Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age

Recent Results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
Author: David P. Farrington,Alex R. Piquero,Wesley G. Jennings
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461461057
Category: Social Science
Page: 80
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Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age is a timely volume by leading researchers in Life Course Criminology, which reports new findings from The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8 in 1961. The main aim of the study is to advance knowledge about criminal careers up to age 56. At the time of these most recent findings, forty-two percent of the males were convicted, with an average ten-year conviction career. Only seven percent of the males accounted for half of all convictions. Almost all of the males (93 percent) reported committing an offense in four age ranges, compared with 29 percent who were convicted at these ages. There were on average of 39 self-reported offenses per conviction. Group-based trajectory analyses indicated that, while there were distinct groups of offenders who followed different age-crime trajectories between ages 10 and 56, five groups best characterized the criminal careers of the men, with two groups, high adolescence peak and high rate chronic, exhibiting the most offending. Also, the offending trajectories were predicted by individual and environmental childhood risk factors, with the most chronic offenders (to age 56) having the most extreme scores on childhood risk. Based on these results, risk assessment instruments could be developed and risk-focused prevention could be implemented in early childhood, including parent training, pre-school intellectual enrichment programs and home visiting programs, in order to prevent chronic styles of offending from being initiated. This work will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, especially those with an interest in life course criminology and crime prevention, while also being of use as a research framework for other studies.​ It will also be of interest to researchers in sociology, psychology, and other social sciences, as well as policy makers and practitioners. “This is a ‘must read’ for anyone seeking to understand the development and course of crime from childhood through adulthood. Comparative analyses of officially recorded and self-reported offending and analyses of the predictive power of childhood risks to distinguish offending trajectories are important contributions of this new milestone in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.” J. David Hawkins, Ph.D., Endowed Professor of Prevention, Social Development Research Group, School of Social Work, University of Washington “For more than four decades the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development has been a guiding light for research on what has come to be called developmental criminology. This latest installment is still another demonstration of the importance of this seminal study.” Daniel S. Nagin, Teresa and H. John Heinz III University Professor of Public Policy and Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University

Female Delinquency From Childhood To Young Adulthood

Recent Results from the Pittsburgh Girls Study
Author: Rolf Loeber,Wesley G. Jennings,Lia Ahonen,Alex R Piquero,David P. Farrington
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319480308
Category: Social Science
Page: 75
View: 1286

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This Brief fills a gap in criminological literature, as there are few empirically-based studies on delinquency of adolescent girls. It provides results of a longitudinal study, The Pittsburgh Girls Study (PGS), which includes 2,451 girls, followed annually from age 10-19, the ages when criminal behavior tends to emerge. This study provides the most extensive and comprehensive investigation into the criminal offending and self-reported trajectories of offending of PGS participants, along with an in-depth examination of other criminal career dimensions. In five chapters, this short volume reviews the limited extent of girls' delinquency literature, presents data on girls' offending patterns (onset, persistence, specialization, and desistence), provides insights on gender differences by comparison with the Pittsburgh Youth Study, which focused on male offenders, and explores the theoretical and practical implications of the results. By understanding the origins and onset of criminal behavior in girls, researchers can begin to understand effective interventions and crime prevention. This Brief will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public policy, and psychology.

Best Practices for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System


Author: Lenore E.A. Walker,James M. Pann,David L. Shapiro,Vincent B. Van Hasselt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319216562
Category: Psychology
Page: 88
View: 7224

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This timely brief resource introduces a new evidence-based model for treatment of mentally ill individuals in jails, with emphasis on community-based options. Forensic mental health experts review police alternatives to arresting mentally ill persons in confrontations, the efficacy of problem-solving courts, and continuity of care between jail and community. The book's best-practices approach extends to frequently related issues such as addiction, domestic violence, juvenile considerations, and trauma and describes successful programs coordinating judicial and clinical systems. These guidelines for decriminalizing non-violent behaviors and making appropriate services available to those with mental problems should also help address issues affecting the justice system, such as overcrowding. Included in the coverage: The Best Practices Model. Best practices in law enforcement crisis interventions with the mentally ill. Problem-solving courts and therapeutic jurisprudence. Competency restoration programs. A review of best practices for the treatment of persons with mental illness in jail. Conclusions, recommendations, and helpful appendices. With its practical vision for systemic improvement, Best Practices Model for Intervention with the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System is progressive reading for practitioners in the mental health field, especially practitioners working with inmates, as well as for stakeholders in the law enforcement and justice systems.

