News on the Internet

Information and Citizenship in the 21st Century
Author: David Tewksbury,Jason Rittenberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199875065
Category: Political Science
Page: 208
View: 9735

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Online news sites play an ever-pervasive role in the daily gathering and flow of political information. Media has always played an intermediary role in the way that citizens receive and process news, but, with the speed of information transmission, the segmentation of news sources, and the rise of citizen journalism, issues of authority, audience, and even the definition of "news" have shifted and become blurred. News on the Internet synthesizes research on developing and current patterns of online news provision with the literature on traditional, offline media to create a conceptual map for understanding the way that public affairs and news are presented and consumed on the internet. Tewksbury and Rittenberg look at the dual role of the internet as a source of authoritative news and as a vehicle for citizens in contemporary democracies to create and share political information. Throughout, they address the tension between the benefits of internet news provision, specifically increased citizen engagement, and the negative, perhaps counterintuitive, effects: the fragmentation of knowledge and polarization of opinion in contemporary democracies. News on the Internet focuses on these points of conflict and contradiction in the online news environment and offers conclusions and predictions for how these phenomena will develop in the future.

Presidential Campaigning in the Internet Age


Author: Jennifer Stromer-Galley
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199731934
Category: Political Science
Page: 224
View: 3533

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Presidential Campaigning in the Internet Age challenges popular claims about the democratizing effect of Digital Communication Technologies (DCTs).

Young People and the Future of News

Social Media and the Rise of Connective Journalism
Author: Lynn Schofield Clark,Regina Marchi
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108121357
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 4678

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Young People and the Future of News traces the practices that are evolving as young people come to see news increasingly as something shared via social networks and social media rather than produced and circulated solely by professional news organizations. The book introduces the concept of connective journalism, clarifying the role of creating and sharing stories online as a key precursor to collective and connective political action. At the center of the story are high school students from low-income minority and immigrant communities who often feel underserved or misrepresented by mainstream media but express a strong interest in politics and their communities. Drawing on in-depth field work in three major urban areas over the course of ten years, Young People and the Future of News sheds light on how young people share news that they think others should know about, express solidarity, and bring into being new publics and counter-publics.

Disruptive Power

The Crisis of the State in the Digital Age
Author: Taylor Owen
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199363862
Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Page: 248
View: 5976

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Anonymous. WikiLeaks. The Syrian Electronic Army. Edward Snowden. Bitcoin. The Arab Spring. Five years ago, these terms were meaningless to the vast majority of people in the world. Today, they and many like them dominate the news and keep policymakers, security experts, and military and intelligence officials up at night. These groups and individuals are enabled and empowered by digital technology to confound and provoke the state in a way not possible before the Internet revolution. Theyare representative of a wide range of 21st century global actors and a new form of 21st century power: disruptive power. In Disruptive Power, Taylor Owen provides a sweeping look at the way that digital technologies are shaking up the workings of the institutions that have traditionally controlled international affairs: humanitarianism, diplomacy, war, journalism, activism, and finance. The traditional nation state system and the subsequent multinational system were founded on and have long functioned through a concentration of power in the state - through the military, currency controls, foreign policy, the rule of law, and so on. In this book, Owen argues that in every aspect of international affairs, the digitally enabled are changing the way the world works and disrupting the institutions that once held a monopoly on power. Each chapter of Owen's book looks at a different aspect of international affairs, profiling the disruptive innovators and demonstrating how they are challenging existing power structures for good and ill. Owen considers what constitutes successful online international action, what sorts of technologies are being used as well as what these technologies might look like a decade from now, and what new institutions will be needed to moderate the new power structures and ensure accountability. With cutting edge analysis of the fast-changing relationship between the declining state and increasingly powerful non-state actors, Disruptive Power is the essential road map for navigating a networked world.

