New Directions in the Sociology of Global Development


Author: Frederick H. Buttel,Philip McMichael
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0762312505
Category: Social Science
Page: 331
View: 2542

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Why is global development so unequal in its social impact? How are global relations represented in local developments, and vice versa? What role do social movements play in shaping global development? These are some of the questions animating this state-of-the-art collection of essays. Subdivided into sections posing research, policy, and strategic questions regarding contemporary social change, this volume brings together scholars well-known for challenging conventional wisdoms in the sociology of global development. In exploring development, these chapters range across the global North and South, economic sectors, policy scales, state/civil society relations, social models, and changing compositional and contextual dimensions of capitalism. Authors introduce conceptual innovations regarding the spatial boundaries of development, sovereignty and the politics of globalization, food regime analysis, recompositions of rural activity, the question of the national bourgeoisie's role in the developing world, the health dimensions of food and farming, and the salience of regional governance in sustainable development. Methodologically, this collection breaks new ground with essays reinterpreting commodity chain analysis, accounting for the impoverishing impact of resource extraction, incorporating social movements into the analysis of development, and historically specifying contemporary trends in global development.

Sociological Perspectives of Organic Agriculture

From Pioneer to Policy
Author: Georgina Holt,Matthew Reed
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 184593038X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 309
View: 7746

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Bringing together articles by leading researchers, this book takes a fresh look at understanding the dynamics of the organic agricultural sector in Europe, Australia, South America and the US. The authors draw theory from a range of social sciences to demonstrate that the complexity of organic agriculture is closely connected to nature, society and economy. The book depicts organic agriculture as an engine of growth for the organic sector and examines the important roles played by producers, and other parts of the supply chain such as consumers and certification standards.

Confronting the Blue Revolution

Industrial Aquaculture and Sustainability in the Global South
Author: Saidul Islam
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1442665564
Category: Social Science
Page: 248
View: 8265

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Like the Green Revolution of the 1960s, a “Blue Revolution” has taken place in global aquaculture. Geared towards quenching the appetite of privileged consumers in the global North, it has come at a high price for the South: ecological devastation, displacement of rural subsistence farmers, and labour exploitation. The uncomfortable truth is that food security for affluent consumers depends on a foundation of social and ecological devastation in the producing countries. In Confronting the Blue Revolution, Md Saidul Islam uses the shrimp farming industry in Bangladesh and across the global South to show the social and environmental impact of industrialized aquaculture. The book pushes us to reconsider our attitudes to consumption patterns in the developed world, neoliberal environmental governance, and the question of sustainability.

Routledge International Handbook of Rural Studies


Author: Mark Shucksmith,David L. Brown
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317619854
Category: Social Science
Page: 698
View: 9283

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Rural societies around the world are changing in fundamental ways, both at their own initiative and in response to external forces. The Routledge International Handbook of Rural Studies examines the organisation and transformation of rural society in more developed regions of the world, taking an interdisciplinary and problem-focused approach. Written by leading social scientists from many countries, it addresses emerging issues and challenges in innovative and provocative ways to inform future policy. This volume is organised around eight emerging social, economic and environmental challenges: Demographic change. Economic transformations. Food systems and land. Environment and resources. Changing configurations of gender and rural society. Social and economic equality. Social dynamics and institutional capacity. Power and governance. Cross-cutting these challenges are the growing interdependence of rural and urban; the rise in inequality within and between places; the impact of fiscal crisis on rural societies; neoliberalism, power and agency; and rural areas as potential sites of resistance. The Routledge International Handbook of Rural Studies is required reading for anyone concerned with the future of rural areas.

Constructing a new framework for rural development


Author: Pierluigi Milone,Flaminia Ventura,Jingzhong Ye
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 1784416215
Category: Social Science
Page: 352
View: 1230

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This book critically discusses these new practices and the actors engaged in them. In doing so, it deals with several countries in three different continents (Asia, South America and Europe). It proposes new concepts and approaches for a better understanding of the re-emergence of peasants as indispensable part of modern societies.

