Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy


Author: Françoise Hippert,Erik Geissler,Jean Louis Hodeau,Eddy Lelièvre-Berna,Jean-René Regnard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402033370
Category: Science
Page: 566
View: 4255

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- Up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources - Multi-technique approach set around a central theme, rather than a monograph on one technique - Emphasis on the complementarity of neutron spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy which are usually treated in separate books

Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy


Author: Françoise Hippert,Erik Geissler,Jean Louis Hodeau,Eddy Lelièvre-Berna,Jean-René Regnard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402033370
Category: Science
Page: 566
View: 9870

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- Up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources - Multi-technique approach set around a central theme, rather than a monograph on one technique - Emphasis on the complementarity of neutron spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy which are usually treated in separate books

Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering


Author: L.A. Feigin,D.I. Svergun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475766246
Category: Science
Page: 335
View: 8476

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Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.

Elementary Scattering Theory

For X-ray and Neutron Users
Author: D.S. Sivia
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199228671
Category: Science
Page: 201
View: 2866

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This book provides the basic theoretical background for X-ray and neutron scattering experiments. Since these techniques are increasingly being used by biologists and chemists, as well as physicists, the book is intended to be accessible to a broad spectrum of scientists.

Nuclear Planetary Science: Planetary Science Based On Gamma-ray, Neutron And X-ray Spectroscopy


Author: Hasebe Nobuyuki,Kim Kyeong Ja,Sakurai Kunitomo
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813209720
Category: Science
Page: 180
View: 7961

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Nuclear planetary science has come to play an important role in our understanding of the origin and evolution of the planetary bodies in our solar system. A newly established branch of planetary science, its study aids in humankind's exploration of the present states of the structures of various planetary bodies (including the Earth), their atmospheres and their satellites, as well as small celestial bodies (e.g. asteroids), through direct observation. Knowing the elemental composition of the planetary bodies is essential in order to understand the formation and evolution of planetary bodies — just as important as it is to know the mass, radius, density and orbit of the celestial body. Suitable for students and specialists interested in the much wider field of Earth and Planetary Science, topics related to the planets and asteroids in the solar system are dealt with in this book. Techniques related to nuclear planetary science's nuclear cosmochemical and geological methods are also covered in this book. Contents: Introduction: Planetary ScienceNuclear Planetary SciencePrinciple of Nuclear Spectroscopy: Natural Source of Planetary Gamma RaysActive Sources of Neutrons and X-RaysNuclear Spectrometer: Gamma-Ray DetectorNeutron DetectorActive Fluorescence X-Ray SpectrometerNumerical Simulation and Laboratory Experiment: Production of Radionuclides in ExtraterrestrialNumerical Simulation and Thick-Target ExperimentNuclear Planetary Exploration: Apollo Gamma-Ray and X-Ray SpectrometerLunar Prospector Gamma-Ray and Neutron SpectrometersKaguya Gamma-Ray SpectrometerChang'E-2 Gamma-Ray SpectrometersChandrayaan-1 High-Energy X-Ray/Gamma-Ray SpectrometerMars Nuclear SpectrometerMESSENGER Gamma-Ray and Neutron SpectrometerNear X-Ray/Gamma-Ray SpectrometerDawn Mission Gamma-Ray and Neutron SpectrometerRosetta Alpha Particle X-Ray SpectrometerData Reduction: Response Function AnalysisEnergy Band AnalysisPhotopeak AnalysisGround Truth AnalysisSpatial Deconvolution AnalysisIndependent Component AnalysisMajor Advances in Nuclear Planetary Science: MoonMarsMercuryAsteroidsFuture MissionsNuclear Planetary Science as a Tool to Study Life in the Universe: IntroductionCharacteristics of Life on the Present-Day EarthPossible Origin of Life on Earth and Other PlanetsSearch for Planets and Their Associated Life in the GalaxyNuclear Planetary Science as a Tool to Study Life in the Outer SpaceSome Specific Topics Associated with the Search for LifeConcluding Remarks Readership: Students and specialists interested in Nuclear Planetary Science and the a much wider field of Earth and Planetary Science. Keywords: Nuclear Planetology;Principle of Nuclear Spectroscopy;Natural Sources of Planetary Radiations;Natural Radionuclides;Cosmic Ray Produced Gamma-Rays and Neutrons;X-Rays Induced by Solar X-Rays;Active Sources of Neutrons;Active Sources of X-Rays;Nuclear Spectrometer;Gamma-Ray Detector;Semi-Conductor Detector;Scintillation Detector;Neutron Detector;Thermal Neutron Detector;Epithermal and Fast Neutron Detector;X-Ray Fluorescent Spectrometer;Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study;Nuclear Planetary Exploration;Lunar Nuclear Exploration;Lunar Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy;Lunar Neutron Spectroscopy;Lunar X-Ray Fluorescen