Offending from Childhood to Young Adulthood

Recent Results from the Pittsburgh Youth Study
Author: Wesley G. Jennings,Rolf Loeber,Dustin A. Pardini,Alex R. Piquero,David P. Farrington
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319259660
Category: Social Science
Page: 74
View: 929

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This Brief examines criminal careers by providing the most extensive and comprehensive investigation to date on the official offending, self-reported offending, and trajectories of offending of the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS) participants. The PYS is a longitudinal study, which was initiated in 1987, and involves repeated follow-ups on several community cohorts (starting in grades 1, 4, and 7) of inner-city boys in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This Brief covers the Youngest and Oldest PYS cohorts (which had the most follow-up and most data available) from ages 10-30. It provides the most complete descriptive analyses of the criminal careers of these males to date. The three cohorts are commonly referred to as the Youngest, Middle, and Oldest cohorts, respectively. Consistent with several prior publications with the PYS data (Loeber et al., 2008), this book focuses only on data from the Youngest and Oldest cohorts as these cohorts were followed up the most frequently and have the longest time window of data available. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as related fields like Sociology, Developmental Psychology, Social Policy, and Education.

Behavioral Analysis of Maternal Filicide


Author: Joy Lynn E. Shelton,Tia A. Hoffer,Yvonne E. Muirhead
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319081500
Category: Psychology
Page: 108
View: 2715

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Maternal filicide has been discussed in the medical, mental health, and child abuse fields, yet little research exists with a criminal justice/law enforcement perspective. Nevertheless, criminal justice professionals responsible for investigation and prosecution of these offenders often must give attention to unique behavioral, social, and psychological dynamics not considered in many other types of cases. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU) III – Crimes Against Children identified, collected, and reviewed law enforcement case files in which a biological mother killed her child(ren). Collectively, the cases involve 213 biological mothers who killed 265 children, and are comprised of neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide cases. Data analysis revealed that the offenders ranged in age from 12-46 years, and many were unmarried, unemployed, and had a history of violence. Many of the victims were three years of age or younger, did not live with their biological fathers at the time of their deaths, and had a history of maltreatment most often perpetrated by their mothers. In addition, traditional weapons such as a firearm or knife were used less often compared to asphyxiants and blunt force instruments. The authors explore the tenets of female violence, the mother-child dynamic and mental disorders, and address the complexities associated with investigating and prosecuting maternal filicide offenders. ​

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations


Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319892940
Category: Social Science
Page: 131
View: 8253

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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Intergenerational Transmission of Child Maltreatment


Author: Lisa Schelbe,Jennifer M. Geiger
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319438247
Category: Social Science
Page: 89
View: 9499

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This accessible resource coordinates what we know about the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM), with a specific focus on prevention in context. Cutting through facile cause-and-effect constructs, the authors review and critique the recent literature on the complicated nature of the phenomenon and weigh different approaches to its conceptualization. The book identifies child and parental risk factors linked to ITCM as well as protective factors involved in its reduction, while examining complex relationships between family, parenting, and social contexts that can provide keys to understanding and healing traumatized families. This close attention to crucial yet often overlooked details will aid professionals in creating the next wave of salient research projects and effective interventions, and enhance current efforts to break longstanding patterns of abuse and neglect. Among the topics covered: • Theoretical frameworks conceptualizing intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.• Empirical studies on intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.• Risk factors associated with ITCM.• Protective factors associated with breaking the cycle of maltreatment.• Methodological challenges in studying ITCM.• Recommendations for evaluation of intervention and prevention strategies. Geared toward novices and veterans alike, Intergenerational Transmission of Child Maltreatment is a solution-focused reference of singular importance to practitioners and research professionals involved in improving children’s well-being.

