Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy


Author: Françoise Hippert,Erik Geissler,Jean Louis Hodeau,Eddy Lelièvre-Berna,Jean-René Regnard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402033370
Category: Science
Page: 566
View: 1841

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- Up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources - Multi-technique approach set around a central theme, rather than a monograph on one technique - Emphasis on the complementarity of neutron spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy which are usually treated in separate books

Nuclear Planetary Science: Planetary Science Based On Gamma-ray, Neutron And X-ray Spectroscopy


Author: Hasebe Nobuyuki,Kim Kyeong Ja,Sakurai Kunitomo
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813209720
Category: Science
Page: 180
View: 6018

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Nuclear planetary science has come to play an important role in our understanding of the origin and evolution of the planetary bodies in our solar system. A newly established branch of planetary science, its study aids in humankind's exploration of the present states of the structures of various planetary bodies (including the Earth), their atmospheres and their satellites, as well as small celestial bodies (e.g. asteroids), through direct observation. Knowing the elemental composition of the planetary bodies is essential in order to understand the formation and evolution of planetary bodies — just as important as it is to know the mass, radius, density and orbit of the celestial body. Suitable for students and specialists interested in the much wider field of Earth and Planetary Science, topics related to the planets and asteroids in the solar system are dealt with in this book. Techniques related to nuclear planetary science's nuclear cosmochemical and geological methods are also covered in this book. Contents: Introduction: Planetary ScienceNuclear Planetary SciencePrinciple of Nuclear Spectroscopy: Natural Source of Planetary Gamma RaysActive Sources of Neutrons and X-RaysNuclear Spectrometer: Gamma-Ray DetectorNeutron DetectorActive Fluorescence X-Ray SpectrometerNumerical Simulation and Laboratory Experiment: Production of Radionuclides in ExtraterrestrialNumerical Simulation and Thick-Target ExperimentNuclear Planetary Exploration: Apollo Gamma-Ray and X-Ray SpectrometerLunar Prospector Gamma-Ray and Neutron SpectrometersKaguya Gamma-Ray SpectrometerChang'E-2 Gamma-Ray SpectrometersChandrayaan-1 High-Energy X-Ray/Gamma-Ray SpectrometerMars Nuclear SpectrometerMESSENGER Gamma-Ray and Neutron SpectrometerNear X-Ray/Gamma-Ray SpectrometerDawn Mission Gamma-Ray and Neutron SpectrometerRosetta Alpha Particle X-Ray SpectrometerData Reduction: Response Function AnalysisEnergy Band AnalysisPhotopeak AnalysisGround Truth AnalysisSpatial Deconvolution AnalysisIndependent Component AnalysisMajor Advances in Nuclear Planetary Science: MoonMarsMercuryAsteroidsFuture MissionsNuclear Planetary Science as a Tool to Study Life in the Universe: IntroductionCharacteristics of Life on the Present-Day EarthPossible Origin of Life on Earth and Other PlanetsSearch for Planets and Their Associated Life in the GalaxyNuclear Planetary Science as a Tool to Study Life in the Outer SpaceSome Specific Topics Associated with the Search for LifeConcluding Remarks Readership: Students and specialists interested in Nuclear Planetary Science and the a much wider field of Earth and Planetary Science. Keywords: Nuclear Planetology;Principle of Nuclear Spectroscopy;Natural Sources of Planetary Radiations;Natural Radionuclides;Cosmic Ray Produced Gamma-Rays and Neutrons;X-Rays Induced by Solar X-Rays;Active Sources of Neutrons;Active Sources of X-Rays;Nuclear Spectrometer;Gamma-Ray Detector;Semi-Conductor Detector;Scintillation Detector;Neutron Detector;Thermal Neutron Detector;Epithermal and Fast Neutron Detector;X-Ray Fluorescent Spectrometer;Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study;Nuclear Planetary Exploration;Lunar Nuclear Exploration;Lunar Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy;Lunar Neutron Spectroscopy;Lunar X-Ray Fluorescen