Hungry Capital

The Financialization of Food
Author: Luigi Russi
Publisher: John Hunt Publishing
ISBN: 1780997701
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 173
View: 8576

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Over the past thirty years, the ability of global finance to affect aspects of everyday life has been increasing at an unprecedented rate. The world of food bears vivid testimony to this tendency, through the scars opened by the 2008 world food price crisis, the iron fist of retailing giants that occupy the supply chain and the unsustainable ecological footprint left behind by global production networks. Hungry Capital offers a rigorous analysis of the influence that financial imperatives exert on the food economy at different levels: from the direct use of edible commodities as an object of speculation to the complex food chains set up by manufacturers and supermarkets. It argues that the circular compulsion to build profits upon profits that global finance injects into the world of food restructures the basic nurturing relationship between man and nature into a streamlined process from which value has to be mined. The end result is a monstrous Leviathan that holds together while – at every step – risks to crumble.

New Directions in Identity Theory and Research


Author: Jan E. Stets,Richard T. Serpe
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190457554
Category: Psychology
Page: 752
View: 1395

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Over the past four decades - and most especially in recent years as issues of identity continue to play out across the public stage - identity theory has developed into one of the most fascinating and active research programs within the spheres of sociological social psychology. Having emerged out of a landmark 2014 national conference that sought to integrate various research programs and to honor the groundbreaking work of Dr. Peter J. Burke, New Directions in Identity Theory and Research brings together the pioneers, scholars, and researchers of identity theory as they present the important theoretical, methodological, and substantive work in identity theory today. Edited by Dr. Jan E. Stets and Dr. Richard T. Serpe, this volume asserts that researchers and scholars can no longer rely on using samples, measures, concepts, and mechanisms that limit the overall advancement of identity theory and research. Instead, as Stets and Serpe contend in their introductory chapter, "Researchers constantly must try out new ideas, test the ideas with more refined measures, use samples that are representative yet racially and ethnically diverse, and employ methods (perhaps mixed methods) that capture the different dimensions of the identity process." This book is the truest testament to this idea. In New Directions in Identity Theory and Research, Stets, Serpe, and contributing authors urge readers to think outside the box by providing the road map necessary to guide future work and thought in this emerging field.

The Social Construction of Technological Systems

New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology
Author: Wiebe E. Bijker,Thomas P. Hughes,Trevor Pinch,Deborah G. Douglas
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262300877
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 472
View: 509

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This pioneering book, first published in 1987, launched the new field of social studies of technology. It introduced a method of inquiry--social construction of technology, or SCOT--that became a key part of the wider discipline of science and technology studies. The book helped the MIT Press shape its STS list and inspired the Inside Technology series. The thirteen essays in the book tell stories about such varied technologies as thirteenth-century galleys, eighteenth-century cooking stoves, and twentieth-century missile systems. Taken together, they affirm the fruitfulness of an approach to the study of technology that gives equal weight to technical, social, economic, and political questions, and they demonstrate the illuminating effects of the integration of empirics and theory. The approaches in this volume--collectively called SCOT (after the volume's title) have since broadened their scope, and twenty-five years after the publication of this book, it is difficult to think of a technology that has not been studied from a SCOT perspective and impossible to think of a technology that cannot be studied that way.

Re-Envisioning Global Development

A Horizontal Perspective
Author: Sandra Halperin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135927979
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 7512

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Re-Envisioning Global Development offers an original conceptualisation of capitalist development from its origins to the present day. Most approaches to understanding contemporary development assume that industrial capitalism was achieved through a process of nationally organised economic growth, and that in recent years its organisation has become increasingly trans-local or global. However, Halperin shows that nationally organised economic growth has rarely been the case – it has only recently come to characterise a few countries and for only a few decades. This innovative text elaborates an alternative ontology and way of thinking about global development during the last two centuries – one linked, not to nations and regions, but to a set of essentially trans-national relations and connections. It argues that capitalist development has, everywhere and from the start, involved—not whole nations or societies–but only sectors or geographical areas within states. By bringing this aspect of historically ‘normal’ capitalist development into clearer focus, the book clarifies the specific conditions and circumstances that enabled European economies to pursue a more broad-based development following World War II, and what prevented a similar outcome in the contemporary ‘third world’. It also clarifies the nature, spatial extent, and circumstances of current globalising trends. Wide-ranging and provocative, this book is required reading for advanced level students and scholars in development studies, development economics and political science.