The Web of Violence

Exploring Connections Among Different Forms of Interpersonal Violence and Abuse
Author: Sherry Hamby,John Grych
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400755961
Category: Social Science
Page: 108
View: 8887

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There is an increasing appreciation of the interconnections among all forms of violence. These interconnections have critical implications for conducting research that can produce valid conclusions about the causes and consequences of abuse, maltreatment, and trauma. The accumulated data on co-occurrence also provide strong evidence that prevention and intervention should be organized around the full context of individuals’ experiences, not narrowly defined subtypes of violence. Managing the flood of new research and practice innovations is a challenge, however. New means of communication and integration are needed to meet this challenge, and the Web of Violence is intended to contribute to this process by serving as a concise overview of the conceptual and empirical work that form a basis for understanding the interconnections across forms of violence throughout the lifespan. It also offers ideas and directions for prevention, intervention, and public policy. A number of initiatives are emerging to integrate the findings on co-occurrence into research and action. The American Psychological Association established a new journal, Psychology of Violence, which is a forum for research on all types of violence. Sherry Hamby is the founding editor and John Grych is associate editor and co-editor of a special issue on the co-occurrence of violence in 2012. Dr. Hamby also is a co-investigator of the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), which has drawn attention to polyvictimization. Polyvictimization is a focus of the U.S. Department of Justice’s Defending Childhood Initiative and has recently been featured in calls for grant proposals by the Office of Victims of Crime and National Institutes for Justice.

Sex Workers and Criminalization in North America and China

Ethical and Legal Issues in Exclusionary Regimes
Author: Susan Dewey,Tiantian Zheng,Treena Orchard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319257633
Category: Social Science
Page: 99
View: 1715

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Sex work continues to provoke controversial legal and public policy debates world-wide that raise fundamental questions about the state’s role in protecting individual rights, status quo social relations, and public health. This book unites ethnographic research from China, Canada, and the United States to argue that criminalization results in a totalizing set of negative consequences for sex workers’ health, safety, and human rights. Such consequences are enabled through the operations of an exclusionary regime, a dense coalescence of punitive forces that involves both governance, in the form of the criminal justice system and other state agents, and dynamic interpersonal encounters in which individuals both enforce and negotiate stigma-related discrimination against sex workers. Chapter Two demonstrates how criminalization harms sex workers by isolating their work to potentially dangerous locations, fostering mistrust of authority figures, further limiting their abilities to find legal work and housing, and restricting possibilities for collective rights-based organizing. Criminalized sex workers report police harassment, seizure of condoms, and adversarial police-sex worker relations that enable others to abuse them with impunity. Chapter Three describes how sex workers negotiate these restrictions on their rights and personal autonomy via their arrest avoidance and client management strategies, self-treatment of health issues, selective mutual aid, rights-based organizing, and entrenchment in sex work or other criminalized activities. Chapter Four describes how researchers working in countries or locales that criminalize sex work face ethical concerns as well as barriers to their work at the practical, institutional, and political levels.

Criminology of Homicidal Poisoning

Offenders, Victims and Detection
Author: Michael Farrell
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319591177
Category: Social Science
Page: 209
View: 3227

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This book provides an overview of historical and contemporary cases of homicidal poisoning. While homicidal poisoning is sometimes thought of as a thing of the past, it continues to be a contemporary problem, and in fact the unknown offender rate for poisoning cases is 20-30 times that of other homicide types in contemporary research, and many poisoners commit serial homicides while going undetected. The author of this important and timely work explores the theoretical bases for understanding homicidal poisoning, the nature of poisons used in homicidal cases, the characteristics of poisoners and their victims, and techniques for detection and prevention. This unique book will be of particular interest to: students of criminology (classes dealing with criminal psychology, and murder investigation); students of the history of crime; criminal justice professionals: attorneys, homicide detectives, forensic pathologists, forensic and clinical toxicologists, and other forensic investigators; and all interested in poisons, poisoners and the detection of poisoning. It has relevance to criminology, law and policing, toxicology and forensic science, the history of crime and detection, and criminal psychology.

