**Author**: Richard Hartley,Andrew Zisserman

**Publisher:**Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:**1139449141

**Category:**Computers

**Page:**N.A

**View:**8118

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# Search Results for: multiple-view-geometry-in-computer-vision

**Author**: Richard Hartley,Andrew Zisserman

**Publisher:** Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:** 1139449141

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** N.A

**View:** 8118

A basic problem in computer vision is to understand the structure of a real world scene given several images of it. Techniques for solving this problem are taken from projective geometry and photogrammetry. Here, the authors cover the geometric principles and their algebraic representation in terms of camera projection matrices, the fundamental matrix and the trifocal tensor. The theory and methods of computation of these entities are discussed with real examples, as is their use in the reconstruction of scenes from multiple images. The new edition features an extended introduction covering the key ideas in the book (which itself has been updated with additional examples and appendices) and significant new results which have appeared since the first edition. Comprehensive background material is provided, so readers familiar with linear algebra and basic numerical methods can understand the projective geometry and estimation algorithms presented, and implement the algorithms directly from the book.

**Author**: Richard Hartley,Andrew Zisserman

**Publisher:** Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:** 9780521540513

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 655

**View:** 6474

A basic problem in computer vision is to understand the structure of a real world scene given several images of it. Techniques for solving this problem are taken from projective geometry and photogrammetry. Here, the authors cover the geometric principles and their algebraic representation in terms of camera projection matrices, the fundamental matrix and the trifocal tensor. The theory and methods of computation of these entities are discussed with real examples, as is their use in the reconstruction of scenes from multiple images. The new edition features an extended introduction covering the key ideas in the book (which itself has been updated with additional examples and appendices) and significant new results which have appeared since the first edition. Comprehensive background material is provided, so readers familiar with linear algebra and basic numerical methods can understand the projective geometry and estimation algorithms presented, and implement the algorithms directly from the book.
*Statistics, Geometry, Orientation and Reconstruction*

**Author**: Wolfgang Förstner,Bernhard P. Wrobel

**Publisher:** Springer

**ISBN:** 3319115502

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 816

**View:** 4039

This textbook offers a statistical view on the geometry of multiple view analysis, required for camera calibration and orientation and for geometric scene reconstruction based on geometric image features. The authors have backgrounds in geodesy and also long experience with development and research in computer vision, and this is the first book to present a joint approach from the converging fields of photogrammetry and computer vision. Part I of the book provides an introduction to estimation theory, covering aspects such as Bayesian estimation, variance components, and sequential estimation, with a focus on the statistically sound diagnostics of estimation results essential in vision metrology. Part II provides tools for 2D and 3D geometric reasoning using projective geometry. This includes oriented projective geometry and tools for statistically optimal estimation and test of geometric entities and transformations and their relations, tools that are useful also in the context of uncertain reasoning in point clouds. Part III is devoted to modelling the geometry of single and multiple cameras, addressing calibration and orientation, including statistical evaluation and reconstruction of corresponding scene features and surfaces based on geometric image features. The authors provide algorithms for various geometric computation problems in vision metrology, together with mathematical justifications and statistical analysis, thus enabling thorough evaluations. The chapters are self-contained with numerous figures and exercises, and they are supported by an appendix that explains the basic mathematical notation and a detailed index. The book can serve as the basis for undergraduate and graduate courses in photogrammetry, computer vision, and computer graphics. It is also appropriate for researchers, engineers, and software developers in the photogrammetry and GIS industries, particularly those engaged with statistically based geometric computer vision methods.

**Author**: Joseph L. Mundy,Andrew Zisserman

**Publisher:** Mit Press

**ISBN:** N.A

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 540

**View:** 8499

These twenty-three contributions focus on the most recent developments in the rapidly evolving field of geometric invariants and their application to computer vision. The introduction summarizes the basics of invariant theory, discusses how invariants are related to problems in computer vision, and looks at the future possibilities, particularly the notion that invariant analysis might provide a solution to the elusive problem of recognizing general curved 3D objects from an arbitrary viewpoint. The remaining chapters consist of original papers that present important developments as well as tutorial articles that provide useful background material. These chapters are grouped into categories covering algebraic invariants, nonalgebraic invariants, invariants of multiple views, and applications. An appendix provides an extensive introduction to projective geometry and its applications to basic problems in computer vision. Joseph Mundy is a Coolidge Fellow at GE Corporate Research & Development. Andrew Zisserman is a Research Fellow in the Robotics Research Group at Oxford University.
*From Images to Geometric Models*