Rural Education Research in the United States

State of the Science and Emerging Directions
Author: Gwen C. Nugent,Gina M. Kunz,Susan M. Sheridan,Todd A. Glover,Lisa L. Knoche
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331942940X
Category: Education
Page: 298
View: 8241

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This volume represents current and futuristic thinking of seminal rural education researchers, with the goal of providing perspectives and directions to inform the work of rural education research, practice, and policy. With an emphasis on leveraging collaboration among key rural education stakeholders, this title both outlines our current research knowledge base and maps a future research agenda for maximizing the educational experiences and achievement of rural K-12 students and their families and educators in the United States. In examining the interrelated impacts of teacher practices, family engagement, school/community environment and contextual factors, the book offers the evidence-based insights of seminal researchers on issues ranging from professional development and family-school partnership approaches to methodological considerations. It also explores the needs, opportunities and realities associated with translating research to the arenas of practice and policy – while considering how the latter can inform future scholarship.

Beyond the Impasse

New Directions in Development Theory
Author: Frans J. Schuurman
Publisher: Zed Books
ISBN: 9781856492102
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 233
View: 5760

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Development theory in the past decade has met with increasingly heavy criticism. Dependency theories, as well as modes of production and world-system approaches, have come to be considered as internally inconsistent and inadequate for explaining the increasing diversity and unevenness of the Third World. This book confronts the theoretical impasse which many feel has been reached. Development scholars from various disciplines review recent changes in research priorities, procedures and orientations, and detect the emergence of new and diverse lines of theoretical development in the field. In particular, they deal with the important meta-theoretical, political, cultural and ethical questions that have come to the fore.

Poverty Capital

Microfinance and the Making of Development
Author: Ananya Roy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136992499
Category: Social Science
Page: 272
View: 5530

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Winner of the 2011 Paul Davidoff award! This is a book about poverty but it does not study the poor and the powerless; instead it studies those who manage poverty. It sheds light on how powerful institutions control "capital," or circuits of profit and investment, as well as "truth," or authoritative knowledge about poverty. Such dominant practices are challenged by alternative paradigms of development, and the book details these as well. Using the case of microfinance, the book participates in a set of fierce debates about development – from the role of markets to the secrets of successful pro-poor institutions. Based on many years of research in Washington D.C., Bangladesh, and the Middle East, Poverty Capital also grows out of the author's undergraduate teaching to thousands of students on the subject of global poverty and inequality.

New Directions for Smallholder Agriculture


Author: Peter B. R. Hazell,Atiqur Rahman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199689342
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 574
View: 3189

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There are about 450 million small farms today and they are getting more numerous and smaller by the day. Many have become too small to provide adequate livelihoods or to compete successfully in today's globalised markets. This has led to considerable debate about the future role of small farms and whether it still makes sense for governments to invest in them. This book reviews the current status of small farms around the developing world, and the challenges thatthey face. It finds that policy makers need to differentiate more sharply than in the past between different types of small farms and the types of assistance they need, and discusses strategies appropriate for each type. The book draws on a wealth of recent experience at IFAD and elsewhere to helpidentify best practice approaches.

Metropolitan Ruralities


Author: Terry Marsden,Kjell Andersson,Stefan Sjöblom,Leo Granberg,Peter Ehrström
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 1785607960
Category: Social Science
Page: 360
View: 1401

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During modernity metropolitan ruralities have been regarded as land reserves for urban expansion. However, there is a growing insight that there are limits to the urban expansion into rural areas. This volume discusses potential developments in urban (and rural) policy and planning which need to be considered.

Development Sociology

Actor Perspectives
Author: Norman Long
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134564236
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 1834

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In this exciting and challenging work, Norman Long brings together years of work and thought in development studies to provide a key text for guiding future development research and practice. Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, Development Sociology focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and social constructionist form of analysis. This style of analysis is opposed to the traditional structuralist/institutional analysis which is often applied in development studies. With an accessible mix of general debate, critical literature reviews and original case study materials this work covers a variety of key development issues. Among many important topics discussed, the author looks at commoditisation, small-scale enterprise and social capital, knowledge interfaces, networks and power, globalisation and localisation as well as policy formulation and planned intervention processes. This book should be read for its desire to pursue a form of analysis that helps us to understand better (and more realistically) the kinds of development interventions and social transformations that have characterised the second half of the twentieth century and will no doubt continue to characterise future development studies.

