One Hundred Years of Intuitionism (1907-2007)

The Cerisy Conference
Author: Mark van Atten,Pascal Boldini,Michel Bourdeau,Gerhard Heinzmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3764386533
Category: Science
Page: 422
View: 7241

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Intuitionism is one of the main foundations for mathematics proposed in the twentieth century and its views on logic have also notably become important with the development of theoretical computer science. This book reviews and completes the historical account of intuitionism. It also presents recent philosophical work on intuitionism and gives examples of new technical advances and applications. It brings together 21 contributions from today's leading authors on intuitionism.

Essays on Husserl's Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics


Author: Stefania Centrone
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9402411321
Category: Philosophy
Page: 526
View: 4218

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Essays on Husserl’s Logic and Philosophy of Mathematics sets out to fill up a lacuna in the present research on Husserl by presenting a precise account of Husserl’s work in the field of logic, of the philosophy of logic and of the philosophy of mathematics. The aim is to provide an in-depth reconstruction and analysis of the discussion between Husserl and his most important interlocutors, and to clarify pivotal ideas of Husserl’s by considering their reception and elaboration by some of his disciples and followers, such as Oskar Becker and Jacob Klein, as well as their influence on some of the most significant logicians and mathematicians of the past century, such as Luitzen E. J. Brouwer, Rudolf Carnap, Kurt Gödel and Hermann Weyl. Most of the papers consider Husserl and another scholar – e.g. Leibniz, Kant, Bolzano, Brentano, Cantor, Frege – and trace out and contextualize lines of influence, points of contact, and points of disagreement. Each essay is written by an expert of the field, and the volume includes contributions both from the analytical tradition and from the phenomenological one.

L.E.J. Brouwer – Topologist, Intuitionist, Philosopher

How Mathematics Is Rooted in Life
Author: Dirk van Dalen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447146166
Category: Mathematics
Page: 875
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Dirk van Dalen’s biography studies the fascinating life of the famous Dutch mathematician and philosopher Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer. Brouwer belonged to a special class of genius; complex and often controversial and gifted with a deep intuition, he had an unparalleled access to the secrets and intricacies of mathematics. Most mathematicians remember L.E.J. Brouwer from his scientific breakthroughs in the young subject of topology and for the famous Brouwer fixed point theorem. Brouwer’s main interest, however, was in the foundation of mathematics which led him to introduce, and then consolidate, constructive methods under the name ‘intuitionism’. This made him one of the main protagonists in the ‘foundation crisis’ of mathematics. As a confirmed internationalist, he also got entangled in the interbellum struggle for the ending of the boycott of German and Austrian scientists. This time during the twentieth century was turbulent; nationalist resentment and friction between formalism and intuitionism led to the Mathematische Annalen conflict ('The war of the frogs and the mice'). It was here that Brouwer played a pivotal role. The present biography is an updated revision of the earlier two volume biography in one single book. It appeals to mathematicians and anybody interested in the history of mathematics in the first half of the twentieth century.

The Adventure of Reason

Interplay Between Philosophy of Mathematics and Mathematical Logic, 1900-1940
Author: Paolo Mancosu
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191021997
Category: Philosophy
Page: 632
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Paolo Mancosu presents a series of innovative studies in the history and the philosophy of logic and mathematics in the first half of the twentieth century. The Adventure of Reason is divided into five main sections: history of logic (from Russell to Tarski); foundational issues (Hilbert's program, constructivity, Wittgenstein, Gödel); mathematics and phenomenology (Weyl, Becker, Mahnke); nominalism (Quine, Tarski); semantics (Tarski, Carnap, Neurath). Mancosu exploits extensive untapped archival sources to make available a wealth of new material that deepens in significant ways our understanding of these fascinating areas of modern intellectual history. At the same time, the book is a contribution to recent philosophical debates, in particular on the prospects for a successful nominalist reconstruction of mathematics, the nature of finitist intuition, the viability of alternative definitions of logical consequence, and the extent to which phenomenology can hope to account for the exact sciences.