Societal Implications of Community-Oriented Policing and Technology


Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319892975
Category: Social Science
Page: 102
View: 683

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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize the societal implications of new technologies for community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through strengthed community feeling and lower feeling of insecurity - Reducing the fear of crime and enhancing the perception of security in large, urban environments -Enhancing citizens feelings' of empowerment, belonging, and collective efficacy Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Ethical Research with Sex Workers

Anthropological Approaches
Author: Susan Dewey,Tiantian Zheng
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461464927
Category: Social Science
Page: 111
View: 5422

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This volume is the result of the many years the authors have spent conducting ethnographic field research with sex workers, conversing with other researchers, and, perhaps most importantly, developing a deep sense of empathy for the sex worker participants in the research as well as the colleagues who carry out this work with the goal of advancing social justice. They have a combined total of twenty-five years’ experience carrying out research with sex workers, and this extensive period of time has given them ample opportunity to reflect upon the topic of ethics. Sex work, defined as the exchange of sexual or sexualized intimacy for money or something of value, encompasses a wide range of legal and illegal behaviors that present researchers with key ethical challenges explored in the volume. These ethical challenges include: · Research methodology · Distinguishing research from activism · Navigating the politically and ideologically charged environments in which researchers must remain constantly attuned to the legal and public policy implications of their work · Possibilities for participatory sex work research processes · Strategies for incorporating participants in a variety of collaborative ways Sex work presents a unique set of challenges that are not always well understood by those working outside of anthropology and disciplines closely related to it. This book serves an important function by honestly and openly reviewing strategies for overcoming these ethical challenges with the end goal of producing path-breaking research that actively incorporates the perspectives of research participants on their own terms. Ever attuned to the reality that research on sex work remains a deeply political act, Ethical Research with Sex Workers: Anthropological Approaches aspires to begin a dialogue about the meanings and practices ascribed to ethics in a fraught environment. Drawing upon a review of published scholarly and activist work on the subject, as well as on interviews with researchers, social service providers, and sex workers themselves, this volume is an unprecedented contribution to the literature that will engage researchers across a variety of disciplines, such as academics and researchers in anthropology, sociology, criminal justice, and public health, as well as activists and policymakers.

Most-Cited Scholars in Criminology and Criminal Justice, 1986-2010


Author: Ellen G Cohn,David P. Farrington,Amaia Iratzoqui
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319012223
Category: Social Science
Page: 113
View: 7073

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​​ ​This brief examines the influence and prestige of scholars and works in the field of Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as changes in influence and prestige over a period of 25 years, based on citation analysis. Methods of measuring scholarly influence can be highly controversial, but the authors of this work clearly outline their methodology, developed over years of experience working with this area of study. Through their expertise in Criminology and Criminal Justice, they are able to solve problems that affect or confound many traditional forms of citation analysis, such as irregularly cited references or self-citations. It includes 25 years of data (1986 through 2010) on the most-cited scholars and works in major American and international Criminology and Criminal Justice journals, and provides an objective measure of influence and prestige. Through an analysis of the data, the authors also document the intellectual development of criminology and criminal justice as a field of study since 1986. They highlight the development of research trends and indicate areas for future research. This book is designed for use by scholars and academics in the fields of Criminology and Criminal Justice, and the methodology will be of interest to researchers in related disciplines, including Sociology and Social Psychology. -- Cohn, Farrington, and Iratzoqui provide an invaluable service in unpacking the criminological enterprise. Using systematic citational analysis, they illuminate the core patterns of scholarly influence that have shaped the field’s development. This volume is an essential resource for all those wishing to understand which scholars and writings have done most—within and across time periods—to affect thinking about crime and justice. Francis T. Cullen Distinguished Research Professor University of Cincinnati - Citation analyses have become one of the most significant measures of scholarly influence. They are especially useful for revealing major trends over time regarding authors and the topics of interest to the wider field. Cohn, Farrington, and Iratzoqui's Most Cited Scholars in Criminology and Criminal Justice, 1986-2010 provides the most up-to-date, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of scholarly influence in criminology/criminal justice. This resource is a most interesting read, one that supplies not a mere counting of citations but clear ideas about where the field has been centered and where it is trending into the future. Alex R. Piquero Ashbel Smith Professor of Criminology University of Texas at Dallas

