Niels Bohr - Collected Works

Cumulative Subject Index
Author: Finn Aaserud
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080871110
Category: Science
Page: 174
View: 7102

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Niels Bohr: Collected Works, Volume 13: Cumulative Subject Index documents aspects of Niels Bohr's varied life and work in the form of a cumulative subject index, with emphasis on his scientific contributions in the field of physics. The general organization of the material is thematic rather than strictly chronological, allowing for the presentation of each paper (or group of papers) along with other relevant material such as drafts, notes, letters, and other items. The book is illustrated with rare photos and includes explanatory notes as well as a bibliography. The bibliography is restricted to the versions of Bohr's publications reproduced in this volume and encompasses a wide range of topics in physics, from the determination of the surface tension of water by the method of jet vibration to the electron theory of metals and of thermoelectric phenomena; the theory of the decrease of velocity of moving electrified particles on passing through matter; the constitution of atoms and molecules; and the spectra of helium and hydrogen. Bohr's other papers focus on the effect of electric and magnetic fields on spectral lines; the quantum theory of radiation and the structure of the atom; the polarization of radiation in the quantum theory; and collisions between atomic systems and free electrical particles. This monograph will be useful to students, practitioners, and researchers interested in Bohr's life and work in general and in quantum mechanics in particular.

Reading Bohr: Physics and Philosophy

Author: Arkady Plotnitsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402052545
Category: Science
Page: 229
View: 4213

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This book offers a new perspective on Niels Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics as complementarity, and on the relationships between physics and philosophy in Bohr's work. The importance of quantum field theory for Bohr's thinking has not been adequately addressed in the literature on Bohr. This book provides clarification of Bohr's writings (which usually pose problems of reading), and an analysis of the role of quantum field theory in Bohr's thinking.

Popularization and People (1911-1962)

Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080466873
Category: Science
Page: 610
View: 733

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The Niels Bohr Collected Works are now complete with the publication of Volume 12, Popularization and People (1911-1962). Niels Bohr is generally regarded as one of the most influential physicists of the twentieth century. The following are only some of the high points. In 1913, Bohr proposed a revolutionary model of the atom breaking with classical conceptions of physics. In 1921, he established the Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen, which became the centre for the new physics visited by the younger generation of physicists from all over the world. From 1927, he oversaw the development leading to the "Copenhagen interpretation" of quantum mechanics which for Bohr formed the foundation for an epistemology valid beyond physics based on Bohr's complementarity concept. In 1939, he explained the mechanism of nuclear fission. Finally, from 1943 until the end of his life in 1962, he carried out a personal political mission to establish an open world between nations which he considered to be necessary in view of the existence of the atomic bomb. All these contributions are amply documented in the earlier volumes of the Niels Bohr Collected Works. This last volume documents Niels Bohr as a person and his efforts to explain quantum physics and its implications to physicists and non-physicists alike. While his activity over many years in the area of superconductivity illustrates his striving for synthesis in physics, his encyclopaedia articles and radio speech for Scandinavian gymnasium students document his effort to make quantum physics and its implications understandable to the general public. The bulk of the volume comprises Bohr's many published writings about his predecessors (for example Isaac Newton), teachers and colleagues (for example Ernest Rutherford and Albert Einstein), family and friends. These writings, which include several rare pieces of autobiogaphy, bring new perspectives to Bohr's life and document his substantial social network, both internationally and within his beloved Denmark. In addition to Bohr's publications reproduced in Parts I and II, the volume includes a more brief Part III with selected correspondence, as well as an inventory of relevant manuscripts. It concludes with a bibliography of Bohr's many publications, chronologically arranged with references to where they can be found in the various volumes of the Collected Works. The volume is illustrated with many new photographs. * Niels Bohr * Collected Works * Archival Documents * Original Photographs

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition
Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 2469

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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Love, Literature and the Quantum Atom

Niels Bohr's 1913 Trilogy Revisited
Author: Finn Aaserud,John L. Heilbron
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191669741
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 8835

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Niels Bohr ranks with Einstein among the physicists of the 20th century. He rose to this status through his invention of the quantum theory of the atom and his leadership in its defense and development. He also ranks with Einstein in his humanism and his sense of responsibility to his science and the society that enabled him to create it. Our book presents unpublished excerpts from extensive correspondence between Bohr and his immediate family, and uses it to describe and analyze the psychological and cultural background to his invention. The book also contains a reprinting of the three papers of 1913 - the Trilogy- in which Bohr worked out the provisional basis of a quantum theory of the atom.

Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers

Author: J.M. Steele
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401595283
Category: History
Page: 324
View: 9113

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Eclipses have long been seen as important celestial phenomena, whether as omens affecting the future of kingdoms, or as useful astronomical events to help in deriving essential parameters for theories of the motion of the moon and sun. This is the first book to collect together all presently known records of timed eclipse observations and predictions from antiquity to the time of the invention of the telescope. In addition to cataloguing and assessing the accuracy of the various records, which come from regions as diverse as Ancient Mesopotamia, China, and Europe, the sources in which they are found are described in detail. Related questions such as what type of clocks were used to time the observations, how the eclipse predictions were made, and how these prediction schemes were derived from the available observations are also considered. The results of this investigation have important consequences for how we understand the relationship between observation and theory in early science and the role of astronomy in early cultures, and will be of interest to historians of science, astronomers, and ancient and medieval historians.

Niels Bohr

Collected Works
Author: Finn Aaserud
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780444532862
Page: N.A
View: 5643

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Complementarity Beyond Physics (1928-1962)

Author: Niels Bohr,L. Rosenfeld,Erik Rüdinger,Finn Aaserud
Publisher: North Holland
ISBN: 9780444899729
Category: History
Page: 613
View: 4725

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This volume is divided into five parts. The title of the volume refers primarily to part I, which is by far the largest and comprises papers discussing the fundamental questions of biology and related psychological and philosophical problems. Following the reproduction of papers brought to publication by Bohr, there is a separate Appendix to Part I including some of Bohr's most interesting and substantive unpublished contributions in this area. The papers in Part I span the last thirty years of Bohr's life and display his great interest in biological problems and his unremitting efforts to show that biology cannot be reduced to physics and chemistry. Part II contains articles of a more general cultural interest. Some of these show that Bohr regarded the complementary perspective to be of value also outside the scientific sphere. Part III contains the articles Bohr wrote about the great Danish philosopher Harald Høffding. These short papers are presented in a section on their own because of the continuing discussion in the history of science about Høffding's possible influence on Bohr's work in physics and his whole scientific approach. Part IV comprises articles illuminating the history of 20th century physics. Bohr had great veneration for his predecessors and teachers, and he prepared these articles with great care. Part V contains correspondence relating to the material in Parts I through IV. As in previous volumes an inventory of relevant unpublished manuscripts held at the Niels Bohr Archive constitutes an appendix to the whole volume.

Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge
Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135971374
Category: Philosophy
Page: 608
View: 2009

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Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

Author: Stephen Jay Gould
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674417925
Category: Science
Page: 1464
View: 969

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The world’s most revered and eloquent interpreter of evolutionary ideas offers here a work of explanatory force unprecedented in our time—a landmark publication, both for its historical sweep and for its scientific vision. With characteristic attention to detail, Stephen Jay Gould first describes the content and discusses the history and origins of the three core commitments of classical Darwinism: that natural selection works on organisms, not genes or species; that it is almost exclusively the mechanism of adaptive evolutionary change; and that these changes are incremental, not drastic. Next, he examines the three critiques that currently challenge this classic Darwinian edifice: that selection operates on multiple levels, from the gene to the group; that evolution proceeds by a variety of mechanisms, not just natural selection; and that causes operating at broader scales, including catastrophes, have figured prominently in the course of evolution. Then, in a stunning tour de force that will likely stimulate discussion and debate for decades, Gould proposes his own system for integrating these classical commitments and contemporary critiques into a new structure of evolutionary thought. In 2001 the Library of Congress named Stephen Jay Gould one of America’s eighty-three Living Legends—people who embody the “quintessentially American ideal of individual creativity, conviction, dedication, and exuberance.” Each of these qualities finds full expression in this peerless work, the likes of which the scientific world has not seen—and may not see again—for well over a century.

Condensed Matter Field Theory

Author: Alexander Altland,Ben D. Simons
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 113948513X
Category: Science
Page: N.A
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Modern experimental developments in condensed matter and ultracold atom physics present formidable challenges to theorists. This book provides a pedagogical introduction to quantum field theory in many-particle physics, emphasizing the applicability of the formalism to concrete problems. This second edition contains two new chapters developing path integral approaches to classical and quantum nonequilibrium phenomena. Other chapters cover a range of topics, from the introduction of many-body techniques and functional integration, to renormalization group methods, the theory of response functions, and topology. Conceptual aspects and formal methodology are emphasized, but the discussion focuses on practical experimental applications drawn largely from condensed matter physics and neighboring fields. Extended and challenging problems with fully worked solutions provide a bridge between formal manipulations and research-oriented thinking. Aimed at elevating graduate students to a level where they can engage in independent research, this book complements graduate level courses on many-particle theory.

Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision

Author: Jerome R. Busemeyer,Peter D. Bruza
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139536486
Category: Psychology
Page: N.A
View: 9449

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Much of our understanding of human thinking is based on probabilistic models. This innovative book by Jerome R. Busemeyer and Peter D. Bruza argues that, actually, the underlying mathematical structures from quantum theory provide a much better account of human thinking than traditional models. They introduce the foundations for modeling probabilistic-dynamic systems using two aspects of quantum theory. The first, 'contextuality', is a way to understand interference effects found with inferences and decisions under conditions of uncertainty. The second, 'quantum entanglement', allows cognitive phenomena to be modeled in non-reductionist ways. Employing these principles drawn from quantum theory allows us to view human cognition and decision in a totally new light. Introducing the basic principles in an easy-to-follow way, this book does not assume a physics background or a quantum brain and comes complete with a tutorial and fully worked-out applications in important areas of cognition and decision.

The Stars Are Not Enough

Scientists--Their Passions and Professions
Author: Joseph C. Hermanowicz
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226327679
Category: Science
Page: 268
View: 9279

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Based on sixty interviews with physicists at universities across the United States, The Stars are Not Enough offers a detailed and intimate account of the worlds in which scientists work. Joseph C. Hermanowicz looks at a range of scientists from young graduate students to older professionals well into their careers. The result is a colorful portrait of a profession and its diverse cast of characters. These deeply personal narratives reveal dreams of fame and glory, in which scientists confess their ambitions of becoming the next Newton or Einstein. However, these scientists also discuss the meaning of success and failure. We hear their stories of aspiration and anxiety, disappointment and tragedy, hope and achievement; we are privy to their doubts and to what they consider to be their limitations and weaknesses. As the scientists age in their professions, the specter of failure often visits them, and they have to accept something less than scientific immortality or even the Nobel Prize. Ultimately these stories give us more than an inside look at the details of careers in science, they also examine ambition by uncovering the forces that drive people in their professions and by describing how these forces persist or fade over time. Ambition for greatness often ignites a career and often sustains it. Yet, as Hermanowicz's study reveals, greatness eludes nearly all people in their heroic quests for extraordinary achievement. The Stars Are Not Enough offers a fascinating account that will appeal to anyone interested in how people's dreams blossom and evolve.

Quantum Aspects of Life

Author: Derek Abbott,Paul C W Davies,Arun K Pati
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1908978732
Category: Science
Page: 468
View: 860

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This book presents the hotly debated question of whether quantum mechanics plays a non-trivial role in biology. In a timely way, it sets out a distinct quantum biology agenda. The burgeoning fields of nanotechnology, biotechnology, quantum technology, and quantum information processing are now strongly converging. The acronym BINS, for Bio-Info-Nano-Systems, has been coined to describe the synergetic interface of these several disciplines. The living cell is an information replicating and processing system that is replete with naturally-evolved nanomachines, which at some level require a quantum mechanical description. As quantum engineering and nanotechnology meet, increasing use will be made of biological structures, or hybrids of biological and fabricated systems, for producing novel devices for information storage and processing and other tasks. An understanding of these systems at a quantum mechanical level will be indispensable. Contents:Foreword (Sir R Penrose)Emergence and Complexity:A Quantum Origin of Life? (P C W Davies)Quantum Mechanics and Emergence (S Lloyd)Quantum Mechanisms in Biology:Quantum Coherence and the Search for the First Replicator (J Al-Khalili & J McFadden)Ultrafast Quantum Dynamics in Photosynthesis (A O Castro, F F Olsen, C F Lee & N F Johnson)Modelling Quantum Decoherence in Biomolecules (J Bothma, J Gilmore & R H McKenzie)The Biological Evidence:Molecular Evolution: A Role for Quantum Mechanics in the Dynamics of Molecular Machines that Read and Write DNA (A Goel)Memory Depends on the Cytoskeleton, but is it Quantum? (A Mershin & D V Nanopoulos)Quantum Metabolism and Allometric Scaling Relations in Biology (L Demetrius)Spectroscopy of the Genetic Code (J D Bashford & P D Jarvis)Towards Understanding the Origin of Genetic Languages (A D Patel)Artificial Quantum Life:Can Arbitrary Quantum Systems Undergo Self-Replication? (A K Pati & S L Braunstein)A Semi-Quantum Version of the Game of Life (A P Flitney & D Abbott)Evolutionary Stability in Quantum Games (A Iqbal & T Cheon)Quantum Transmemetic Intelligence (E W Piotrowski & J S≈adkowski)The Debate:Dreams versus Reality: Plenary Debate Session on Quantum Computing (For Panel: C M Caves, D Lidar, H Brandt, A R Hamilton, Against Panel: D K Ferry, J Gea-Banacloche, S M Bezrukov, L B Kish, Debate Chair: C R Doering, Transcript Editor: D Abbott)Plenary Debate: Quantum Effects in Biology: Trivial or Not? (For Panel: P C W Davies, S Hameroff, A Zeilinger, D Abbott, Against Panel: J Eisert, H M Wiseman, S M Bezrukov, H Frauenfelder, Debate Chair: J Gea-Banacloche, Transcript Editor: D Abbott)Nontrivial Quantum Effects in Biology: A Skeptical Physicist's View (H Wiseman & J Eisert)That's Life! — The Geometry of π Electron Clouds (S Hameroff) Readership: Graduate students and researchers in quantum physics, biophysics, nanosciences, quantum chemistry, mathematical biology and complexity theory, as well as philosophers of science. Keywords:Quantum Biology;Quantum Computation;Quantum Mechanics;Biophysics;Nanotechnology;Quantum Technology;Quantum Information Processing;Bio-Info-Nano-Systems (BINS);Emergence;Complexity;Complex Systems;Cellular Automata;Game Theory;Biomolecules;Photosynthesis;DNA;Genetic Code;DecoherenceKey Features:Is structured in a debate style, where contributors argue opposing positionsBrings together some of the finest minds and latest developments in the fieldIs entirely unique and there are no competing titles