**Author**: Yi Ma,Stefano Soatto,Jana Kosecká,S. Shankar Sastry

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:** 0387217797

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 528

**View:** 1839

This book introduces the geometry of 3-D vision, that is, the reconstruction of 3-D models of objects from a collection of 2-D images. It details the classic theory of two view geometry and shows that a more proper tool for studying the geometry of multiple views is the so-called rank consideration of the multiple view matrix. It also develops practical reconstruction algorithms and discusses possible extensions of the theory.
*Models, Learning, and Inference*

**Author**: Simon J. D. Prince

**Publisher:** Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:** 1107011795

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 580

**View:** 8694

A modern treatment focusing on learning and inference, with minimal prerequisites, real-world examples and implementable algorithms.

**Author**: Richard J. Radke

**Publisher:** Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:** 0521766877

**Category:** Business & Economics

**Page:** 405

**View:** 921

This book explores the fundamental computer vision principles and state-of-the-art algorithms used to create cutting-edge visual effects for movies and television. It describes classical computer vision algorithms and recent developments, features more than 200 original images, and contains in-depth interviews with Hollywood visual effects artists that tie the mathematical concepts to real-world filmmaking.
*Algorithms and Applications*

**Author**: Richard Szeliski

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:** 9781848829350

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 812

**View:** 4257

Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications explores the variety of techniques commonly used to analyze and interpret images. It also describes challenging real-world applications where vision is being successfully used, both for specialized applications such as medical imaging, and for fun, consumer-level tasks such as image editing and stitching, which students can apply to their own personal photos and videos. More than just a source of “recipes,” this exceptionally authoritative and comprehensive textbook/reference also takes a scientific approach to basic vision problems, formulating physical models of the imaging process before inverting them to produce descriptions of a scene. These problems are also analyzed using statistical models and solved using rigorous engineering techniques. Topics and features: structured to support active curricula and project-oriented courses, with tips in the Introduction for using the book in a variety of customized courses; presents exercises at the end of each chapter with a heavy emphasis on testing algorithms and containing numerous suggestions for small mid-term projects; provides additional material and more detailed mathematical topics in the Appendices, which cover linear algebra, numerical techniques, and Bayesian estimation theory; suggests additional reading at the end of each chapter, including the latest research in each sub-field, in addition to a full Bibliography at the end of the book; supplies supplementary course material for students at the associated website, http://szeliski.org/Book/. Suitable for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level course in computer science or engineering, this textbook focuses on basic techniques that work under real-world conditions and encourages students to push their creative boundaries. Its design and exposition also make it eminently suitable as a unique reference to the fundamental techniques and current research literature in computer vision.
*Tools and algorithms for analyzing images*

**Author**: Jan Erik Solem

**Publisher:** "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

**ISBN:** 1449341934

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 264

**View:** 4186

If you want a basic understanding of computer vision’s underlying theory and algorithms, this hands-on introduction is the ideal place to start. You’ll learn techniques for object recognition, 3D reconstruction, stereo imaging, augmented reality, and other computer vision applications as you follow clear examples written in Python. Programming Computer Vision with Python explains computer vision in broad terms that won’t bog you down in theory. You get complete code samples with explanations on how to reproduce and build upon each example, along with exercises to help you apply what you’ve learned. This book is ideal for students, researchers, and enthusiasts with basic programming and standard mathematical skills. Learn techniques used in robot navigation, medical image analysis, and other computer vision applications Work with image mappings and transforms, such as texture warping and panorama creation Compute 3D reconstructions from several images of the same scene Organize images based on similarity or content, using clustering methods Build efficient image retrieval techniques to search for images based on visual content Use algorithms to classify image content and recognize objects Access the popular OpenCV library through a Python interface
*A Geometric Viewpoint*

**Author**: Olivier Faugeras

**Publisher:** MIT Press

**ISBN:** 9780262061582

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 663

**View:** 467

This monograph by one of the world's leading vision researchers provides a thorough, mathematically rigorous exposition of a broad and vital area in computer vision: the problems and techniques related to three-dimensional (stereo) vision and motion. The emphasis is on using geometry to solve problems in stereo and motion, with examples from navigation and object recognition.Faugeras takes up such important problems in computer vision as projective geometry, camera calibration, edge detection, stereo vision (with many examples on real images), different kinds of representations and transformations (especially 3-D rotations), uncertainty and methods of addressing it, and object representation and recognition. His theoretical account is illustrated with the results of actual working programs.Three-Dimensional Computer Vision proposes solutions to problems arising from a specific robotics scenario in which a system must perceive and act. Moving about an unknown environment, the system has to avoid static and mobile obstacles, build models of objects and places in order to be able to recognize and locate them, and characterize its own motion and that of moving objects, by providing descriptions of the corresponding three-dimensional motions. The ideas generated, however, can be used indifferent settings, resulting in a general book on computer vision that reveals the fascinating relationship of three-dimensional geometry and the imaging process.Olivier Faugeras is Research Director of the Computer Vision and Robotics Laboratory at INRIA Sophia-Antipolis and a Professor of Applied Mathematics at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris.

