Natural Logic and the Greek Moods

The Nature of the Subjunctive and Optative in Classical Greek
Author: David Lightfoot
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110819465
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 149
View: 6809

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The exploring mind. Natural logic and intelligence of the unconscious

Author: Mauro Maldonato,Alfonso Montuori,Silvia Dell'orco
Publisher: Mauro Maldonato
ISBN: 8868550547
Category: Psychology
Page: N.A
View: 5285

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In the last few years, the development of non-invasive research techniques that explore cerebral functions has not only increased our knowledge on the correlations between mental processes and cerebral structures, but it has fed our hopes for the possibility of facing the ancient and elusive question about the mind–brain relationship with a new way of thinking. Science has always faced the problem of consciousness. Consciousness differs radically from the ordinary objects researched by science: not only because of the complexity of the neural infrastructures which are at its base or because of the subtle connections between these infrastructures and phenomena such as decision making, morals and artistic creativity, but above all because of that which gives life to the qualitative dimension and to the subjectivity of its states. Humankind’s singular ability to make decisions has allowed human beings to face innumerable environmental challenges and complex evolutionary dynamics. Environmental pressures are not so urgent anymore, comparing to our ancestors. Nonetheless, the number of decisions that contemporary humans are called to make is very high. During the last three centuries, the change from normative to descriptive theories, from formal to natural logic, from substantive to limited rationality has allowed us to explain how many of the decisional strategies are coherent with the functioning of the cognitive economy of our species, even if they are limited and fallible.

Natural Logic, Judicial Proof and Objective Facts

Author: William Andrew Noye Wells
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862871502
Category: Law
Page: 87
View: 2188

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"For the advocate the task is to see the entire tableau in advance so that the court can be persuaded that a particular bit of evidence is relevant and probative. Wells counsels against looking at the part without regard to the whole: the proper approach is to assess the part within the whole. ...Here is a monograph penned to stamp out the effects of too much distilling, too much cutting and paring. Its argument should delight every magistrate, every first instance trial judge, every advocate who sees the light of the law in the facts. It should give a well earned headache to every practitioner who jumps in too early to conclusions or who likes to fit the facts to the principles instead of the other way around. ...To do Wells justice would require a long piece - and his monograph is a short, but fascinating work. Take the time to read it ..."Hugh Selby

Logic in Reality

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402083750
Category: Philosophy
Page: 362
View: 5491

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This book is both dif?cult and rewarding, affording a new perspective on logic and reality, basically seen in terms of change and stability, being and becoming. Most importantly it exemplifies a mode of doing philosophy of science that seems a welcome departure from the traditional focus on purely analytic arguments. The author approaches ontology, metaphysics, and logic as having offered a number of ways of constructing the description of reality, and aims at deepening their relationships in a new way. Going beyond the mere abstract and formal aspects of logical analysis, he offers a new architecture of logic that sees it as applied not only to the “reasoning processes” belonging to the first disciplinary group – ontology – but also directly concerned with en- ties, events, and phenomena studied by the second one – metaphysics. It is the task of the book to elaborate such a constructive logic, both by offering a lo- cal view of the structure of the reality in general and by proffering a wealth of models able to encompass its implications for science. In turning from the merely formal to the constructive account of logic Brenner overcomes the limitation of logic to linguistic concepts so that it can be not only a logic “of” reality but also “in” that reality which is constitutively characterized by a number of fundamental dualities (observer and observed, self and not-self, internal and external, etc.

Logic, Language and Meaning

17th Amsterdam Colloquium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, December 16-18, 2009, Revised Selected Papers
Author: Maria Aloni,Harald Bastiaanse,Tikitu de Jager,Katrin Schulz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642142869
Category: Computers
Page: 476
View: 1772

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The FoLLI LNAI subline aims to disseminate cutting-edge results in logic, language and information (LLI) research, development and education. LLI is the topical focus of FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information ( FoLLI was founded in 1991 to advance research and education on the interface between logic, linguistics, computer science and cognitive science and related disciplines. Cross-fertilization between these areas has frequently led to significant progress on challenging research problems. Consequently, titles in the FoLLI LNAI series are targeted at researchers in multiple disciplines. As one of its major international activities, FoLLI organizes each year the European Summer School for Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI). In parallel to the printed book, each new volume is published electronically in LNCS/LNAI Online.

