Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy


Author: Françoise Hippert,Erik Geissler,Jean Louis Hodeau,Eddy Lelièvre-Berna,Jean-René Regnard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402033370
Category: Science
Page: 566
View: 2977

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- Up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources - Multi-technique approach set around a central theme, rather than a monograph on one technique - Emphasis on the complementarity of neutron spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy which are usually treated in separate books

Nuclear Planetary Science: Planetary Science Based On Gamma-ray, Neutron And X-ray Spectroscopy


Author: Hasebe Nobuyuki,Kim Kyeong Ja,Sakurai Kunitomo
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813209720
Category: Science
Page: 180
View: 9208

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Nuclear planetary science has come to play an important role in our understanding of the origin and evolution of the planetary bodies in our solar system. A newly established branch of planetary science, its study aids in humankind's exploration of the present states of the structures of various planetary bodies (including the Earth), their atmospheres and their satellites, as well as small celestial bodies (e.g. asteroids), through direct observation. Knowing the elemental composition of the planetary bodies is essential in order to understand the formation and evolution of planetary bodies — just as important as it is to know the mass, radius, density and orbit of the celestial body. Suitable for students and specialists interested in the much wider field of Earth and Planetary Science, topics related to the planets and asteroids in the solar system are dealt with in this book. Techniques related to nuclear planetary science's nuclear cosmochemical and geological methods are also covered in this book. Contents: Introduction: Planetary ScienceNuclear Planetary SciencePrinciple of Nuclear Spectroscopy: Natural Source of Planetary Gamma RaysActive Sources of Neutrons and X-RaysNuclear Spectrometer: Gamma-Ray DetectorNeutron DetectorActive Fluorescence X-Ray SpectrometerNumerical Simulation and Laboratory Experiment: Production of Radionuclides in ExtraterrestrialNumerical Simulation and Thick-Target ExperimentNuclear Planetary Exploration: Apollo Gamma-Ray and X-Ray SpectrometerLunar Prospector Gamma-Ray and Neutron SpectrometersKaguya Gamma-Ray SpectrometerChang'E-2 Gamma-Ray SpectrometersChandrayaan-1 High-Energy X-Ray/Gamma-Ray SpectrometerMars Nuclear SpectrometerMESSENGER Gamma-Ray and Neutron SpectrometerNear X-Ray/Gamma-Ray SpectrometerDawn Mission Gamma-Ray and Neutron SpectrometerRosetta Alpha Particle X-Ray SpectrometerData Reduction: Response Function AnalysisEnergy Band AnalysisPhotopeak AnalysisGround Truth AnalysisSpatial Deconvolution AnalysisIndependent Component AnalysisMajor Advances in Nuclear Planetary Science: MoonMarsMercuryAsteroidsFuture MissionsNuclear Planetary Science as a Tool to Study Life in the Universe: IntroductionCharacteristics of Life on the Present-Day EarthPossible Origin of Life on Earth and Other PlanetsSearch for Planets and Their Associated Life in the GalaxyNuclear Planetary Science as a Tool to Study Life in the Outer SpaceSome Specific Topics Associated with the Search for LifeConcluding Remarks Readership: Students and specialists interested in Nuclear Planetary Science and the a much wider field of Earth and Planetary Science. Keywords: Nuclear Planetology;Principle of Nuclear Spectroscopy;Natural Sources of Planetary Radiations;Natural Radionuclides;Cosmic Ray Produced Gamma-Rays and Neutrons;X-Rays Induced by Solar X-Rays;Active Sources of Neutrons;Active Sources of X-Rays;Nuclear Spectrometer;Gamma-Ray Detector;Semi-Conductor Detector;Scintillation Detector;Neutron Detector;Thermal Neutron Detector;Epithermal and Fast Neutron Detector;X-Ray Fluorescent Spectrometer;Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study;Nuclear Planetary Exploration;Lunar Nuclear Exploration;Lunar Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy;Lunar Neutron Spectroscopy;Lunar X-Ray Fluorescen

Spectroscopy in Biology and Chemistry

Neutron, X-Ray, Laser
Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Sidney Yip
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483217450
Category: Science
Page: 424
View: 4678

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Spectroscopy in Biology and Chemistry discusses the use of thermal neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering, and the related techniques of x-ray diffraction, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, in investigating biological macromolecules and chemical systems. The book describes neutron, x-ray and laser spectroscopy; quasielastic scattering in neutron and laser spectroscopy; and interatomic forces, molecular structure and molecular vibrations. The text also discusses the x-ray crystallography of biological molecules; neutron diffraction studies of hydrogen bonding in organic and biochemical systems; and comparative x-ray and neutron diffraction from nerve myelin membranes. Neutron spectroscopy of chain polymers; chemical and biological applications of neutron inelastic scattering; and neutron scattering and optical studies of molecular vibrations are also considered. The book further tackles small angle neutron scattering from polymers; the use of tunable laser resonance Raman spectroscopy in biology; and the use photon correlation spectroscopy in biology. Students and faculty members in physics, chemistry, and biology, and research workers in related fields will find the text invaluable.

Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences


Author: Liyuan Liang,Romano Rinaldi,Helmut Schober
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387094168
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 638
View: 875

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Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences offers a comprehensive overview of the wide ranging applications of neutron scattering techniques to elucidate the fundamental materials properties at the nano-, micro- and meso-scale, which underpin research in the related fields of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences. Introductions to neutron scattering fundamentals and instrumentation are paired with a thorough review of the applications to a large variety of scientific and technological problems, written through the direct experience of leading scientists in each field. Tailored to a wide audience, this volume provides the novice with an inspiring introduction and stimulates the expert to consider these non-conventional problem solving techniques in his/her field of interest. Earth and environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and graduate students involved with materials science will find Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences a valuable ready-to-use reference.

X-ray spectroscopy and allied areas


Author: S. K. Joshi
Publisher: Alpha Science Intl Ltd
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 280
View: 6707

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Papers presented at the 6th National Seminar on X-ray Spectroscopy and Allied Areas held at Ratlam, India, November 17-19, 1997.

Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium Capture Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics

2-6 September, 2002, Pruhonice Near Prague, Czech Republic
Author: Jan Kvasil,Pavel Cejnar,Milan Krti?ka
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812383913
Category: Science
Page: 867
View: 8364

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This volume is a collection of invited talks, oral contributions and poster contributions devoted to advances in gamma-ray spectroscopy of various capture reactions. In agreement with the trend of previous meetings in the series, the symposium paid special attention to theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear structure at low energies and to nuclear astrophysics. Among the other topics covered are: statistical properties of nuclei and other quantum many-body systems, fundamental physics, nuclear data, practical application of capture reactions, and new techniques and facilities for capture gamma-ray spectroscopy.

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Fundamentals
Author: Tatau Nishinaga
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444593764
Category: Science
Page: 1214
View: 2657

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Volume IA Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Thermodynamics and Kinetics) Volume IA addresses the present status of crystal growth science, and provides scientific tools for the following volumes: Volume II (Bulk Crystal Growth) and III (Thin Film Growth and Epitaxy). Volume IA highlights thermodynamics and kinetics. After historical introduction of the crystal growth, phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics, stoichiometry, and shape of crystal and structure of melt are described. Then, the most fundamental and basic aspects of crystal growth are presented, along with the theories of nucleation and growth kinetics. In addition, the simulations of crystal growth by Monte Carlo, ab initio-based approach and colloidal assembly are thoroughly investigated. Volume IB Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Transport and Stability) Volume IB discusses pattern formation, a typical problem in crystal growth. In addition, an introduction to morphological stability is given and the phase-field model is explained with comparison to experiments. The field of nanocrystal growth is rapidly expanding and here the growth from vapor is presented as an example. For the advancement of life science, the crystal growth of protein and other biological molecules is indispensable and biological crystallization in nature gives many hints for their crystal growth. Another subject discussed is pharmaceutical crystal growth. To understand the crystal growth, in situ observation is extremely powerful. The observation techniques are demonstrated. Volume IA Explores phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics of Si, stoichiometry of oxides and atomistic structure of melt and alloys Explains basic ideas to understand crystal growth, equilibrium shape of crystal, rough-smooth transition of step and surface, nucleation and growth mechanisms Focuses on simulation of crystal growth by classical Monte Carlo, ab-initio based quantum mechanical approach, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field model. Controlled colloidal assembly is presented as an experimental model for crystal growth. Volume IIB Describes morphological stability theory and phase-field model and comparison to experiments of dendritic growth Presents nanocrystal growth in vapor as well as protein crystal growth and biological crystallization Interprets mass production of pharmaceutical crystals to be understood as ordinary crystal growth and explains crystallization of chiral molecules Demonstrates in situ observation of crystal growth in vapor, solution and melt on the ground and in space

Scattering Methods in Complex Fluids


Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Piero Tartaglia
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521883806
Category: Science
Page: 400
View: 9964

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A modern and experimental perspective on the developments in recent decades of the physics of complex liquids.

Solar Neutrons and Related Phenomena


Author: Lev Dorman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048137374
Category: Science
Page: 873
View: 762

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Short Historical Overview In the 1940s, two phenomena in the ?eld of cosmic rays (CR) forced scientists to think that the Sun is a powerful source of high-energy particles. One of these was discovered because of the daily solar variation of CR, which the maximum number of CR observed near noon (referring to the existence of continuous ?ux of CR from the direction of the Sun); this became the experimental basis of the theory that CR’s ́ originate from the Sun (or, for that matter, from within the solar system) (Alfven 1954). The second phenomenon was discovered when large ?uxes of high energy particles were detected from several solar ?ares, or solar CR. These are the - called ground level events (GLE), and were ?rst observed by ionization chambers shielded by 10 cm Pb (and detected mainly from the secondary muon-component CR that they caused) during the events of the 28th of February 1942, the 7th of March 1942, the 25th of July 1946, and the 19th of November 1949. The biggest such event was detected on the 23rd of February 1956 (see the detailed description in Chapters X and XI of Dorman, M1957). The ?rst phenomenon was investigated in detail in Dorman (M1957), by ?rst correcting experimental data on muon temperature effects and then by using coupling functions to determine the change in particle energy caused by the solar-diurnal CR variation.