Spectroscopy in Biology and Chemistry

Neutron, X-Ray, Laser
Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Sidney Yip
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483217450
Category: Science
Page: 424
View: 2156

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Spectroscopy in Biology and Chemistry discusses the use of thermal neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering, and the related techniques of x-ray diffraction, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, in investigating biological macromolecules and chemical systems. The book describes neutron, x-ray and laser spectroscopy; quasielastic scattering in neutron and laser spectroscopy; and interatomic forces, molecular structure and molecular vibrations. The text also discusses the x-ray crystallography of biological molecules; neutron diffraction studies of hydrogen bonding in organic and biochemical systems; and comparative x-ray and neutron diffraction from nerve myelin membranes. Neutron spectroscopy of chain polymers; chemical and biological applications of neutron inelastic scattering; and neutron scattering and optical studies of molecular vibrations are also considered. The book further tackles small angle neutron scattering from polymers; the use of tunable laser resonance Raman spectroscopy in biology; and the use photon correlation spectroscopy in biology. Students and faculty members in physics, chemistry, and biology, and research workers in related fields will find the text invaluable.

Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences


Author: Liyuan Liang,Romano Rinaldi,Helmut Schober
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387094168
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 638
View: 4121

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Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences offers a comprehensive overview of the wide ranging applications of neutron scattering techniques to elucidate the fundamental materials properties at the nano-, micro- and meso-scale, which underpin research in the related fields of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences. Introductions to neutron scattering fundamentals and instrumentation are paired with a thorough review of the applications to a large variety of scientific and technological problems, written through the direct experience of leading scientists in each field. Tailored to a wide audience, this volume provides the novice with an inspiring introduction and stimulates the expert to consider these non-conventional problem solving techniques in his/her field of interest. Earth and environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and graduate students involved with materials science will find Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences a valuable ready-to-use reference.

Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering


Author: L.A. Feigin,D.I. Svergun
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475766246
Category: Science
Page: 335
View: 5946

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Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.

X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization


Author: Challa S.S.R. Kumar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662486067
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 830
View: 6995

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Fifth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

X-ray spectroscopy and allied areas


Author: S. K. Joshi
Publisher: Alpha Science Intl Ltd
ISBN: N.A
Category: Science
Page: 280
View: 4601

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Papers presented at the 6th National Seminar on X-ray Spectroscopy and Allied Areas held at Ratlam, India, November 17-19, 1997.

Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium Capture Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics

2-6 September, 2002, Pruhonice Near Prague, Czech Republic
Author: Jan Kvasil,Pavel Cejnar,Milan Krti?ka
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812383913
Category: Science
Page: 867
View: 9498

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This volume is a collection of invited talks, oral contributions and poster contributions devoted to advances in gamma-ray spectroscopy of various capture reactions. In agreement with the trend of previous meetings in the series, the symposium paid special attention to theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear structure at low energies and to nuclear astrophysics. Among the other topics covered are: statistical properties of nuclei and other quantum many-body systems, fundamental physics, nuclear data, practical application of capture reactions, and new techniques and facilities for capture gamma-ray spectroscopy.

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Fundamentals
Author: Tatau Nishinaga
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444593764
Category: Science
Page: 1214
View: 7273