The Citizen Marketer


Author: Joel Penney
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190658061
Category: Political Science
Page: 264
View: 2352

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"This book looks at the phenomenon of the citizen marketer. The citizen marketer is guided by the logics of marketing practice, but, rather than being passive, actively circulates persuasive media to advance political interests. Such practices include using protest symbols in social media profiles, tweeting links to news articles to raise awareness about issues, sharing politically-charged internet memes, and displaying merchandise that promotes a favored electoral candidate or cause. These practices signal an important shift in how political participation is conceptualized and performed in advanced capitalist democratic societies, as they inject political ideas into popular culture. The book argues that citizens view such activities with regard to how they may shape or influence outcomes, and as statements of personal identity. Marketing is a dirty word in certain critical circles, particularly among segments of the left that have identified neoliberal market logics as a focus of political struggle. At the same time, some of these critics have pushed back against the forces of neoliberal capitalism by co-opting its marketing and advertising techniques to spread counter-hegemonic ideas to the public. Accordingly, this book argues that the citizen marketer approach is a means of promoting a wide range of political ideas, including those that are broadly critical of elite uses of marketing in capitalist societies. The book includes an extensive historical treatment of citizen-level political promotion in modern democratic societies, connecting contemporary digital practices to both the 19th century tradition of mass political spectacle as well as more informal, culturally-situated forms of political expression that emerge from postwar countercultures"--

Internet Politics

States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies
Author: Andrew Chadwick
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195177732
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 384
View: 744

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In the developed world, there is no longer an issue of whether the Internet affects politics--but rather how, why, and with what consequences. With the Internet now spreading at a breathtaking rate in the developing world, the new medium is fraught with tensions, paradoxes, and contradictions. How do we make sense of these? In this major new work, Andrew Chadwick addresses such concerns, providing the first comprehensive overview of Internet politics. Internet Politics examines the impact of new communication technologies on political parties and elections, pressure groups, social movements, local democracy, public bureaucracies, and global governance. It also analyzes persistent and controversial policy problems, including the digital divide; the governance of the Internet itself; the tensions between surveillance, privacy, and security; and the political economy of the Internet media sector. The approach is explicitly comparative, providing numerous examples from the U.S., Britain, and many other countries. Written in a clear and accessible style, this theoretically sophisticated and up-to-date text reveals the key difference the Internet makes in how we "do" politics and how we think about political life. A companion website, www.andrewchadwick.com, offers dynamic, regularly updated material to supplement the book, along with PowerPoint slides for students and instructors, data spreadsheets, and additional case studies. Featuring numerous figures, tables, and text boxes, Internet Politics is ideal for undergraduate and graduate courses in political science, international relations, and communication studies.

The Hybrid Media System

Politics and Power
Author: Andrew Chadwick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190696737
Category: Political Science
Page: 368
View: 7536

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New communication technologies have reshaped media and politics. But who are the new power players? The Hybrid Media System is a sweeping new theory of how political communication now works. Politics is increasingly defined by organizations, groups, and individuals who are best able to blend older and newer media logics, in what Chadwick terms a hybrid system. From American presidential campaigns to WikiLeaks, from live prime ministerial debates to hotly contested political scandals, from the daily practices of journalists and campaign workers to the struggles of new activist organizations, the clash of media logics causes chaos and disintegration but also surprising new patterns of order and integration. The updated second edition features a new preface and an extensive new chapter applying the conceptual framework to the extraordinary 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, the rise of Donald Trump, and the anti-Trump resistance protests.

The Civic Organization and the Digital Citizen

Communicating Engagement in a Networked Age
Author: Chris Wells
Publisher: OUP Us
ISBN: 0190203625
Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE
Page: 272
View: 786

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The powerful potential of digital media to engage citizens in political actions has now crossed our news screens many times. But scholarly focus has tended to be on "networked," anti-institutional forms of collective action, to the neglect of advocacy and service organizations. This book investigates the changing fortunes of the citizen-civil society relationship by exploring how social changes and innovations in communication technology are transforming the information expectations and preferences of many citizens, especially young citizens. In doing so, it is the first work to bring together theories of civic identity change with research on civic organizations. Specifically, it argues that a shift in "information styles" may help to explain the disjuncture felt by many young people when it comes to institutional participation and politics. The book theorizes two paradigms of information style: a dutiful style, which was rooted in the society, communication system and citizen norms of the modern era, and an actualizing style, which constitutes the set of information practices and expectations of the young citizens of late modernity for whom interactive digital media are the norm. Hypothesizing that civil society institutions have difficulty adapting to the norms and practices of the actualizing information style, two empirical studies apply the dutiful/actualizing framework to innovative content analyses of organizations' online communications-on their websites, and through Facebook. Results demonstrate that with intriguing exceptions, most major civil society organizations use digital media more in line with dutiful information norms than actualizing ones: they tend to broadcast strategic messages to an audience of receivers, rather than encouraging participation or exchange among an active set of participants. The book concludes with a discussion of the tensions inherent in bureaucratic organizations trying to adapt to an actualizing information style, and recommendations for how they may more successfully do so.

