Neutrons, X-rays and Light

Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed Matter
Author: Thomas Zemb,Peter Lindner
Publisher: North-Holland
ISBN: 9780444511225
Category: Science
Page: 541
View: 2581

Continue Reading →

Scattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data.

Neutron, x-ray and light scattering

introduction to an investigative tool for colloidal and polymeric systems : proceedings of the European Workshop on Neutron, X-Ray and Light Scattering as an Investigative Tool for Colloidal and Polymeric Systems, Bombannes, France, 27 May-2June, 1990
Author: Peter Lindner
Publisher: North Holland
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 375
View: 5455

Continue Reading →

This book is devoted to a simple practical approach to neutron, X-ray and light scattering experiments, involving model calculation of the scattering and mathematical transformation. It is intended to attract colloid and polymer scientists using scattering methods in their laboratory or at common research facilities. The primary objective is to explain the current methodology of elastic and quasi-elastic scattering techniques (avoiding both under and over-exploitation of data) rather than a general course on colloids and polymers. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments are presented.

Neutron, X-Rays and Light. Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed Matter


Author: Th Zemb,P. Lindner
Publisher: North-Holland
ISBN: 9781493302260
Category: Science
Page: 552
View: 6021

Continue Reading →

Scattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data.

Interactions of Photons and Neutrons with Matter


Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Michael Kotlarchyk
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 981024214X
Category: Science
Page: 441
View: 8620

Continue Reading →

This invaluable book is based on lecture notes developed for a one-semester graduate course entitled "Interaction of Radiation with Matter", taught in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The main objective of the course is to teach enough quantum and classical radiation theory to allow students in engineering and the applied sciences to understand and have access to the vast literature on applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in materials research. Besides presenting the fundamental physics of radiation interactions, the book devotes individual chapters to some of the important modern-day experimental tools, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, photon correlation spectroscopy, and the various types of neutron, x-ray, and light-scattering techniques. This new edition contains added sections on such subjects as synchrotron radiation, neutron spin echo, and diffusive wave spectroscopy. End-of-chapter problems have also been added.

Methods of X-ray and Neutron Scattering in Polymer Science


Author: Ryong-Joon Roe
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195113211
Category: Science
Page: 331
View: 8661

Continue Reading →

Methods of X-ray and Neutron Scattering in Polymer Science presents the basic theories underlying x-ray and neutron scattering--two of the most powerful tools for characterizing materials--and also covers the various techniques that have been developed for their application to the study of polymers. While there is a great deal of similarity between the x-ray and neutron scattering methods, the two were developed in different time periods by different groups of scientists, and as a result very distinct terminologies evolved to explain the same phenomena. In this unique text the two are presented together from the very beginning, with a consistent set of symbols and terminologies, so that students can become equally familiar with both from the outset. Also, to help students gain a unified view of diffraction, the distinction between wide-angle diffraction and small-angle scattering is postponed until late in the text. Methods of X-ray and Neutron Scattering in Polymer Science emphasizes basic concepts rather than details of specific techniques and derives relationships from first premises wherever possible. Beginning with coverage of the basic properties of x-rays and neutrons and their scattering from matter, it goes on to discuss methods of studying specific types of samples or properties. Topics covered include single-component crystalline and amorphous polymers; the small-angle scattering technique; binary, single-phase systems such as polymer blend and polymer solution; the technique of reflectivity measurement; and polymer dynamics by means of inelastic neutron scattering. A perfect introductory textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in polymer science,Methods of X-ray and Neutron Scattering in Polymer Science also serves as a helpful self-study tool for polymer scientists seeking an introduction to scattering techniques. Further reading lists at the end of each chapter encourage readers to explore more advanced topics on their own.

Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules


Author: Dmitri I. Svergun,Michel H. J. Koch,Peter A. Timmins,Roland P. May
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191507032
Category: Science
Page: 368
View: 5806

Continue Reading →

Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.

