Numbers: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Peter M. Higgins
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199584052
Category: Mathematics
Page: 132
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In this Very Short Introduction Peter M. Higgins presents an overview of the number types featured in modern science and mathematics. Providing a non-technical account, he explores the evolution of the modern number system, examines the fascinating role of primes, and explains their role in contemporary cryptography.

Algebra

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Peter M. Higgins
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198732821
Category: Algebra
Page: 144
View: 7143

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This introduction invites readers to revisit algebra and appreciate the elegance and power of equations and inequalities. Offering a clear explanation of algebra through theory and example, Higgins shows how equations lead to complex numbers, matrices, groups, rings, and fields.--

Mathematik


Author: Timothy Gowers
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783150187067
Category:
Page: 207
View: 383

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Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Timothy Gowers
Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks
ISBN: 9780192853615
Category: Mathematics
Page: 143
View: 8735

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This book aims to explain, in clear non-technical language,what it is that mathematicians do, and how that differs from and builds on the mathematics that most people are familiar with from school. It is the ideal introduction for anyone who wishes to deepen their understanding of mathematics.

Combinatorics

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Robin Wilson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198723490
Category: Mathematics
Page: 144
View: 307

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How many possible sudoku puzzles are there? In the lottery, what is the chance that two winning balls have consecutive numbers? Who invented Pascal's triangle? (it was not Pascal) Combinatorics, the branch of mathematics concerned with selecting, arranging, and listing or counting collections of objects, works to answer all these questions. Dating back some 3000 years, and initially consisting mainly of the study of permutations and combinations, its scope has broadened to include topics such as graph theory, partitions of numbers, block designs, design of codes, and latin squares. In this Very Short Introduction Robin Wilson gives an overview of the field and its applications in mathematics and computer theory, considering problems from the shortest routes covering certain stops to the minimum number of colours needed to colour a map with different colours for neighbouring countries. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Objectivity: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Stephen Gaukroger
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199606692
Category: Philosophy
Page: 112
View: 8275

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Objectivity is both an essential and elusive philosophical concept. This Very Short Introduction explores the theoretical and practical problems raised by objectivity, and also deals with the way in which particular understandings of objectivity impinge on social research, science, and art.

Quantentheorie

eine Einführung
Author: John C. Polkinghorne
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783150188613
Category:
Page: 176
View: 2553

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Probability: A Very Short Introduction


Author: John Haigh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199588481
Category: Mathematics
Page: 128
View: 9042

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Making good decisions under conditions of uncertainty requires an appreciation of the way random chance works. In this Very Short Introduction, John Haigh provides a brief account of probability theory; explaining the philosophical approaches, discussing probability distributions, and looking its applications in science and economics.

Infinity: a Very Short Introduction


Author: Ian Stewart
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198755236
Category: Mathematics
Page: 144
View: 5281

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Infinity is an intriguing topic, with connections to religion, philosophy, metaphysics, logic, and physics as well as mathematics. Its history goes back to ancient times, with especially important contributions from Euclid, Aristotle, Eudoxus, and Archimedes. The infinitely large (infinite) isintimately related to the infinitely small (infinitesimal). Cosmologists consider sweeping questions about whether space and time are infinite. Philosophers and mathematicians ranging from Zeno to Russell have posed numerous paradoxes about infinity and infinitesimals. Many vital areas ofmathematics rest upon some version of infinity. The most obvious, and the first context in which major new techniques depended on formulating infinite processes, is calculus. But there are many others, for example Fourier analysis and fractals.In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart discusses infinity in mathematics while also drawing in the various other aspects of infinity and explaining some of the major problems and insights arising from this concept. He argues that working with infinity is not just an abstract, intellectualexercise but that it is instead a concept with important practical everyday applications, and considers how mathematicians use infinity and infinitesimals to answer questions or supply techniques that do not appear to involve the infinite.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Fractals: A Very Short Introduction


Author: K. J. Falconer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199675988
Category: Mathematics
Page: 132
View: 8850

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An essential discussion of the popular science and mathematics behind fractals reveals how fractal shapes can be found everywhere in nature from clouds to coastlines, explaining how basic concepts in fractal geometry produced a revolution in mathematical understandings of patterns in the 20th century. Original.

Chaos

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Leonard Smith
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192853783
Category: Mathematics
Page: 180
View: 8693

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An introduction to chaotic behavior dynamics describes its behavior in both science and the real world.

Judaism

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Norman Solomon
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199687358
Category: Religion
Page: 151
View: 8294

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Outlines the basics of practical Judaism and considers how Judaism has responded to, and dealt with, a number of key issues and debates, including the impact of the Holocaust and the establishment of the State of Israel.