Complementarity Between Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering


Author: Albert Furrer
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814616273
Category:
Page: 392
View: 1368

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Understanding and manipulating the properties of materials naturally occurring in our world and artificially produced by modern technologies requires detailed information on their properties on the atomic scale. This information is the basis for any kind of research in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, metallurgy, and ceramics. Among the various experimental methods, neutron and photon scattering have become the key techniques of choice. This book provides an overview of the complementarity between neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. The most important topics are covered, including structure determination, magnetic correlations, polymer dynamics, thin films and multilayers, photoemission studies, etc; they are thoroughly introduced and discussed by experts from both the experimental and the theoretical side. Contents:Neutron- and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering (The Theoretical Principles) (W E Fischer)Structure Determination by Powder Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction (A N Fitch)Magnetic Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering (W G Stirling)Magnetic Excitations Through the Eye of the Neutron (W J L Buyers)Topological Excitations in Low-Dimensional Magnets (H B Braun)Elastic and Inelastic X-Ray Scattering from Correlated Electrons: A Theoretical Perspective (M Altarelli)From Thin Films to Superlattices Studied with X-Rays and Neutrons (D F McMorrow)Small-Angle and Surface Scattering from Porous and Fractal Materials (S K Sinha)Hot Topics in Condensed Matter Physics (H R Ott)Neutron Beam Optics (P Böni)Synchrotron X-Ray Beam Optics (A Freund)Summary Lecture: Some Features of the Scattering and Absorption of Beams of Neutrons and Beams of X-Rays (S W Lovesey)and other papers Readership: Condensed matter and solid state physicists. Keywords:Photon Scattering;Structure Determination;Magnetic Correlations;Polymer Dynamics;Thin Films;Multilayers;Photoemission Studies;Synchrotron X-Ray;Optics;Neutrons

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction

The Commonwealth and International Library: Selected Readings in Physics
Author: G. E. Bacon
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483158292
Category: Science
Page: 378
View: 7839

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X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction describes the developments of the X-ray and the various research done in neutron diffraction. Part I of the book concerns the principles and applications of the X-ray and neutrons through their origins from classical crystallography. The book explains the use of diffraction methods to show the highly regular arrangement of atoms that forms a continuous pattern in three-dimensional space. The text evaluates the limitations and benefits of using the different types of radiation sources, whether these are X-rays, neutrons, or electrons. Part II is a collection of reprints discussing the development of techniques that includes a modification of the Bragg method, which is a method of X-ray crystal analysis. One paper presents an improved numerical method of two-dimensional Fourier synthesis for crystals. This method uses a greatly reduced process of arrangement of sets of figures found in the two-dimensional Fourier series. The book also notes the theoretical considerations and the practical details, and then addresses precautions against possible inclusions of errors in this method. The text deals as well with the magnetic scattering of neutrons, and one paper presents a simple method of gathering information about the magnetic moment of the neutron besides the traditional Stern-Gerlach method. Nuclear scientists and physicists, atomic researchers, and nuclear engineers will greatly appreciate the book.