Seeking Nature's Logic

Natural Philosophy in the Scottish Enlightenment
Author: David B. Wilson
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 9780271035253
Category: Science
Page: 344
View: 4412

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"Studies the path of natural philosophy (i.e., physics) from Isaac Newton through Scotland into the nineteenth-century background to the modern revolution in physics. Examines how the history of science has been influenced by John Robison and other notable intellectuals of the Scottish Enlightenment"--Provided by publisher.

Reasoning, Necessity, and Logic

Developmental Perspectives
Author: Willis F. Overton
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134735219
Category: Psychology
Page: 350
View: 631

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A presentation of current work that systematically explores and articulates the nature, origin and development of reasoning, this volume's primary aim is to describe and examine contemporary theory and research findings on the topic of deductive reasoning. Many contributors believe concepts such as "structure," "competence," and "mental logic" are necessary features for a complete understanding of reasoning. As the book emanates from a Jean Piaget Symposium, his theory of intellectual development as the standard contemporary treatment of deductive reasoning is used as the context in which the contributors elaborate on their own perceptions.

Foundations of Logico-Linguistics

A Unified Theory of Information, Language, and Logic
Author: W.S. Cooper
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027708649
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 250
View: 6221

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In 1962 a mimeographed sheet of paper fell into my possession. It had been prepared by Ernest Adams of the Philosophy Department at Berkeley as a handout for a colloquim. Headed 'SOME FALLACIES OF FORMAL LOGIC' it simply listed eleven little pieces of reasoning, all in ordinary English, and all absurd. I still have the sheet, and quote a couple of the arguments here to give the idea. • If you throw switch S and switch T, the motor will start. There fore, either if you throw switch S the motor will start, or, if you throw switch T the motor will start . • It is not the case that if John passes history he will graduate. Therefore, John will pass history. The disconcerting thing about these inferences is, of course, that under the customary truth-functional interpretation of and, or, not, and if-then, they are supposed to be valid. What, if anything, is wrong? At first I was not disturbed by the examples. Having at that time consider able personal commitment to rationality in general and formal logic in par ticular, I felt it my duty and found myself easily able (or so I thought) to explain away most of them. But on reflection I had to admit that my expla nations had an ad hoc character, varying suspiciously from example to example.

Formal Semantics and Pragmatics for Natural Languages

Author: Franz Guenthner,Siegfried J. Schmidt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400997752
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 379
View: 8527

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The essays in this collection are the outgrowth of a workshop, held in June 1976, on formal approaches to the semantics and pragmatics of natural languages. They document in an astoundingly uniform way the develop ments in the formal analysis of natural languages since the late sixties. The avowed aim of the' workshop was in fact to assess the progress made in the application of formal methods to semantics, to confront different approaches to essentially the same problems on the one hand, and, on the other, to show the way in relating semantic and pragmatic explanations of linguistic phenomena. Several of these papers can in fact be regarded as attempts to close the 'semiotic circle' by bringing together the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic properties of certain constructions in an explanatory framework thereby making it more than obvious that these three components of an integrated linguistic theory cannot be as neatly separated as one would have liked to believe. In other words, not only can we not elaborate a syntactic description of (a fragment of) a language and then proceed to the semantics (as Montague pointed out already forcefully in 1968), we cannot hope to achieve an adequate integrated syntax and semantics without paying heed to the pragmatic aspects of the constructions involved. The behavior of polarity items, 'quantifiers' like any, conditionals or even logical particles like and and or in non-indicative sentences is clear-cut evidence for the need to let each component of the grammar inform the other.

Logical Form and Language

Author: Gerhard Preyer,Georg Peter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199245550
Category: Law
Page: 512
View: 6416

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One of the central issues of analytic philosophy and especially the theory of language is the concept of logical form. As typically understood this concept covers investigations into universal logical features underlying languages. However, from Frege and Russell onwards logical form analysts were no longer confined to such narrow linguistic perspectives. For them, investigating the logical form of language took the wider philosophical perspective of trying to understand language as our principal means for representing the world. From Russell's theory of definite descriptions to Davidson's truth-theoretical analyses of adverbial modification, citation, and reported speech, to lay open the logical structures underlying language is seen as a way of revealing the structure and features of the thereby represented world. Seventeen specially written essays by eminent philosophers and linguists appear for the first time in this anthology. Logical Form and Language brings together exciting new contributions from diverse points of view, which illuminate the lively current debate about this topic.