Criminological and Criminal Justice Research Methods


Author: Wesley G. Jennings,Jennifer M. Reingle
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business
ISBN: 1454833068
Category: Law
Page: 204
View: 7099

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This book was written for the many criminology and criminal justice students who are skeptical that research methods will be relevant to their future careers as police or parole officers or defense or prosecuting lawyers. Understanding research goals and methods is essential to successful and effective work in these fields, and this engaging, direct, and, at times, humorous text demonstrates that importance and helps prepare students for that effectiveness and success. Jennings and Reingle offer clear, practical introductions, with extensive, compelling examples, to the essential classical research methods, including ethics, measurement, surveys, secondary data analysis, and sampling, along with emerging new approaches, such as case-control and longitudinal designs and experiments in criminology and criminal justice settings. With its focus on research design, this text provides the information most useful to students as future research consumers, rather than specialized analysts, of research data. The authors' scenario-based treatments of real-world situations and applications facilitate understanding of the full range of criminological and criminal justice research methods and illustrate the usefulness of that understanding for implementing and employing evidence-based policies in whatever agencies or roles students work in or engage with in their future careers. Criminological and Criminal Justice Research Methods offers: A dynamic, authoritative author team professionally involved in theoretical, methodological, empirical, and practical evaluations and applications of criminology and criminal justice research methods A practical, real-world focus on the methodologies most useful in daily criminal justice practice Comprehensive coverage of classical and cutting-edge criminological and criminal justice research methods, including ethics in research, measurement, survey construction and use, secondary data analysis, sampling, and experimental, longitudinal, case-control, and qualitative study design A separate chapter on and frequent, integrated references throughout the text to maintaining an ethical approach to treatment of participants and use of data Interesting, accessible, direct writing, with each chapter building on real-world scenarios to elucidate the nature and applications of research methods Extensive pedagogy in each chapter, from a summary of important concepts, definitions of key terms, and review questions to resources for more in-depth study, including lists of useful websites and references A full range of comprehensive, flexible instructional and learning materials online at

Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis

First International Symposium, SIMPDA 2011, Campione D’Italia, Italy, June 29 – July 1, 2011, Revised Selected Papers
Author: Karl Aberer,Ernesto Damiani,Tharam Dillon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 364234044X
Category: Computers
Page: 213
View: 9735

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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.

Handbook of Quantitative Criminology


Author: Alex R. Piquero,David Weisburd
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387776507
Category: Social Science
Page: 787
View: 9728

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Quantitative criminology has certainly come a long way since I was ?rst introduced to a largely qualitative criminology some 40 years ago, when I was recruited to lead a task force on science and technology for the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. At that time, criminology was a very limited activity, depending almost exclusively on the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) initiated by the FBI in 1929 for measurement of crime based on victim reports to the police and on police arrests. A ty- cal mode of analysis was simple bivariate correlation. Marvin Wolfgang and colleagues were makingan importantadvancebytrackinglongitudinaldata onarrestsin Philadelphia,an in- vation that was widely appreciated. And the ?eld was very small: I remember attending my ?rst meeting of the American Society of Criminology in about 1968 in an anteroom at New York University; there were about 25–30 people in attendance, mostly sociologists with a few lawyers thrown in. That Society today has over 3,000 members, mostly now drawn from criminology which has established its own clear identity, but augmented by a wide variety of disciplines that include statisticians, economists, demographers, and even a few engineers. This Handbook provides a remarkable testimony to the growth of that ?eld. Following the maxim that “if you can’t measure it, you can’t understand it,” we have seen the early dissatisfaction with the UCR replaced by a wide variety of new approaches to measuring crime victimization and offending.

Handbook of LGBT Communities, Crime, and Justice


Author: Dana Peterson,Vanessa R. Panfil
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461491886
Category: Social Science
Page: 587
View: 6889

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Contemporary scholars have begun to explore non-normative sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression in a growing victimization literature, but very little research is focused on LGBTQ communities’ patterns of offending (beyond sex work) and their experiences with police, the courts, and correctional institutions. This Handbook, the first of its kind in Criminology and Criminal Justice, will break new ground by presenting a thorough treatment of all of these under-explored issues in one interdisciplinary volume that features current empirical work.