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Volume IA Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Thermodynamics and Kinetics) Volume IA addresses the present status of crystal growth science, and provides scientific tools for the following volumes: Volume II (Bulk Crystal Growth) and III (Thin Film Growth and Epitaxy). Volume IA highlights thermodynamics and kinetics. After historical introduction of the crystal growth, phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics, stoichiometry, and shape of crystal and structure of melt are described. Then, the most fundamental and basic aspects of crystal growth are presented, along with the theories of nucleation and growth kinetics. In addition, the simulations of crystal growth by Monte Carlo, ab initio-based approach and colloidal assembly are thoroughly investigated. Volume IB Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Transport and Stability) Volume IB discusses pattern formation, a typical problem in crystal growth. In addition, an introduction to morphological stability is given and the phase-field model is explained with comparison to experiments. The field of nanocrystal growth is rapidly expanding and here the growth from vapor is presented as an example. For the advancement of life science, the crystal growth of protein and other biological molecules is indispensable and biological crystallization in nature gives many hints for their crystal growth. Another subject discussed is pharmaceutical crystal growth. To understand the crystal growth, in situ observation is extremely powerful. The observation techniques are demonstrated. Volume IA Explores phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics of Si, stoichiometry of oxides and atomistic structure of melt and alloys Explains basic ideas to understand crystal growth, equilibrium shape of crystal, rough-smooth transition of step and surface, nucleation and growth mechanisms Focuses on simulation of crystal growth by classical Monte Carlo, ab-initio based quantum mechanical approach, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field model. Controlled colloidal assembly is presented as an experimental model for crystal growth. Volume IIB Describes morphological stability theory and phase-field model and comparison to experiments of dendritic growth Presents nanocrystal growth in vapor as well as protein crystal growth and biological crystallization Interprets mass production of pharmaceutical crystals to be understood as ordinary crystal growth and explains crystallization of chiral molecules Demonstrates in situ observation of crystal growth in vapor, solution and melt on the ground and in space

Low-Angle Polarized Neutron and X-Ray Scattering from Magnetic Nanolayers and Nanostructures


Author: Amitesh Paul
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319632248
Category: Science
Page: 143
View: 4071

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This research monograph presents the latest results related to the characterization of low dimensional systems. Low-angle polarized neutron scattering and X-ray scattering at grazing incidence are used as the two main techniques to explore various physical phenomena of these systems. Special focus is put on systems like thin film transition metal and rare-earth layers, oxide heterostructures, hybrid systems, self-assembled nanostructures and self-diffusion. Readers will gain in-depth knowledge about the usage of specular scattering and off-specular scattering techniques. Investigation of in-plane and out-of-plane structures and magnetism with vector magnetometric information is illustrated comprehensively. The book caters to a wide audience working in the field of nano-dimensional magnetic systems and the neutron and X-ray reflectometry community in particular.

Scattering Methods in Complex Fluids


Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Piero Tartaglia
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521883806
Category: Science
Page: 400
View: 9629

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A modern and experimental perspective on the developments in recent decades of the physics of complex liquids.

X-Ray and Neutron Reflectivity: Principles and Applications


Author: Jean Daillant,Alain Gibaud
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540486968
Category: Science
Page: 331
View: 8169

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The reflection of and neutrons from surfaces has existed as an x-rays exp- imental for almost it is in the last technique fifty Nevertheless, only years. decade that these methods have become as of enormously popular probes This the surfaces and interfaces. to be due to of several appears convergence of intense different circumstances. These include the more n- availability be measured orders tron and sources that can over (so reflectivity x-ray many of and the much weaker surface diffuse can now also be magnitude scattering of thin films and studied in some the detail); growing importance multil- basic the realization of the ers in both and technology research; important which in the of surfaces and and role roughness plays properties interfaces; the of statistical models to characterize the of finally development topology its and its characterization from on roughness, dependence growth processes The of and to surface scattering experiments. ability x-rays neutro4s study four five orders of in scale of surfaces over to magnitude length regardless their and also their to ability probe environment, temperature, pressure, etc. , makes these the choice for buried interfaces often probes preferred obtaining information about the microstructure of often in statistical a global surfaces, the local This is manner to complementary imaging microscopy techniques, of such studies in the literature witnessed the veritable by explosion published the last few Thus these lectures will useful for over a resource years.

Solar Neutrons and Related Phenomena


Author: Lev Dorman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048137374
Category: Science
Page: 873
View: 613