Elements of Modern X-ray Physics


Author: Jens Als-Nielsen,Des McMorrow
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119970156
Category: Science
Page: 432
View: 1114

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Eagerly awaited, this second edition of a best-selling text comprehensively describes from a modern perspective the basics of x-ray physics as well as the completely new opportunities offered by synchrotron radiation. Written by internationally acclaimed authors, the style of the book is to develop the basic physical principles without obscuring them with excessive mathematics. The second edition differs substantially from the first edition, with over 30% new material, including: A new chapter on non-crystalline diffraction - designed to appeal to the large community who study the structure of liquids, glasses, and most importantly polymers and bio-molecules A new chapter on x-ray imaging - developed in close cooperation with many of the leading experts in the field Two new chapters covering non-crystalline diffraction and imaging Many important changes to various sections in the book have been made with a view to improving the exposition Four-colour representation throughout the text to clarify key concepts Extensive problems after each chapter There is also supplementary book material for this title available online (http://booksupport.wiley.com). Praise for the previous edition: “The publication of Jens Als-Nielsen and Des McMorrow’s Elements of Modern X-ray Physics is a defining moment in the field of synchrotron radiation… a welcome addition to the bookshelves of synchrotron–radiation professionals and students alike.... The text is now my personal choice for teaching x-ray physics…” – Physics Today, 2002

X-Ray Absorption and X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

Theory and Applications
Author: Jeroen A. van Bokhoven,Carlo Lamberti
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118844238
Category: NATURE
Page: 890
View: 6833

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During the last two decades, remarkable and often spectacular progress has been made in the methodological and instrumental aspects of x–ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. This progress includes considerable technological improvements in the design and production of detectors especially with the development and expansion of large-scale synchrotron reactors All this has resulted in improved analytical performance and new applications, as well as in the perspective of a dramatic enhancement in the potential of x–ray based analysis techniques for the near future. This comprehensive two-volume treatise features articles that explain the phenomena and describe examples of X–ray absorption and emission applications in several fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, catalysis, amorphous and liquid systems, synchrotron radiation, and surface phenomena. Contributors explain the underlying theory, how to set up X–ray absorption experiments, and how to analyze the details of the resulting spectra. X-Ray Absorption and X-ray Emission Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications: Combines the theory, instrumentation and applications of x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies which offer unique diagnostics to study almost any object in the Universe. Is the go-to reference book in the subject for all researchers across multi-disciplines since intense beams from modern sources have revolutionized x-ray science in recent years Is relevant to students, postdocurates and researchers working on x-rays and related synchrotron sources and applications in materials, physics, medicine, environment/geology, and biomedical materials

Spectroscopy in Biology and Chemistry

Neutron, X-Ray, Laser
Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Sidney Yip
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483217450
Category: Science
Page: 424
View: 6905

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Spectroscopy in Biology and Chemistry discusses the use of thermal neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering, and the related techniques of x-ray diffraction, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, in investigating biological macromolecules and chemical systems. The book describes neutron, x-ray and laser spectroscopy; quasielastic scattering in neutron and laser spectroscopy; and interatomic forces, molecular structure and molecular vibrations. The text also discusses the x-ray crystallography of biological molecules; neutron diffraction studies of hydrogen bonding in organic and biochemical systems; and comparative x-ray and neutron diffraction from nerve myelin membranes. Neutron spectroscopy of chain polymers; chemical and biological applications of neutron inelastic scattering; and neutron scattering and optical studies of molecular vibrations are also considered. The book further tackles small angle neutron scattering from polymers; the use of tunable laser resonance Raman spectroscopy in biology; and the use photon correlation spectroscopy in biology. Students and faculty members in physics, chemistry, and biology, and research workers in related fields will find the text invaluable.

Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy


Author: K. Siegbahn
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444596992
Category: Science
Page: 915
View: 2596

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Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Volume 1 offers a comprehensive account of radioactivity and related low-energy phenomena. It summarizes progress in the field of alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, including the discovery of the non-conservation of parity, as well as new experimental methods that elucidate the processes of weak interactions in general and beta-decay in particular. Comprised of 14 chapters, the book presents experimental methods and theoretical discussions and calculations to maintain the link between experiment and theory. It begins with a discussion of the interaction of electrons and alpha particles with matter. The book explains the elastic scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei and the interaction between gamma-radiation and matter. It then introduces topic on beta-ray spectrometer theory and design and crystal diffraction spectroscopy of nuclear gamma rays. Moreover, the book discusses the applications of the scintillation counter; proportional counting in gases; and the general processes and procedures used in determining disintegration schemes through a study of the beta- and gamma-rays emitted. In addition, it covers the nuclear shell model; collective nuclear motion and the unified model; and alpha-decay conservation laws. The emissions of gamma-radiation during charged particle bombardment and from fission fragments, as well as the neutron-capture radiation spectroscopy, are also explained. Experimentalists will find this book extremely useful.