Criminal Recidivism

Explanation, prediction and prevention
Author: Georgia Zara,David P. Farrington
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136185127
Category: Social Science
Page: 420
View: 2336

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Criminal Recidivism intends to fill a gap in the criminological psychology literature by examining the processes underlying persistent criminal careers. This book aims to investigate criminal recidivism, and why, how and for how long an individual continues to commit crimes, whilst also reviewing knowledge about risk assessment and the role of psychopathy (including neurocriminological factors) in encouraging recidivism. It also focuses on the recidivism of sex offenders and on what works in reducing reoffending. At an empirical level, this book attempts to explain criminal persistence and recidivism using longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). At a psycho-criminological level it joins together quantitative and qualitative analyses, making its content a practical guide to explain, predict, and intervene to reduce the risk of criminal recidivism. The authors present quantitative analyses of criminal careers, as well as qualitative life histories of chronic offenders, in order to bring home the reality and consequences of a life of crime. The book is aimed not only at advanced students and academics in psychology, criminology, probation studies, social sciences, psychiatry, sociology, political science, and penology, but also at decision makers, policy officials, and practitioners within the realm of crime intervention and prevention, and also at forensic experts, judges and lawyers.

Police-Citizen Relations Across the World

Comparing sources and contexts of trust and legitimacy
Author: Dietrich Oberwittler,Sebastian Roché
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315406640
Category: Social Science
Page: 308
View: 9104

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Police-citizen relations are in the public spotlight following outbursts of anger and violence. Such clashes often happen as a response to fatal police shootings, racial or ethnic discrimination, or the mishandling of mass protests. But even in such cases, citizens’ assessment of the police differs considerably across social groups. This raises the question of the sources and impediments of citizens’ trust and support for police. Why are police-citizen relations much better in some countries than in others? Are police-minority relations doomed to be strained? And which police practices and policing policies generate trust and legitimacy? Research on police legitimacy has been centred on US experiences, and relied on procedural justice as the main theoretical approach. This book questions whether this approach is suitable and sufficient to understand public attitudes towards the police across different countries and regions of the world. This volume shows that the impact of macro-level conditions, of societal cleavages, and of state and political institutions on police-citizen relations has too often been neglected in contemporary research. Building on empirical studies from around the world as well as cross-national comparisons, this volume considerably expands current perspectives on the sources of police legitimacy and citizens’ trust in the police. Combining the analysis of micro-level interactions with a perspective on the contextual framework and varying national conditions, the contributions to this book illustrate the strength of a broadened perspective and lead us to ask how specific national frameworks shape the experiences of policing.

International Handbook of Juvenile Justice


Author: Scott H. Decker,Nerea Marteache
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319450905
Category: Social Science
Page: 550
View: 5512

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This comprehensive reference work presents an in-depth analysis of juvenile justice systems across the world. The second edition of this Handbook has been updated with 13 new chapters, now covering a total of 34 countries, across North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East from an international and comparative perspective. The International Handbook of Juvenile Justice is the result of research conducted by a group of outstanding scholars working in the field of juvenile justice. It reflects a collective concern about trends in juvenile justice over the past two decades, trends that have begun to blur the difference between criminal and juvenile justice. Also new to the second edition, each chapter is formatted to increase the comparative aspect of the book, highlighting: · The legal status of juveniles · Age of majority · The country’s stance toward the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child · Trends in juvenile crime over the period 2004-2014 · Causes of juvenile crime · Policing and juveniles · Courts and juveniles · Custodial rules for juveniles (detention, prison, mixing juveniles with adults) · Alternative sanctions for juveniles: home confinement, restorative justice, restitution, etc. · Differences in treatment of boys and girls This seminal work highlights similarities and differences between the various systems, and will be an important reference for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly interested in juvenile delinquency and youth crime, as well as related disciplines like sociology, social work, and public policy.