**Author**: Armin Gruen,Thomas S. Huang

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:** 9783540652830

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 236

**View:** 2867

This book was conceived during the Workshop "Calibration and Orientation of Cameras in Computer Vision" at the XVIIth Congress of the ISPRS (In ternational Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing), in July 1992 in Washington, D. C. The goal of this workshop was to bring photogrammetry and computer vision experts together in order to exchange ideas, concepts and approaches in camera calibration and orientation. These topics have been addressed in photogrammetry research for a long time, starting in the sec ond half of the 19th century. Over the years standard procedures have been developed and implemented, in particular for metric cameras, such that in the photogrammetric community such issues were considered as solved prob lems. With the increased use of non-metric cameras (in photogrammetry they are revealingly called "amateur" cameras), especially CCD cameras, and the exciting possibilities of acquiring long image sequences quite effortlessly and processing image data automatically, online and even in real-time, the need to take a new and fresh look at various calibration and orientation issues became obvious. Here most activities emerged through the computer vision commu nity, which was somewhat unaware as to what had already been achieved in photogrammetry. On the other hand, photogrammetrists seemed to ignore the new and interesting studies, in particular on the problems of orienta tion, that were being performed by computer vision experts.
*The Laws that Govern the Formation of Multiple Images of a Scene and Some of Their Applications*

**Author**: Olivier Faugeras,Quang-Tuan Luong,Théo Papadopoulo

**Publisher:** MIT Press

**ISBN:** 9780262562041

**Category:** Mathematics

**Page:** 644

**View:** 6835

This book formalizes and analyzes the relations between multiple views of a scene from the perspective of various types of geometries. A key feature is that it considers Euclidean and affine geometries as special cases of projective geometry.
*Core Concepts in Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing*

**Author**: Aditi Majumder,M. Gopi

**Publisher:** CRC Press

**ISBN:** 1482244926

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 376

**View:** 6428

Introduction to Visual Computing: Core Concepts in Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing covers the fundamental concepts of visual computing. Whereas past books have treated these concepts within the context of specific fields such as computer graphics, computer vision or image processing, this book offers a unified view of these core concepts, thereby providing a unified treatment of computational and mathematical methods for creating, capturing, analyzing and manipulating visual data (e.g. 2D images, 3D models). Fundamentals covered in the book include convolution, Fourier transform, filters, geometric transformations, epipolar geometry, 3D reconstruction, color and the image synthesis pipeline. The book is organized in four parts. The first part provides an exposure to different kinds of visual data (e.g. 2D images, videos and 3D geometry) and the core mathematical techniques that are required for their processing (e.g. interpolation and linear regression.) The second part of the book on Image Based Visual Computing deals with several fundamental techniques to process 2D images (e.g. convolution, spectral analysis and feature detection) and corresponds to the low level retinal image processing that happens in the eye in the human visual system pathway. The next part of the book on Geometric Visual Computing deals with the fundamental techniques used to combine the geometric information from multiple eyes creating a 3D interpretation of the object and world around us (e.g. transformations, projective and epipolar geometry, and 3D reconstruction). This corresponds to the higher level processing that happens in the brain combining information from both the eyes thereby helping us to navigate through the 3D world around us. The last two parts of the book cover Radiometric Visual Computing and Visual Content Synthesis. These parts focus on the fundamental techniques for processing information arising from the interaction of light with objects around us, as well as the fundamentals of creating virtual computer generated worlds that mimic all the processing presented in the prior sections. The book is written for a 16 week long semester course and can be used for both undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as a reference for professionals.
*Geometric Analysis and Implementation*

**Author**: Kenichi Kanatani,Yasuyuki Sugaya,Yasushi Kanazawa

**Publisher:** Springer

**ISBN:** 3319484931

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 321

**View:** 2952

This classroom-tested and easy-to-understand textbook/reference describes the state of the art in 3D reconstruction from multiple images, taking into consideration all aspects of programming and implementation. Unlike other computer vision textbooks, this guide takes a unique approach in which the initial focus is on practical application and the procedures necessary to actually build a computer vision system. The theoretical background is then briefly explained afterwards, highlighting how one can quickly and simply obtain the desired result without knowing the derivation of the mathematical detail. Features: reviews the fundamental algorithms underlying computer vision; describes the latest techniques for 3D reconstruction from multiple images; summarizes the mathematical theory behind statistical error analysis for general geometric estimation problems; presents derivations at the end of each chapter, with solutions supplied at the end of the book; provides additional material at an associated website.