X-ray and Neutron Reflectivity

Principles and Applications
Author: Jean Daillant,Alain Gibaud
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540885889
Category: Science
Page: 350
View: 7417

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ways in which the magnetic interaction between neutrons and magnetic moments can yield information on the magnetization densities of thin ?lms and multilayers. I commend the organizers for having organized a group of expert lecturers to present this subject in a detailed but clear fashion, as the importance of the subject deserves. Argonne, IL S. K. Sinha Contents 1 The Interaction of X-Rays (and Neutrons) with Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 F. de Bergevin 1. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 2 Generalities and De?nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. 3 From the Scattering by an Object to the Propagation in a Medium . 14 1. 4 X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1. 5 X-Rays: Anisotropic Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 1. A Appendix: the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2 Statistical Aspects of Wave Scattering at Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 A. Sentenac and J. Daillant 2. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2. 2 Description of Randomly Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 2. 3 Description of a Surface Scattering Experiment, Coherence Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2. 4 Statistical Formulation of the Diffraction Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 2. 5 Statistical Formulation of the Scattered Intensity Under the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3 Specular Re?ectivity from Smooth and Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 A. Gibaud and G. Vignaud 3. 1 The Re?ected Intensity from an Ideally Flat Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3. 2 X-Ray Re?ectivity in Strati?ed Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 3. 3 From Dynamical to Kinematical Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 3. 4 In?uence of the Roughness on the Matrix Coef?cients . . . . . . . . . . 111 3. A Appendix: The Treatment of Roughness in Specular Re?ectivity . . 113 3. B Appendix: Inversion of re?ectivity data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Neutron Scattering with a Triple-Axis Spectrometer

Basic Techniques
Author: Gen Shirane,Stephen M. Shapiro,John M. Tranquada
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139431019
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 7120

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Neutron scattering is an extremely powerful tool in the study of elemental excitations in condensed matter. This book provides a practical guide to basic techniques using a triple-axis spectrometer. Introductory chapters summarize useful scattering formulas and describe the components of a spectrometer, followed by a comprehensive discussion of the resolution function and focusing effects. Later sections include simple examples of phonon and magnon measurements, and an analysis of spurious effects in both inelastic and elastic measurements, and how to avoid them. Finally, polarization analysis techniques and their applications are covered. This guide will allow graduate students and experienced researchers new to neutron scattering to make the most efficient use of their experimental time.

Spectroscopy in Biology and Chemistry

Neutron, X-Ray, Laser
Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Sidney Yip
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483217450
Category: Science
Page: 424
View: 1037

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Spectroscopy in Biology and Chemistry discusses the use of thermal neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering, and the related techniques of x-ray diffraction, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, in investigating biological macromolecules and chemical systems. The book describes neutron, x-ray and laser spectroscopy; quasielastic scattering in neutron and laser spectroscopy; and interatomic forces, molecular structure and molecular vibrations. The text also discusses the x-ray crystallography of biological molecules; neutron diffraction studies of hydrogen bonding in organic and biochemical systems; and comparative x-ray and neutron diffraction from nerve myelin membranes. Neutron spectroscopy of chain polymers; chemical and biological applications of neutron inelastic scattering; and neutron scattering and optical studies of molecular vibrations are also considered. The book further tackles small angle neutron scattering from polymers; the use of tunable laser resonance Raman spectroscopy in biology; and the use photon correlation spectroscopy in biology. Students and faculty members in physics, chemistry, and biology, and research workers in related fields will find the text invaluable.