Logical Aspects of Quantification in Natural Language

A Quest for Pragmatic Solutions
Author: Aleksy Molczanow
Publisher: Unlimited Publishing LLC
ISBN: 9781588321053
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 184
View: 4540

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Elucidates the relation between quantifiers in formal logic and quantifiers in natural language. Demystifies the theoretical apparatus of contemporary logic as it provides theoretical explanations concerning quantification in natural language, and idiomatic quantifiers in ordinary English in particular.

Natural Logic

Exploring Decision and Intuition
Author: Mauro Maldonato,Silvia Dell'Orco
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781845194840
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 116
View: 2482

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The goal of this book is to consider the importance of intuition and natural logic in decision making. In everyday life people frequently make judgments and take decisions without explicitly using all the relevant information available from the environment and from their memory. Moreover, even if people are aware of detail and circumstance, they do not necessarily analyze the information at their disposal on a deeper level, nor consider it in an explicit and logical way before making a decision. On the contrary, people often follow the very first response that comes to mind, which is usually an immediate feeling, a spontaneous idea, or a sudden emergence of a sense of "I know what to do” or ... this is the best choice.” This intuitive, immediate response process typically takes place without any apparent effort; if questioned, people often cannot say why they responded in this fashion. ... People tend to trust their intuition so frequently simply because they are successful with it; intuition seems to satisfy decision-making needs in many situations. In addition, there is scientific evidence that people’s intuition can outperform deliberate thinking processes under specific conditions. In Natural Logic, authors Mauro Maldonato and Silvia Dell-Orco address the integration of decision making across diverse fields - including economics, medicine and management. They consider the concepts of heuristics and biases through which the psychology of decision making has clarified how strategies, models and "cognitive shortcuts” to which people resort in assessing situations are exposed to frequent and substantive errors. Such analysis leads to a hypothesis of a "regularity of error”.

Elements of Logic

Designed as a Manual of Instruction
Author: Henry Coppée
Publisher: N.A
Category: Logic
Page: 223
View: 9721

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Language, Logic, and Concepts

Essays in Memory of John Macnamara
Author: John Theodore Macnamara,Ray Jackendoff,Paul Bloom,Karen Wynn
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262600460
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 470
View: 4893

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A wide-ranging collection of essays inspired by the memory of the cognitive psychologist John Macnamara.

Johan van Benthem on Logic and Information Dynamics

Author: Alexandru Baltag,Sonja Smets
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319060252
Category: Philosophy
Page: 1027
View: 8301

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This book illustrates the program of Logical-Informational Dynamics. Rational agents exploit the information available in the world in delicate ways, adopt a wide range of epistemic attitudes, and in that process, constantly change the world itself. Logical-Informational Dynamics is about logical systems putting such activities at center stage, focusing on the events by which we acquire information and change attitudes. Its contributions show many current logics of information and change at work, often in multi-agent settings where social behavior is essential, and often stressing Johan van Benthem's pioneering work in establishing this program. However, this is not a Festschrift, but a rich tapestry for a field with a wealth of strands of its own. The reader will see the state of the art in such topics as information update, belief change, preference, learning over time, and strategic interaction in games. Moreover, no tight boundary has been enforced, and some chapters add more general mathematical or philosophical foundations or links to current trends in computer science. The theme of this book lies at the interface of many disciplines. Logic is the main methodology, but the various chapters cross easily between mathematics, computer science, philosophy, linguistics, cognitive and social sciences, while also ranging from pure theory to empirical work. Accordingly, the authors of this book represent a wide variety of original thinkers from different research communities. And their interconnected themes challenge at the same time how we think of logic, philosophy and computation. Thus, very much in line with van Benthem's work over many decades, the volume shows how all these disciplines form a natural unity in the perspective of dynamic logicians (broadly conceived) exploring their new themes today. And at the same time, in doing so, it offers a broader conception of logic with a certain grandeur, moving its horizons beyond the traditional study of consequence relations.