Cancer: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Nick James,Nicholas James
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199560234
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 137
View: 8024

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In 1961 John F. Kennedy pledged to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. Ten years later, Richard Nixon echoed this pledge by declaring a 'war' on cancer. More than 30 years later, however, cancer remains one of the largest causes of death worldwide, with around 1 in 3 developing the disease.

Nuclear Weapons

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Joseph M. Siracusa
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198727232
Category: Law
Page: 127
View: 8799

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This title explains the history and politics of the bomb, from the technology of nuclear weapons, to the revolutionary implications of the H-bomb, and the politics of nuclear deterrence. The issues are set against a backdrop of the changing international landscape, from the early days of development through the Cold War. Despite not having been used in anger since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Bomb is still the biggest threat that faces us in the 21st century. But what significant lessons can be learnt from the history of the nuclear weapons era?

Fundamentalism

A Very Short Introduction
Author: Malise Ruthven
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199212705
Category: Political Science
Page: 154
View: 6349

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Fundamentalism is seen as the major threat to world peace, a conclusion impossible to ignore since the events in New York on September 11 2001. This book investigates fundamentalism's historical, social, religious, political, and ideological roots, and tackles the polemic and stereotypes surrounding this complex phenomenon.

Statistics: A Very Short Introduction


Author: David J. Hand
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191578924
Category: Mathematics
Page: 136
View: 1494

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Modern statistics is very different from the dry and dusty discipline of the popular imagination. In its place is an exciting subject which uses deep theory and powerful software tools to shed light and enable understanding. And it sheds this light on all aspects of our lives, enabling astronomers to explore the origins of the universe, archaeologists to investigate ancient civilisations, governments to understand how to benefit and improve society, and businesses to learn how best to provide goods and services. Aimed at readers with no prior mathematical knowledge, this Very Short Introduction explores and explains how statistics work, and how we can decipher them. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Internationale Migration


Author: Khalid Koser
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783150186930
Category: Emigration and immigration
Page: 204
View: 7117

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"Es gibt aktuell auf der Welt mehr Migranten denn jemals zuvor; Kriege und Bürgerkriege sind genauso Gründe dafür wie Armut, wirtschaftliche Ansprüche oder gar Unternehmensgeist. Neu ist das Phänomen gleichwohl nicht, es hat die Geschichte von Kulturen und Staaten immer schon mitgeprägt. Khalid Koser, ein international gefragter Migrationsexperte des Genfer Zentrums für Sicherheitspolitik, stellt das Phänomen mit all seinen Problemen und Auswirkungen knapp, abgewogen und differenziert dar, widerlegt zahlreiche dazu umlaufende Mythen und plädiert dafür, den Wert der Migration für Volkswirtschaften und Kulturen zu erkennen und zu würdigen."--Verl.

Marine Biology: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Philip V. Mladenov
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199695059
Category: Science
Page: 156
View: 1158

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In this Very Short Introduction, Philip Mladenov provides a fascinating overview of marine biology. Including a tour of marine life and marine processes that ranges from the polar oceans to tropical coral reefs, he outlines the principles of marine biology whilst demonstrating the fundamental impact humans have on the oceans and their ecology.

Measurement


Author: David J. Hand
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198779569
Category: Mathematics
Page: 144
View: 7421

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Measurement is a fundamental concept that underpins almost every aspect of the modern world. It is central to the sciences, social sciences, medicine, and economics, but it affects everyday life. We measure everything - from the distance of far-off galaxies to the temperature of the air, levels of risk, political majorities, taxes, blood pressure, IQ, and weight. The history of measurement goes back to the ancient world, and its story has been one of gradual standardization. Today there are different types of measurement, levels of accuracy, and systems of units, applied in different contexts. Measurement involves notions of variability, accuracy, reliability, and error, and challenges such as the measurement of extreme values. In this Very Short Introduction, David Hand explains the common mathematical framework underlying all measurement, the main approaches to measurement, and the challenges involved. Following a brief historical account of measurement, he discusses measurement as used in the physical sciences and engineering, the life sciences and medicine, the social and behavioural sciences, economics, business, and public policy. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Bacteria: A Very Short Introduction


Author: Sebastian G.B. Amyes
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0199578761
Category: Science
Page: 152
View: 2658

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In this Very Short Introduction, Sebastian Amyes explores the nature of bacteria. As a fundamental branch of life, they inhabit every part of the Earth's surface. Amyes examines their origin and evolution, bacteria in the environment, and bacteria and disease, to demonstrate the fundamental role they play in our existence.