Denationalizing Science

The Contexts of International Scientific Practice
Author: E. Crawford,T. Shinn,Sverker Sörlin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401712212
Category: History
Page: 303
View: 6523

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Present trends indicate that in the years to come transnational science, whether basic or applied and involving persons, equipment or funding, will grow considerably. The main purpose of this volume is to try to understand the reasons for this denationalization of science, its historical contexts and its social forms. The Introduction to the volume sets out the socio-political, intellectual, and economic contexts for the nationalization and denationalization of the sciences, processes that have extended over four centuries. The articles examine the specific conditions that have given rise to the growth of transnational science in the 20th century. Among these are: the need for cognitive and technical standardization of scientific knowledge-products, pressure toward cost-sharing of large installations such as CERN, the voluntary and involuntary migration of scientists, and the global market for R&D products that has emerged at the end of the century. The volume raises many new questions for research by historians and sociologists of science and poses problems that are of concern both to scientists and science policy-makers.

Dualist Heresy in the Middle Ages


Author: M. Loos
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789024716739
Category: History
Page: 397
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Spis se v podstatě zabývá dualistickou heretikou středověku a vychází ze základních medievalních doktrín. Věnuje pozornost paulikiánskému hnutí, které vzniklo v sedmém století v Západní Arménii. Studuje toto hnutí a v něm se projevující protifeudální boj mas, hlavně rolnictva a jeho vliv na bogomilství. Probírá z historického hlediska heretický a dualistický charakter bogomilství, které vzniklo v Bulharsku v 10. století, stavělo se proti církvi a jejím obřadům i proti soukromému vlastnictví. Kniha sleduje další jeho pronikání do Bosny a na Západ.

Grete Hermann - Between Physics and Philosophy


Author: Elise Crull,Guido Bacciagaluppi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 940240970X
Category: Science
Page: 281
View: 2828

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Grete Hermann (1901-1984) was a pupil of mathematical physicist Emmy Noether, follower and co-worker of neo-Kantian philosopher Leonard Nelson, and an important intellectual figure in post-war German social democracy. She is best known for her work on the philosophy of modern physics in the 1930s, some of which emerged from intense discussions with Heisenberg and Weizsäcker in Leipzig. Hermann’s aim was to counter the threat to the Kantian notion of causality coming from quantum mechanics. She also discussed in depth the question of ‘hidden variables’ (including the first critique of von Neumann’s alleged impossibility proof) and provided an extensive analysis of Bohr’s notion of complementarity. This volume includes translations of Hermann’s two most important essays on this topic: one hitherto unpublished and one translated here into English for the first time. It also brings together recent scholarly contributions by historians and philosophers of science, physicists, and philosophers and educators following in Hermann’s steps. Hermann's work places her in the first rank among philosophers who wrote about modern physics in the first half of the last century. Those interested in the many fields to which she contributed will find here a comprehensive discussion of her philosophy of physics that places it in the context of her wider work.

A History of Women Philosophers

Medieval, Renaissance and Enlightenment Women Philosophers A.D. 500–1600
Author: M.E. Waithe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400925514
Category: Philosophy
Page: 349
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aspirations, the rise of western monasticism was the most note worthy event of the early centuries. The importance of monasteries cannot be overstressed as sources of spirituality, learning and auto nomy in the intensely masculinized, militarized feudal period. Drawing their members from the highest levels of society, women's monasteries provided an outlet for the energy and ambition of strong-willed women, as well as positions of considerable authority. Even from periods relatively inhospitable to learning of all kinds, the memory has been preserved of a good number of women of education. Their often considerable achievements and influence, however, generally lie outside even an expanded definition of philo sophy. Among the most notable foremothers of this early period were several whose efforts signal the possibility of later philosophical work. Radegund, in the sixth century, established one of the first Frankish convents, thereby laying the foundations for women's spiritual and intellectual development. From these beginnings, women's monasteries increased rapidly in both number and in fluence both on the continent and in Anglo-Saxon England. Hilda (d. 680) is well known as the powerful abbsess of the double monastery of Whitby. She was eager for knowledge, and five Eng lish bishops were educated under her tutelage. She is also accounted the patron of Caedmon, the first Anglo-Saxon poet of religious verse. The Anglo-Saxon nun Lioba was versed in the liberal arts as well as Scripture and canon law.