X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization


Author: Challa S.S.R. Kumar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662486067
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 830
View: 1889

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Fifth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

X-ray spectroscopy and allied areas


Author: S. K. Joshi
Publisher: Alpha Science Intl Ltd
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 280
View: 3852

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Papers presented at the 6th National Seminar on X-ray Spectroscopy and Allied Areas held at Ratlam, India, November 17-19, 1997.

Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods

XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques
Author: Hem Raj Verma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540302794
Category: Science
Page: 376
View: 8322

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This book compares and offers a comprehensive overview of nine analytical techniques important in material science and many other branches of science. All these methods are already well adapted to applications in diverse fields such as medical, environmental studies, archaeology, and materials science. This clearly presented reference describes and compares the principles of the methods and the various source and detector types.

Solar Neutrons and Related Phenomena


Author: Lev Dorman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048137374
Category: Science
Page: 873
View: 9099

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Short Historical Overview In the 1940s, two phenomena in the ?eld of cosmic rays (CR) forced scientists to think that the Sun is a powerful source of high-energy particles. One of these was discovered because of the daily solar variation of CR, which the maximum number of CR observed near noon (referring to the existence of continuous ?ux of CR from the direction of the Sun); this became the experimental basis of the theory that CR’s ́ originate from the Sun (or, for that matter, from within the solar system) (Alfven 1954). The second phenomenon was discovered when large ?uxes of high energy particles were detected from several solar ?ares, or solar CR. These are the - called ground level events (GLE), and were ?rst observed by ionization chambers shielded by 10 cm Pb (and detected mainly from the secondary muon-component CR that they caused) during the events of the 28th of February 1942, the 7th of March 1942, the 25th of July 1946, and the 19th of November 1949. The biggest such event was detected on the 23rd of February 1956 (see the detailed description in Chapters X and XI of Dorman, M1957). The ?rst phenomenon was investigated in detail in Dorman (M1957), by ?rst correcting experimental data on muon temperature effects and then by using coupling functions to determine the change in particle energy caused by the solar-diurnal CR variation.

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Fundamentals
Author: Tatau Nishinaga
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444593764
Category: Science
Page: 1214
View: 2125

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Volume IA Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Thermodynamics and Kinetics) Volume IA addresses the present status of crystal growth science, and provides scientific tools for the following volumes: Volume II (Bulk Crystal Growth) and III (Thin Film Growth and Epitaxy). Volume IA highlights thermodynamics and kinetics. After historical introduction of the crystal growth, phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics, stoichiometry, and shape of crystal and structure of melt are described. Then, the most fundamental and basic aspects of crystal growth are presented, along with the theories of nucleation and growth kinetics. In addition, the simulations of crystal growth by Monte Carlo, ab initio-based approach and colloidal assembly are thoroughly investigated. Volume IB Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Transport and Stability) Volume IB discusses pattern formation, a typical problem in crystal growth. In addition, an introduction to morphological stability is given and the phase-field model is explained with comparison to experiments. The field of nanocrystal growth is rapidly expanding and here the growth from vapor is presented as an example. For the advancement of life science, the crystal growth of protein and other biological molecules is indispensable and biological crystallization in nature gives many hints for their crystal growth. Another subject discussed is pharmaceutical crystal growth. To understand the crystal growth, in situ observation is extremely powerful. The observation techniques are demonstrated. Volume IA Explores phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics of Si, stoichiometry of oxides and atomistic structure of melt and alloys Explains basic ideas to understand crystal growth, equilibrium shape of crystal, rough-smooth transition of step and surface, nucleation and growth mechanisms Focuses on simulation of crystal growth by classical Monte Carlo, ab-initio based quantum mechanical approach, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field model. Controlled colloidal assembly is presented as an experimental model for crystal growth. Volume IIB Describes morphological stability theory and phase-field model and comparison to experiments of dendritic growth Presents nanocrystal growth in vapor as well as protein crystal growth and biological crystallization Interprets mass production of pharmaceutical crystals to be understood as ordinary crystal growth and explains crystallization of chiral molecules Demonstrates in situ observation of crystal growth in vapor, solution and melt on the ground and in space