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Short Historical Overview In the 1940s, two phenomena in the ?eld of cosmic rays (CR) forced scientists to think that the Sun is a powerful source of high-energy particles. One of these was discovered because of the daily solar variation of CR, which the maximum number of CR observed near noon (referring to the existence of continuous ?ux of CR from the direction of the Sun); this became the experimental basis of the theory that CR’s ́ originate from the Sun (or, for that matter, from within the solar system) (Alfven 1954). The second phenomenon was discovered when large ?uxes of high energy particles were detected from several solar ?ares, or solar CR. These are the - called ground level events (GLE), and were ?rst observed by ionization chambers shielded by 10 cm Pb (and detected mainly from the secondary muon-component CR that they caused) during the events of the 28th of February 1942, the 7th of March 1942, the 25th of July 1946, and the 19th of November 1949. The biggest such event was detected on the 23rd of February 1956 (see the detailed description in Chapters X and XI of Dorman, M1957). The ?rst phenomenon was investigated in detail in Dorman (M1957), by ?rst correcting experimental data on muon temperature effects and then by using coupling functions to determine the change in particle energy caused by the solar-diurnal CR variation.

X-ray and Neutron Reflectivity

Principles and Applications
Author: Jean Daillant,Alain Gibaud
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540885889
Category: Science
Page: 350
View: 4523

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ways in which the magnetic interaction between neutrons and magnetic moments can yield information on the magnetization densities of thin ?lms and multilayers. I commend the organizers for having organized a group of expert lecturers to present this subject in a detailed but clear fashion, as the importance of the subject deserves. Argonne, IL S. K. Sinha Contents 1 The Interaction of X-Rays (and Neutrons) with Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 F. de Bergevin 1. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 2 Generalities and De?nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. 3 From the Scattering by an Object to the Propagation in a Medium . 14 1. 4 X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1. 5 X-Rays: Anisotropic Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 1. A Appendix: the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2 Statistical Aspects of Wave Scattering at Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 A. Sentenac and J. Daillant 2. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2. 2 Description of Randomly Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 2. 3 Description of a Surface Scattering Experiment, Coherence Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2. 4 Statistical Formulation of the Diffraction Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 2. 5 Statistical Formulation of the Scattered Intensity Under the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3 Specular Re?ectivity from Smooth and Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 A. Gibaud and G. Vignaud 3. 1 The Re?ected Intensity from an Ideally Flat Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3. 2 X-Ray Re?ectivity in Strati?ed Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 3. 3 From Dynamical to Kinematical Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 3. 4 In?uence of the Roughness on the Matrix Coef?cients . . . . . . . . . . 111 3. A Appendix: The Treatment of Roughness in Specular Re?ectivity . . 113 3. B Appendix: Inversion of re?ectivity data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Neutron Scattering in Biology

Techniques and Applications
Author: Jörg Fitter,Thomas Gutberlet
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540291084
Category: Medical
Page: 557
View: 5875

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The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

Interaction of Photons and Neutrons with Matter

An Introduction
Author: Sow-Hsin Chen,Michael Kotlarchyk
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810220266
Category: Science
Page: 400
View: 1950

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This book is based on lecture notes developed for a one-semester graduate course entitled The Interaction of Radiation with Matter, taught in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The main objective of the course is to teach enough quantum and classical radiation theory to allow students in engineering and the applied sciences to understand and have access to the vast literature on applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation in materials research. Besides presenting the fundamental physics of radiation interactions, the book devotes individual chapters to some of the important modern-day experimental tools, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, photon correlation spectroscopy, and the various types of neutron, x-ray and light-scattering techniques.

Soft-Matter Characterization


Author: Redouane Borsali,Robert Pecora
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140204464X
Category: Science
Page: 1452
View: 6825

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This 2-volume set includes extensive discussions of scattering techniques (light, neutron and X-ray) and related fluctuation and grating techniques that are at the forefront of this field. Most of the scattering techniques are Fourier space techniques. Recent advances have seen the development of powerful direct imaging methods such as atomic force microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. In addition, techniques that can be used to manipulate soft matter on the nanometer scale are also in rapid development. These include the scanning probe microscopy technique mentioned above as well as optical and magnetic tweezers.

Innovative Technological Materials

Structural Properties by Neutron Scattering, Synchrotron Radiation and Modeling
Author: Jacek J. Skrzypek,Franco Rustichelli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642120596
Category: Science
Page: 279
View: 4806

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This book provides new insight into material science and technology. In particular, non-conventional, unusual or innovative neutron and x-ray scattering experiments (from both the scientific and the instrumental point of view) are described.