introduction to the problem of knowledge in Western philosophy. Modern and contemporary accounts of epistemology tend to focus on limited questions of knowledge and skepticism, such as how we can know the external world, other minds, the past through memory, the future through induction, or the world’s depth and structure through inference. This book steps back for a better view of the more general issues posed by the ancient Greek Pyrrhonists. Returning to and illuminating this older, broader epistemological tradition, Ernest Sosa develops an original account of the subject, giving it substance not with Cartesian theology but with science and common sense. Descartes is a part of this ancient tradition, but he goes beyond it by considering not just whether knowledge is possible at all but also how we can properly attain it. In Cartesian epistemology, Sosa finds a virtue-theoretic account, one that he extends beyond the Cartesian context. Once epistemology is viewed in this light, many of its problems can be solved or fall away. The result is an important reevaluation of epistemology that will be essential reading for students and teachers.