**Author**: Emanuele Trucco,Alessandro Verri

**Publisher:** N.A

**ISBN:** N.A

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 343

**View:** 9681

This text provides readers with a starting point to understand and investigate the literature of computer vision, listing conferences, journals and Internet sites.
*An Introduction into Theory and Algorithms*

**Author**: Reinhard Klette

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:** 1447163206

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 429

**View:** 8017

This textbook provides an accessible general introduction to the essential topics in computer vision. Classroom-tested programming exercises and review questions are also supplied at the end of each chapter. Features: provides an introduction to the basic notation and mathematical concepts for describing an image and the key concepts for mapping an image into an image; explains the topologic and geometric basics for analysing image regions and distributions of image values and discusses identifying patterns in an image; introduces optic flow for representing dense motion and various topics in sparse motion analysis; describes special approaches for image binarization and segmentation of still images or video frames; examines the basic components of a computer vision system; reviews different techniques for vision-based 3D shape reconstruction; includes a discussion of stereo matchers and the phase-congruency model for image features; presents an introduction into classification and learning.

**Author**: Subir Kumar Ghosh

**Publisher:** Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:** 113946325X

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** N.A

**View:** 8588

A human observer can effortlessly identify visible portions of geometric objects present in the environment. However, computations of visible portions of objects from a viewpoint involving thousands of objects is a time consuming task even for high speed computers. To solve such visibility problems, efficient algorithms have been designed. This book presents some of these visibility algorithms in two dimensions. Specifically, basic algorithms for point visibility, weak visibility, shortest paths, visibility graphs, link paths and visibility queries are all discussed. Several geometric properties are also established through lemmas and theorems. With over 300 figures and hundreds of exercises, this book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in the field of computational geometry. It will also be useful as a reference for researchers working in algorithms, robotics, computer graphics and geometric graph theory, and some algorithms from the book can be used in a first course in computational geometry.