The Only Constant Is Change

Technology, Political Communication, and Innovation Over Time
Author: Ben Epstein
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190698993
Category: Political Science
Page: 272
View: 2210

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Over the course of American political history, political elites and organizations have often updated their political communications strategies in order to achieve longstanding political communication goals in more efficient or effective ways. But why do successful innovations occur when they do, and what motivates political actors to make choices about how to innovate their communication tactics? Covering over 300 years of political communication innovations, Ben Epstein shows how this process of change happens and why. To do this, Epstein, following an interdisciplinary approach, proposes a new model called "the political communication cycle" that accounts for the technological, behavioral, and political factors that lead to revolutionary political communication changes over time. These changes (at least the successful ones) have been far from gradual, as long periods of relatively stable political communication activities have been disrupted by brief periods of dramatic and permanent transformation. These transformations are driven by political actors and organizations, and tend to follow predictable patterns. Epstein moves beyond the technological determinism that characterizes communication history scholarship and the medium-specific focus of much political communication work. The book identifies the political communication revolutions that have, in the United States, led to four, relatively stable political communication orders over history: the elite, mass, broadcast, and (the current) information orders. It identifies and tests three phases of each revolutionary cycle, ultimately sketching possible paths for the future. The Only Constant is Change offers readers and scholars a model and vocabulary to compare political communication changes across time and between different types of political organizations. This provides greater understanding of where we are currently in the recurring political communication cycle, and where we might be headed.

Democracy's Fourth Wave?

Digital Media and the Arab Spring
Author: Philip N. Howard,Muzammil M. Hussain
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199936978
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 145
View: 3681

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In 2011, the international community watched as citizens mobilized through the Internet and digital media to topple three of the world's most entrenched dictators: Ben Ali in Tunisia, Mubarak in Egypt, and Qaddafi in Libya. This book examines not only the unexpected evolution of events during the Arab Spring, but the longer history of desperate-and creative-digital activism through the Arab world.

Tweeting to Power

The Social Media Revolution in American Politics
Author: Jason Gainous,Kevin M. Wagner
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199350639
Category: Political Science
Page: 224
View: 5834

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Online social media are changing the face of politics in the United States. Beginning with a strong theoretical foundation grounded in political, communications and psychology literature, Tweeting to Power examines the effect of online social media on how people come to learn, understand and engage in politics. Gainous and Wagner propose that platforms such as Facebook and Twitter offer the opportunity for a new information flow that is no longer being structured and limited by the popular media. Television and newspapers, which were traditionally the sole or primary gatekeeper, can no longer limit or govern what information is exchanged. By lowering the cost of both supplying the information and obtaining it, social networking applications have recreated how, when and where people are informed. To establish this premise, Gainous and Wagner analyze multiple datasets, quantitative and qualitative, exploring and measuring the use of social media by voters and citizens as well as the strategies and approaches adopted by politicians and elected officials. They illustrate how these new and growing online communities are new forums for the exchange of information that is governed by relationships formed and maintained outside traditional media. Using empirical measures, they prove both how candidates utilize Twitter to shape the information voters rely upon and how effective this effort was at garnering votes in the 2010 congressional elections. With both theory and data, Gainous and Wagner show how the social media revolution is creating a new paradigm for political communication and shifting the very foundation of the political process.

The MoveOn Effect

The Unexpected Transformation of American Political Advocacy
Author: David Karpf
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199898383
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 237
View: 2177

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The Internet is facilitating a generational transition among American political advocacy organizations. This book provides a detailed exploration of how "netroots" advocacy groups - MoveOn.org, DailyKos.com, DemocracyforAmerica.com, and the Progressive Change Campaign Committee - differ from "legacy" peer organizations. It also explains the partisan character of these technological innovations.