X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization


Author: Challa S.S.R. Kumar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662486067
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 830
View: 3405

Continue Reading →

Fifth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

Scattering from Polymers

Characterization by X-rays, Neutrons, and Light
Author: Peggy Cebe,Benjamin S. Hsiao,David J. Lohse
Publisher: Amer Chemical Society
ISBN: 9780841236448
Category: Science
Page: 558
View: 3228

Continue Reading →

This book reflects the recent progress made in the field of scattering in polymers. A wide range of scattering studies on different polymer systems, including block copolymers, semicrystalline polymers, complex fluids, multicomponent systems, polymeric surfaces, and polymer processing are included, as well as new experimental techniques and theoretical treatments. This volume provides a comprehensive reference for those researchers who need to know how scattering techniques can be used to tackle different polymer problems, and is ideal for graduate polymer scientists studying scattering techniques.

Spectroscopy in Biology and Chemistry

Neutron, X-Ray, Laser
Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Sidney Yip
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483217450
Category: Science
Page: 424
View: 6526

Continue Reading →

Spectroscopy in Biology and Chemistry discusses the use of thermal neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering, and the related techniques of x-ray diffraction, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, in investigating biological macromolecules and chemical systems. The book describes neutron, x-ray and laser spectroscopy; quasielastic scattering in neutron and laser spectroscopy; and interatomic forces, molecular structure and molecular vibrations. The text also discusses the x-ray crystallography of biological molecules; neutron diffraction studies of hydrogen bonding in organic and biochemical systems; and comparative x-ray and neutron diffraction from nerve myelin membranes. Neutron spectroscopy of chain polymers; chemical and biological applications of neutron inelastic scattering; and neutron scattering and optical studies of molecular vibrations are also considered. The book further tackles small angle neutron scattering from polymers; the use of tunable laser resonance Raman spectroscopy in biology; and the use photon correlation spectroscopy in biology. Students and faculty members in physics, chemistry, and biology, and research workers in related fields will find the text invaluable.

Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering


Author: L.A. Feigin,D.I. Svergun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475766246
Category: Science
Page: 335
View: 6389

Continue Reading →

Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.

Neutrons, X rays, and gamma rays

imaging detectors, material characterization techniques, and applications : 21-22 July 1992, San Diego, California
Author: John M. Carpenter,Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers,Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center (U.S.). Aviation Security Research & Development Service
Publisher: Society of Photo Optical
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 369
View: 7280

Continue Reading →

Complementarity Between Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering


Author: Albert Furrer
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814616273
Category:
Page: 392
View: 8124

Continue Reading →

Understanding and manipulating the properties of materials naturally occurring in our world and artificially produced by modern technologies requires detailed information on their properties on the atomic scale. This information is the basis for any kind of research in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, metallurgy, and ceramics. Among the various experimental methods, neutron and photon scattering have become the key techniques of choice. This book provides an overview of the complementarity between neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. The most important topics are covered, including structure determination, magnetic correlations, polymer dynamics, thin films and multilayers, photoemission studies, etc; they are thoroughly introduced and discussed by experts from both the experimental and the theoretical side. Contents:Neutron- and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering (The Theoretical Principles) (W E Fischer)Structure Determination by Powder Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction (A N Fitch)Magnetic Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering (W G Stirling)Magnetic Excitations Through the Eye of the Neutron (W J L Buyers)Topological Excitations in Low-Dimensional Magnets (H B Braun)Elastic and Inelastic X-Ray Scattering from Correlated Electrons: A Theoretical Perspective (M Altarelli)From Thin Films to Superlattices Studied with X-Rays and Neutrons (D F McMorrow)Small-Angle and Surface Scattering from Porous and Fractal Materials (S K Sinha)Hot Topics in Condensed Matter Physics (H R Ott)Neutron Beam Optics (P Böni)Synchrotron X-Ray Beam Optics (A Freund)Summary Lecture: Some Features of the Scattering and Absorption of Beams of Neutrons and Beams of X-Rays (S W Lovesey)and other papers Readership: Condensed matter and solid state physicists. Keywords:Photon Scattering;Structure Determination;Magnetic Correlations;Polymer Dynamics;Thin Films;Multilayers;Photoemission Studies;Synchrotron X-Ray;Optics;Neutrons

Scattering Methods and their Application in Colloid and Interface Science


Author: Otto Glatter
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128135816
Category: Science
Page: 404
View: 8136