Expounding the Mathematical Seed


Author: Agathe Keller
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 9783764372996
Category: Science
Page: 412
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This set of books presents an english translation of a 7th century sanskrit commentary written by an astronomer called Bhaaskara. There are two volumes: Volume I contains an introduction and the literal translation. The introduction aims at providing a general background for the translation and is divided in three sections: The first locates Bhaaskara's text, the second looks at its mathematical contents and the third section analyzes the relations of the commentary and the translation. Subjects treated range from computing the volume of an equilateral tetrahedron to the interest on a loaned capital, from computations on series to an elaborate process to solve a Diophantine equation. Volume II contains a commentary for each verse which discusses the linguistic and mathematical matter exposed by the commentator. This volume also contains glossaries and the bibliography. The two volumes should be read simultaneously.

Technological Transformation

Contextual and Conceptual Implications
Author: E.F. Byrne,Joseph C. Pitt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400925972
Category: History
Page: 316
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The philosophical study of technology has acquired only recently a voice in academic conversation. This situation is due, in part, to the fact that technology obviously impacts on "the real world," whereas the favored stereotype of philosophy allegedly does not. Furthermore, in some circles it was assumed that philosophy ought not impinge on the world. This bias continues today in the form of a general dismissal of the growing area now referred to as "applied philosophy". By contrast, the academic scrutiny of science has for the most part been accepted as legitimate for some 30 years, primarily because it has been conducted in a somewhat ethereal manner. This is, in part, because it was believed that, science being pure, one could think (even philosophically) about science without jeopardizing one's intellectual purity. Since World War II, however, practitioners of the metascientific arts have come to ac knowledge that science also shows signs of having touched down on numerous occasions in what can only be identified as the real world. No longer able to keep this banal truth a secret, purists have sought to defuse its import by stressing the difference between pure and applied science; and, lest science be tainted by contact with the world through its applications, they have devoted additional energy to separating applied science somehow from technology.

The Comparative Reception of Relativity


Author: T.F Glick
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400938756
Category: History
Page: 416
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The present volume grew out of a double session of the Boston Collo quium for the Philosophy of Science held in Boston on March 25, 1983. The papers presented there (by Biezunski, Glick, Goldberg, and Judith Goodstein!) offered both sufficient comparability to establish regulari ties in the reception of relativity and Einstein's impact in France, Spain, the United States and Italy, and sufficient contrast to suggest the salience of national inflections in the process. The interaction among the participants and the added perspectives offered by members of the audience suggested the interest of commissioning articles for a more inclusive volume which would cover as many national cases as we could muster. Only general guidelines were given to the authors: to treat the special or general theories, or both, hopefully in a multidisciplinary setting, to examine the popular reception of relativity, or Einstein's personal impact, or to survey all these topics. In a previous volume, on the 2 comparative reception of Darwinism, one of us devised a detailed set of guidelines which in general were not followed. In our opinion, the studies in this collection offer greater comparability, no doubt because relativity by its nature and its complexity offers a sharper, more easily bounded target. As in the Darwinism volume, this book concludes with an essay intended to draw together in comparative perspective some of many themes addressed by the participants.

Sophie Germain

An Essay in the History of the Theory of Elasticity
Author: L.L. Bucciarelli,N. Dworsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400990510
Category: History
Page: 149
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Why should the story of a woman's role in the development of a scientific theory be written? Is it to celebrate, as some have done, the heroism of a woman's struggle in a man's world? Or is it, rather~to demonstrate that gender is irrelevant to the march of scientific ideas? This book hopes to do neither. Rather, it intends to do justice both to the professional life of a woman in science and to the development of the theory with which she was engaged. Technically, this essay centers on Sophie Germain's analysis of the modes of vibration of elastic surfaces, work which won a competition set by the French Academy of Sciences in 1809. It also evaluates related work on the mathematical theory of elasticity done by men of the Academy. Biographically, it is about a woman who believed in the greatness of science and strove, with some measure of success, to participate in that noble, but wholly male-dominated, enterprise. It explores her failures, analyzes her success, and describes how the members of the Parisian scientific community dealt with her offerings, contributions and demands.