Social Regionalism in the Global Economy


Author: Adelle Blackett,Christian Lévesque
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136922946
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 366
View: 9978

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Regional trade agreements have expanded exponentially over the past decade, and have become a significant, if controversial, factor in the expanse of economic globalization. Social Regionalism in the Global Economy attempts to take a fresh, interdisciplinary approach to addressing labour regulation by drawing upon insights from industrial relations, comparative capitalism, and new governance schools of thought. It stands for the proposition that an interdisciplinary study of regional regulation holds the potential to offer a fuller account of social regionalism. Its focus is to consider how institutions and labour market actors reconstruct and renegotiate regulatory space in a changing economic environment characterized by regional impulses. It argues that there is a dynamic interplay between institutions and actors of social regulation. This interplay occurs at many levels. The book therefore maps both how actors shape institutions as well as how institutions shape social actors’ ability to affect regulatory processes. The editors bring together leading international specialists willing to move beyond textual analyses of regional agreements to offer alternative accounts of regional integration. The work emphasizes that institutional context and social actors at multiple governance levels are integral to the progressive construction and regulation of regional space. It further contributes to the literature by combining insights from overlooked regional entities in transition and developing countries with original analyses from the European Union and the NAFTA. These aims will be achieved by combining original research that is empirically grounded with theoretically informed analysis.

The Sociology of Rural Life


Author: Samantha Hillyard
Publisher: Berg
ISBN: 1845201388
Category: Social Science
Page: 188
View: 1234

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Foot and mouth disease and BSE have both had a devastating impact on rural society. Alongside these devastating developments, the rise of the organic food movement has helped to revitalize an already politicized rural population. From fox-hunting to farming, the vigour with which rural activities and living are defended overturns received notions of a sleepy and complacent countryside. Over the years "rural life" has been defined, redefined and eventually fallen out of fashion as a sociological concept--in contrast to urban studies, which has flourished. This much-needed reappraisal calls for its reinterpretation in light of the profound changes affecting the countryside. First providing an overview of rural sociology, Hillyard goes on to offer contemporary case studies that clearly demonstrate the need for a reinvigorated rural sociology. Tackling a range of contentious issues--from fox-hunting to organic farming--this book offers a new model for rural sociology and reassesses its role in contemporary society.

Dress History

New Directions in Theory and Practice
Author: Charlotte Nicklas,Annebella Pollen
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474240526
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 7322

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The field of dress history has experienced exponential growth over the past two decades. This in-depth investigation examines the expanding borders and porous boundaries of the discipline today, outlining key debates and showcasing the most exciting research. With international case studies from a wide range of scholars, the volume encompasses work from a variety of historical periods from the late 18th century to the present day. Contributors examine, critique and expand the methodologies and sources used in fashion history, analyse how dress is collected, displayed and sold, and investigate clothing's meanings and uses in the practice of identity. Exploring overlooked territories and new approaches to analysis, the book offers students and scholars a fresh appraisal of dress history in the 21st century.

Rethinking Development in Latin America


Author: Charles H. Wood,Bryan R. Roberts
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 9780271025155
Category: Political Science
Page: 370
View: 7170

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Understanding development in Latin America today requires both an awareness of the major political and economic changes that have produced a new agenda for social policy in the region and an appreciation of the need to devise better conceptual and methodological tools for analyzing the social impact of these changes. Using as a reference point the issues and theories that dominated social science research on Latin America in the period 1960&–80, this volume contributes to &“rethinking development&” by examining the historical events that accounted for the erosion or demise of once-dominant paradigms and by assessing the new directions of research that have emerged in their place. Following the editors&’ overview of the new conceptual and social agendas in their Introduction, the book proceeds with a review of previous broad conceptual approaches by Alejandro Portes, who emphasizes by contrast the advantages of newer &“middle-range&” theories. Subsequent chapters focus on changes in different arenas and the concepts and methods used to interpret them: &“Globalization, Neoliberalism, and Social Policy&”; &“Citizenship, Politics, and the State&”; &“Work, Families, and Reproduction&”; and &“Urban Settlements, Marginality, and Social Exclusion.&” Contributors, besides the editors, are Marina Ariza and Orlandina de Oliveira, Diane Davis, Vilmar Faria, Joe Foweraker, Elizabeth Jelin, Alejandro Portes, Joe Potter and Rudolfo Tuir&án, Juan Pablo P&érez S&áinz, Osvaldo Sunkel, and Peter Ward.

New Directions in Conflict Theory

Conflict Resolution and Conflict Transformation
Author: Raimo Väyrynen
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781446233252
Category: Conflict management
Page: 240
View: 3548

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This is a timely work which explores the validity of rational and subjective approaches to conflict resolution, considers the value of international law and organizations for addressing complex social phenomena, and outlines a structural approach to international conflicts. In addition it extends the analysis of conflict transformation to new issues on the international agenda, such as antagonism between urban and rural areas and threat to the environment.