Democracy's Fourth Wave?

Digital Media and the Arab Spring
Author: Philip N. Howard,Muzammil M. Hussain
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199323658
Category: Social Science
Page: 162
View: 5078

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Did digital media really "cause" the Arab Spring, or is it an important factor of the story behind what might become democracy's fourth wave? An unlikely network of citizens used digital media to start a cascade of social protest that ultimately toppled four of the world's most entrenched dictators. Howard and Hussain find that the complex causal recipe includes several economic, political and cultural factors, but that digital media is consistently one of the most important sufficient and necessary conditions for explaining both the fragility of regimes and the success of social movements. This book looks at not only the unexpected evolution of events during the Arab Spring, but the deeper history of creative digital activism throughout the region.

Networked Publics and Digital Contention

The Politics of Everyday Life in Tunisia
Author: Mohamed Zayani
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019023976X
Category: Online social networks
Page: 294
View: 6666

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How is the adoption of digital media in the Arab world affecting the relationship between the state and its subjects? What new forms of online engagement and strategies of resistance have emerged from the aspirations of digitally empowered citizens? This book tells the compelling story of the concurrent evolution of technology and society in the Middle East and North Africa region. It brings into focus the intricate relationship between Internet development, youth activism, cyber resistance, and political participation.

Between Citizens and the State

The Politics of American Higher Education in the 20th Century
Author: Christopher P. Loss
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691148279
Category: Education
Page: 320
View: 5768

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This book tracks the dramatic outcomes of the federal government's growing involvement in higher education between World War I and the 1970s, and the conservative backlash against that involvement from the 1980s onward. Using cutting-edge analysis, Christopher Loss recovers higher education's central importance to the larger social and political history of the United States in the twentieth century, and chronicles its transformation into a key mediating institution between citizens and the state. Framed around the three major federal higher education policies of the twentieth century--the 1944 GI Bill, the 1958 National Defense Education Act, and the 1965 Higher Education Act--the book charts the federal government's various efforts to deploy education to ready citizens for the national, bureaucratized, and increasingly global world in which they lived. Loss details the myriad ways in which academic leaders and students shaped, and were shaped by, the state's shifting political agenda as it moved from a preoccupation with economic security during the Great Depression, to national security during World War II and the Cold War, to securing the rights of African Americans, women, and other previously marginalized groups during the 1960s and '70s. Along the way, Loss reappraises the origins of higher education's current-day diversity regime, the growth of identity group politics, and the privatization of citizenship at the close of the twentieth century. At a time when people's faith in government and higher education is being sorely tested, this book sheds new light on the close relations between American higher education and politics.

Expect Us

Online Communities and Political Mobilization
Author: Jessica L. Beyer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199330786
Category: Social Science
Page: 240
View: 7857

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People use online social forums for all sorts of reasons, including political conversations, regardless of the site's main purpose. But what leads some of these people to take their online political activity into the offline world of activism? In Expect Us, Jessica L. Beyer looks at political consciousness and action in four communities, each born out of chaotic online social spaces that millions of individuals enter, spend time in, and exit moment by moment: Anonymous (4chan), IGN, World of Warcraft, and The Pirate Bay. None of these sites began as places for political organization per se, but visitors to each have used them as places for political engagement to one degree or another. Beyer explains the puzzling emergence of political engagement in these disparate social spaces and offers reasons for their varied capacity to generate political activism. Her comparative ethnography of these four online communities demonstrates that the technological organization of space itself has a strong role in determining the possibility of political mobilization. Overall, she shows that political mobilization rises when a site provides high levels of anonymity, low levels of formal regulation, and minimal access to small-group interaction. Furthermore, her findings reveal that young people are more politically involved than much of the civic engagement literature suggests. Expect Us offers surprising and compelling insights for anyone interested in understanding which factors and online environments lead to the greatest amount of impact offline.