The Significance of Beauty

Kant on Feeling and the System of the Mind
Author: P.M. Matthews
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401589674
Category: History
Page: 243
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In the Critique of Judgment, Kant argues that feeling is part of the system of the mind. Judgments of taste based on feeling are a unique kind of judgment, and the feeling that is their foundation forms an independent third power of the mind. Feeling has a special role within this system in that it also provides a transition between the other two powers of the mind, cognition and desire. Matthews argues that feeling, our experience of beauty, provides a transition because it orients humans in a sensible world. Judgments of taste help overcome the difficulties that arise when rational cognitive and moral ends must be pursued in a sensible world. Matthews demonstrates how feeling, disassociated from rational activities in Kant's earlier works, is now central in reaching rational ends and understanding humans as unified rational beings. Audience: This book would be of interest to research libraries and university libraries, philosophers, historians and aestheticians.

Expository Science: Forms and Functions of Popularisation


Author: T. Shinn,Richard P. Whitley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400952392
Category: History
Page: 294
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The prevailing view of scientific popularization, both within academic circles and beyond, affirms that its objectives and procedures are unrelated to tasks of cognitive development and that its pertinence is by and large restricted to the lay public. Consistent with this view, popularization is frequently portrayed as a logical and hence inescapable consequence of a culture dominated by science-based products and procedures and by a scientistic ideology. On another level, it is depicted as a quasi-political device for chan nelling the energies of the general public along predetermined paths; examples of this are the nineteenth-century Industrial Revolution and the U. S. -Soviet space race. Alternatively, scientific popularization is described as a carefully contrived plan which enables scientists or their spokesmen to allege that scientific learn ing is equitably shared by scientists and non-scientists alike. This manoeuvre is intended to weaken the claims of anti-scientific protesters that scientists monopolize knowledge as a means of sustaining their social privileges. Pop ularization is also sometimes presented as a psychological crutch. This, in an era of increasing scientific specialisation, permits the researchers involved to believe that by transcending the boundaries of their narrow fields, their endeavours assume a degree of general cognitive importance and even extra scientific relevance. Regardless of the particular thrust of these different analyses it is important to point out that all are predicated on the tacit presupposition that scientific popularization belongs essentially to the realm of non-science, or only concerns the periphery of scientific activity.

The Problem of Political Authority

An Examination of the Right to Coerce and the Duty to Obey
Author: Michael Huemer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137281669
Category: Philosophy
Page: 365
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The state is often ascribed a special sort of authority, one that obliges citizens to obey its commands and entitles the state to enforce those commands through threats of violence. This book argues that this notion is a moral illusion: no one has ever possessed that sort of authority.

Acta Leidensia

Edita Cura et Sumptibus Scholae Medicinae Tropicae
Author: A. M. Deelder
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789060211762
Category: History
Page: 107
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A History of Chinese Science and Technology


Author: Yongxiang Lu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662442574
Category: Science
Page: 491
View: 1680

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A History of Chinese Science and Technology (Volumes 1, 2 & 3) presents 44 individual lectures, beginning with Ancient Chinese Science and Technology in the Process of Human Civilizations and an Overview of Chinese Science and Technology, and continuing with in-depth discussions of several issues in the History of Science and the Needham Puzzle, interspersed with topics on Astronomy, Arithmetic, Agriculture and Medicine, The Four Great Inventions, and various technological areas closely related to clothing, food, shelter and transportation. This book is the most authoritative work on the history of Chinese Science and Technology. It is the Winner of the China Book Award, the Shanghai Book Award (1st prize), and the Classical China International Publishing Project (GAPP, General Administration of Press and Publication of China) and offers an essential resource for academic researchers and non-experts alike. It originated with a series of 44 lectures presented to top Chinese leaders, which received very positive feedback. Written by top Chinese scholars in their respective fields from the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences and many other respected Chinese organizations, the book is intended for scientists, researchers and postgraduate students working in the history of science, philosophy of science and technology, and related disciplines. Yongxiang Lu is a professor, former president and member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE), and Vice Chairman of the National Congress of China.