A Cultural History of Physics

Author: Károly Simonyi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439865116
Category: Mathematics
Page: 636
View: 9018

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While the physical sciences are a continuously evolving source of technology and of understanding about our world, they have become so specialized and rely on so much prerequisite knowledge that for many people today the divide between the sciences and the humanities seems even greater than it was when C. P. Snow delivered his famous 1959 lecture, "The Two Cultures." In A Cultural History of Physics, Hungarian scientist and educator Károly Simonyi succeeds in bridging this chasm by describing the experimental methods and theoretical interpretations that created scientific knowledge, from ancient times to the present day, within the cultural environment in which it was formed. Unlike any other work of its kind, Simonyi’s seminal opus explores the interplay of science and the humanities to convey the wonder and excitement of scientific development throughout the ages. These pages contain an abundance of excerpts from original resources, a wide array of clear and straightforward explanations, and an astonishing wealth of insight, revealing the historical progress of science and inviting readers into a dialogue with the great scientific minds that shaped our current understanding of physics. Beautifully illustrated, accurate in its scientific content and broad in its historical and cultural perspective, this book will be a valuable reference for scholars and an inspiration to aspiring scientists and humanists who believe that science is an integral part of our culture.

A Tale of Seven Scientists and a New Philosophy of Science

Author: Eric Scerri
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019023301X
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 6770

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In his latest book, Eric Scerri presents a completely original account of the nature of scientific progress. It consists of a holistic and unified approach in which science is seen as a living and evolving single organism. Instead of scientific revolutions featuring exceptionally gifted individuals, Scerri argues that the "little people" contribute as much as the "heroes" of science. To do this he examines seven case studies of virtually unknown chemists and physicists in the early 20th century quest to discover the structure of the atom. They include the amateur scientist Anton van den Broek who pioneered the notion of atomic number as well as Edmund Stoner a then physics graduate student who provided the seed for Pauli's Exclusion Principle. Another case is the physicist John Nicholson who is virtually unknown and yet was the first to propose the notion of quantization of angular momentum that was soon put to good use by Niels Bohr. Instead of focusing on the logic and rationality of science, Scerri elevates the role of trial and error and multiple discovery and moves beyond the notion of scientific developments being right or wrong. While criticizing Thomas Kuhn's notion of scientific revolutions he agrees with Kuhn that science is not drawn towards an external truth but is rather driven from within. The book will enliven the long-standing debate on the nature of science, which has increasingly shied away from the big question of "what is science?"

On the Quantum Theory of Line-spectra

Author: Niels Bohr
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486442489
Category: Science
Page: 118
View: 9796

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This classic work by the Nobel Laureate elaborates on the correspondence principle, discussing the theory's applications from a uniform point of view and considering the underlying assumptions in their relations to ordinary mechanics and electrodynamics. Bohr closely traces the analogy between quantum theory and ordinary theory of radiation. 1918-1922 editions.