Citizenship by Degree

Higher Education Policy and the Changing Gender Dynamics of American Citizenship
Author: Deondra Rose
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019065094X
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 3027

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Since the mid-twentieth century, the United States has seen a striking shift in the gender dynamics of higher educational attainment as women have come to earn college degrees at higher rates than men. Women have also made significant strides in terms of socioeconomic status and political engagement. What explains the progress that American women have made since the 1960s? While many point to the feminist movement as the critical turning point, this book makes the case that women's movement toward first class citizenship has been shaped not only by important societal changes, but also by the actions of lawmakers who used a combination of redistributive and regulatory higher education policies to enhance women's incorporation into their roles as American citizens. Examining the development and impact of the National Defense Education Act of 1958, the Higher Education Act of 1965, and Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments, this book argues that higher education policies represent a crucial-though largely overlooked-factor shaping the progress that women have made. By significantly expanding women's access to college, they helped to pave the way for women to surpass men as the recipients of bachelor's degrees, while also empowering them to become more economically independent, socially integrated, politically engaged members of the American citizenry. In addition to helping to bring into greater focus our understanding of how Southern Democrats shaped U.S. social policy development during the mid-twentieth century, this analysis recognizes federal higher education policy as an indispensible component of the American welfare state.

The Oxford Handbook of Internet Studies


Author: William H. Dutton
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191641189
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 632
View: 6441

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Internet Studies has been one of the most dynamic and rapidly expanding interdisciplinary fields to emerge over the last decade. The Oxford Handbook of Internet Studies has been designed to provide a valuable resource for academics and students in this area, bringing together leading scholarly perspectives on how the Internet has been studied and how the research agenda should be pursued in the future. The Handbook aims to focus on Internet Studies as an emerging field, each chapter seeking to provide a synthesis and critical assessment of the research in a particular area. Topics covered include social perspectives on the technology of the Internet, its role in everyday life and work, implications for communication, power, and influence, and the governance and regulation of the Internet. The Handbook is a landmark in this new interdisciplinary field, not only helping to strengthen research on the key questions, but also shape research, policy, and practice across many disciplines that are finding the Internet and its political, economic, cultural, and other societal implications increasingly central to their own key areas of inquiry.

Society and the Internet

How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing Our Lives
Author: Manuel Castells
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199662002
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 416
View: 5304

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How is society being shaped by the diffusion and increasing centrality of the Internet in everyday life and work? By bringing together leading research that addresses some of the most significant cultural, economic, and political roles of the Internet, this volume introduces students to a core set of readings that address this question in specific social and institutional contexts. Internet Studies is a burgeoning new field, which has been central to the Oxford Internet Institute (OII), an innovative multi-disciplinary department at the University of Oxford. Society and the Internet builds on the OII's evolving series of lectures on society and the Internet. The series has been edited to create a reader to supplement upper-division undergraduate and graduate courses that seek to introduce students to scholarship focused on the implications of the Internet for networked societies around the world. The chapters of the reader are rooted in a variety of disciplines, but all directly tackle the powerful ways in which the Internet is linked to political, social, cultural, and economic transformations in society. This book will be a starting point for anyone with a serious interest in the factors shaping the Internet and its impact on society. The book begins with an introduction by the editors, which provides a brief history of the Internet and Web and its study from multi-disciplinary perspectives. The chapters are grouped into six focused sections: The Internet and Everyday Life; Information and Culture on the Line; Networked Politics and Government; Networked Businesses, Industries, and Economies; and Technological and Regulatory Histories and Futures.

The Rationalizing Voter


Author: Milton Lodge,Charles S. Taber
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107067057
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 2334

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Political behavior is the result of innumerable unnoticed forces and conscious deliberation is often a rationalization of automatically triggered feelings and thoughts. Citizens are very sensitive to environmental contextual factors such as the title 'President' preceding 'Obama' in a newspaper headline, upbeat music or patriotic symbols accompanying a campaign ad, or question wording and order in a survey, all of which have their greatest influence when citizens are unaware. This book develops and tests a dual-process theory of political beliefs, attitudes and behavior, claiming that all thinking, feeling, reasoning and doing have an automatic component as well as a conscious deliberative component. The authors are especially interested in the impact of automatic feelings on political judgments and evaluations. This research is based on laboratory experiments, which allow the testing of five basic hypotheses: hot cognition, automaticity, affect transfer, affect contagion and motivated reasoning.