Neutron Scattering in Biology

Techniques and Applications
Author: Jörg Fitter,Thomas Gutberlet
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540291084
Category: Medical
Page: 557
View: 336

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The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

Soft-Matter Characterization


Author: Redouane Borsali,Robert Pecora
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140204464X
Category: Science
Page: 1452
View: 7861

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This 2-volume set includes extensive discussions of scattering techniques (light, neutron and X-ray) and related fluctuation and grating techniques that are at the forefront of this field. Most of the scattering techniques are Fourier space techniques. Recent advances have seen the development of powerful direct imaging methods such as atomic force microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. In addition, techniques that can be used to manipulate soft matter on the nanometer scale are also in rapid development. These include the scanning probe microscopy technique mentioned above as well as optical and magnetic tweezers.

Nuclear and Radiation Chemical Approaches to Fullerene Science


Author: Tibor Braun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792365242
Category: Science
Page: 203
View: 7134

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The serendipitous discovery of the fullerenes by Kroto, Curl and Smalley in 1985, and the isolation and characterization of C60 by Krätschmer and Huffman in 1990 has caused an epidemic of research in this field. As a result, basic research on fullerenes has generated new knowledge as published in thousands of journal papers. The nuclear and radiation approaches, however, have been somewhat neglected in books dedicated to fullerene sciences, although these approaches have generated very interesting knowledge on the structure and composition of these new all-carbon molecules. This monograph intends to bridge this gap by dealing with the various aspects of nuclear sciences as applied to the generation of new knowledge in fullerene sciences. Ten chapters appear in this volume and were chosen to present a panoramic view and to provide theoretical perspectives, research methods, and experimental results on the topic. This book will serve both as an introduction to the subfield and as an aid to setting an agenda for scientists interested in this area of research. This is the first volume in a new series devoted to the developments in fullerene science.

Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis and Related Methods


Author: Reinhold Klockenkämper,Alex von Bohlen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118988965
Category: Science
Page: 552
View: 1163

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Explores the uses of TXRF in micro- and trace analysis, and insurface- and near-surface-layer analysis • Pinpoints new applications of TRXF in different fieldsof biology, biomonitoring, material and life sciences, medicine,toxicology, forensics, art history, and archaeometry • Updated and detailed sections on sample preparationtaking into account nano- and picoliter techniques • Offers helpful tips on performing analyses, includingsample preparations, and spectra recording and interpretation • Includes some 700 references for further study

Advances in Urea Research and Application: 2012 Edition

ScholarlyBrief
Author: N.A
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 148160693X
Category: Medical
Page: 81
View: 1393

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Advances in Urea Research and Application / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Urea in a concise format. The editors have built Advances in Urea Research and Application / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Urea in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Urea Research and Application / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Radioactive Elements—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition


Author: N.A
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1490104216
Category: Science
Page: 232
View: 2896

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Radioactive Elements—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Radon. The editors have built Radioactive Elements—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Radon in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Radioactive Elements—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Physical Properties of Quasicrystals


Author: Zbigniew M. Stadnik
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540651888
Category: Science
Page: 443
View: 7529

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Quasicrystals are a new form of the solid state which differ from the other two known forms, crystalline and amorphous, by possesing a new type of long-range translational order, called quasiperiodicty, and a noncrystallographic orientational order. This book provides an up-to-date description of the unusual physical properties of these new materials. Emphasis is placed on the experimental results, which are compared with those of the corresponding crystalline and amorphous systems and discussed in terms of modern theoretical models. Written by leading authorities in the field, the book will be of great use both to experienced workers in the field and to uninitiated graduate students.

Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics


Author: Alexei Erko,Mourad Idir,Thomas Krist,Alan G. Michette
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540745602
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 534
View: 2345

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This volume describes modern developments in reflective, refractive and diffractive optics for short wavelength radiation. It also covers recent theoretical approaches to modelling and ray-tracing the x-ray and neutron optical systems. It is based on the joint research activities of specialists in x-ray and neutron optics, working together under the framework of the European Programme for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST, Action P7) in the period 2002-2006.

Vibrational Spectroscopy with Neutrons

With Applications in Chemistry, Biology, Materials Science and Catalysis
Author: Philip Charles Harry Mitchell
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812560130
Category: Science
Page: 642
View: 5522

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Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is a spectroscopic technique in which neutrons are used to probe the dynamics of atoms and molecules in solids and liquids. This book is the first, since the late 1960s, to cover the principles and applications of INS as a vibrational-spectroscopic technique. It provides a hands-on account of the use of INS, concentrating on how neutron vibrational spectroscopy can be employed to obtain chemical information on a range of materials that are of interest to chemists, biologists, materials scientists, surface scientists and catalyst researchers. This is an accessible and comprehensive single-volume primary text and reference source.