Continue Reading →

Scattering Methods and their Application in Colloid and Interface Science offers an overview of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques (SAXS & SANS), as well as static and dynamic light scattering (SLS & DLS). These scattering techniques are central to the study of soft matter, such as colloidal dispersions and surfactant self-assembly. The theoretical concepts are followed by an overview of instrumentation and a detailed description of the evaluation techniques in the first part of the book. In the second part, several typical application examples are used to show the strength and limitations of these techniques. Features the latest input from the world-leading expert with personal experience in all the fields covered (SAXS, SANS, SLS and DLS) Includes unified notation throughout the book to enhance its readability Provides—in a single source—scattering theory, evaluation of techniques and a variety of applications

Applications of Neutron Scattering to Soft Condensed Matter


Author: Barbara J Gabrys
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482283093
Category: Science
Page: 392
View: 7578

Continue Reading →

Neutrons, which are a penetrating yet non destructive probe, are ideally suited to studying the structure, organisation and motion of molecules responsible for the physical properties of materials under a variety of conditions. Applications are in fields as diverse as colloid and polymer science, earth sciences, pharmaceutics, biology and engineering. This book will be of interest to both present and potential future users of neutron sources working in these areas, as both a useful reference and a comprehensive overview.

Structure Determination by X-ray Crystallography

Analysis by X-rays and Neutrons
Author: Mark Ladd,Rex Palmer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146143954X
Category: Science
Page: 756
View: 2592

Continue Reading →

The advances in and applications of x-ray and neutron crystallography form the essence of this new edition of this classic textbook, while maintaining the overall plan of the book that has been well received in the academic community since the first edition in 1977. X-ray crystallography is a universal tool for studying molecular structure, and the complementary nature of neutron diffraction crystallography permits the location of atomic species in crystals which are not easily revealed by X-ray techniques alone, such as hydrogen atoms or other light atoms in the presence of heavier atoms. Thus, a chapter discussing the practice of neutron diffraction techniques, with examples, broadens the scope of the text in a highly desirable way. As with previous editions, the book contains problems to illustrate the work of each chapter, and detailed solutions are provided. Mathematical procedures related to the material of the main body of the book are not discussed in detail, but are quoted where needed with references to standard mathematical texts. To address the computational aspect of crystallography, the suite of computer programs from the fourth edition has been revised and expanded. The programs enable the reader to participate fully in many of the aspects of x-ray crystallography discussed in the book. In particular, the program system XRAY* is interactive, and enables the reader to follow through, at the monitor screen, the computational techniques involved in single-crystal structure determination, albeit in two dimensions, with the data sets provided. Exercises for students can be found in the book, and solutions are available to instructors.

Biophysical Techniques


Author: Iain Campbell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199642141
Category: Medical
Page: 353
View: 5383

Continue Reading →

Biophysical Techniques explains in a readily-accessible way the basics of the various biophysical methods available so students can understand the principles behind the different methods used, and begin to appreciate which tools can be used to probe different biological questions, and the pros and cons of each.

Soft-Matter Characterization


Author: Redouane Borsali,Robert Pecora
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140204464X
Category: Science
Page: 1452
View: 4652

Continue Reading →

This 2-volume set includes extensive discussions of scattering techniques (light, neutron and X-ray) and related fluctuation and grating techniques that are at the forefront of this field. Most of the scattering techniques are Fourier space techniques. Recent advances have seen the development of powerful direct imaging methods such as atomic force microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. In addition, techniques that can be used to manipulate soft matter on the nanometer scale are also in rapid development. These include the scanning probe microscopy technique mentioned above as well as optical and magnetic tweezers.

Interaction of Photons and Neutrons with Matter

An Introduction
Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Michael Kotlarchyk
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810220266
Category: Science
Page: 400
View: 5839

Continue Reading →

This book is based on lecture notes developed for a one-semester graduate course entitled The Interaction of Radiation with Matter, taught in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The main objective of the course is to teach enough quantum and classical radiation theory to allow students in engineering and the applied sciences to understand and have access to the vast literature on applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in materials research. Besides presenting the fundamental physics of radiation interactions, the book devotes individual chapters to some of the important modern-day experimental tools, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, photon correlation spectroscopy, and the various types of neutron, x-ray and light-scattering techniques.