**Author**: Roland Siegwart,Illah Reza Nourbakhsh,Davide Scaramuzza

**Publisher:** MIT Press

**ISBN:** 0262015358

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 453

**View:** 2687

Machine generated contents note: |g 1. |t Introduction -- |g 1.1. |t Introduction -- |g 1.2. |t An Overview of the Book -- |g 2. |t Locomotion -- |g 2.1. |t Introduction -- |g 2.1.1. |t Key issues for locomotion -- |g 2.2. |t Legged Mobile Robots -- |g 2.2.1. |t Leg configurations and stability -- |g 2.2.2. |t Consideration of dynamics -- |g 2.2.3. |t Examples of legged robot locomotion -- |g 2.3. |t Wheeled Mobile Robots -- |g 2.3.1. |t Wheeled locomotion: The design space -- |g 2.3.2. |t Wheeled locomotion: Case studies -- |g 2.4. |t Aerial Mobile Robots -- |g 2.4.1. |t Introduction -- |g 2.4.2. |t Aircraft configurations -- |g 2.4.3. |t State of the art in autonomous VTOL -- |g 2.5. |t Problems -- |g 3. |t Mobile Robot Kinematics -- |g 3.1. |t Introduction -- |g 3.2. |t Kinematic Models and Constraints -- |g 3.2.1. |t Representing robot position -- |g 3.2.2. |t Forward kinematic models -- |g 3.2.3. |t Wheel kinematic constraints -- |g 3.2.4. |t Robot kinematic constraints -- |g 3.g 3.3. |t Mobile Robot Maneuverability -- |g 3.3.1. |t Degree of mobility -- |g 3.3.2. |t Degree of steerability -- |g 3.3.3. |t Robot maneuverability -- |g 3.4. |t Mobile Robot Workspace -- |g 3.4.1. |t Degrees of freedom -- |g 3.4.2. |t Holonomic robots -- |g 3.4.3. |t Path and trajectory considerations -- |g 3.5. |t Beyond Basic Kinematics -- |g 3.6. |t Motion Control (Kinematic Control) -- |g 3.6.1. |t Open loop control (trajectory-following) -- |g 3.6.2. |t Feedback control -- |g 3.7. |t Problems -- |g 4. |t Perception -- |g 4.1. |t Sensors for Mobile Robots -- |g 4.1.1. |t Sensor classification -- |g 4.1.2. |t Characterizing sensor performance -- |g 4.1.3. |t Representing uncertainty -- |g 4.1.4. |t Wheel/motor sensors -- |g 4.1.5. |t Heading sensors -- |g 4.1.6. |t Accelerometers -- |g 4.1.7. |t Inertial measurement unit (IMU) -- |g 4.1.8. |t Ground beacons -- |g 4.1.9. |t Active ranging -- |g 4.1.10. |t Motion/speed sensors -- |g 4.1.11. |t Vision sensors -- |g 4.2. |t Fundameng 4.2.5. |t Structure from stereo -- |g 4.2.6. |t Structure from motion -- |g 4.2.7. |t Motion and optical flow -- |g 4.2.8. |t Color tracking -- |g 4.3. |t Fundamentals of Image Processing -- |g 4.3.1. |t Image filtering -- |g 4.3.2. |t Edge detection -- |g 4.3.3. |t Computing image similarity -- |g 4.4. |t Feature Extraction -- |g 4.5. |t Image Feature Extraction: Interest Point Detectors -- |g 4.5.1. |t Introduction -- |g 4.5.2. |t Properties of the ideal feature detector -- |g 4.5.3. |t Corner detectors -- |g 4.5.4. |t Invariance to photometric and geometric changes -- |g 4.5.5. |t Blob detectors -- |g 4.6. |t Place Recognition -- |g 4.6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 4.6.2. |t From bag of features to visual words -- |g 4.6.3. |t Efficient location recognition by using an inverted file -- |g 4.6.4. |t Geometric verification for robust place recognition -- |g 4.6.5. |t Applications -- |g 4.6.6. |t Other image representations for place recognition -- |g 4.7. |t Feature Extraction Based ong 4.7.3. |t Range histogram features -- |g 4.7.4. |t Extracting other geometric features -- |g 4.8. |t Problems -- |g 5. |t Mobile Robot Localization -- |g 5.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.2. |t The Challenge of Localization: Noise and Aliasing -- |g 5.2.1. |t Sensor noise -- |g 5.2.2. |t Sensor aliasing -- |g 5.2.3. |t Effector noise -- |g 5.2.4. |t An error model for odometric position estimation -- |g 5.3. |t To Localize or Not to Localize: Localization-Based Navigation Versus Programmed Solutions -- |g 5.4. |t Belief Representation -- |g 5.4.1. |t Single-hypothesis belief -- |g 5.4.2. |t Multiple-hypothesis belief -- |g 5.5. |t Map Representation -- |g 5.5.1. |t Continuous representations -- |g 5.5.2. |t Decomposition strategies -- |g 5.5.3. |t State of the art: Current challenges in map representation -- |g 5.6. |t Probabilistic Map-Based Localization -- |g 5.6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.6.2. |t The robot localization problem -- |g 5.6.3. |t Basic concepts of probability theory -- |gg 5.6.6. |t Classification of localization problems -- |g 5.6.7. |t Markov localization -- |g 5.6.8. |t Kalman filter localization -- |g 5.7. |t Other Examples of Localization Systems -- |g 5.7.1. |t Landmark-based navigation -- |g 5.7.2. |t Globally unique localization -- |g 5.7.3. |t Positioning beacon systems -- |g 5.7.4. |t Route-based localization -- |g 5.8. |t Autonomous Map Building -- |g 5.8.1. |t Introduction -- |g 5.8.2. |t SLAM: The simultaneous localization and mapping problem -- |g 5.8.3. |t Mathematical definition of SLAM -- |g 5.8.4. |t Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) SLAM -- |g 5.8.5. |t Visual SLAM with a single camera -- |g 5.8.6. |t Discussion on EKF SLAM -- |g 5.8.7. |t Graph-based SLAM -- |g 5.8.8. |t Particle filter SLAM -- |g 5.8.9. |t Open challenges in SLAM -- |g 5.8.10. |t Open source SLAM software and other resources -- |g 5.9. |t Problems -- |g 6. |t Planning and Navigation -- |g 6.1. |t Introduction -- |g 6.2. |t Competences for Navigation: Planning and Reactig 6.4. |t Obstacle avoidance -- |g 6.4.1. |t Bug algorithm -- |g 6.4.2. |t Vector field histogram -- |g 6.4.3. |t The bubble band technique -- |g 6.4.4. |t Curvature velocity techniques -- |g 6.4.5. |t Dynamic window approaches -- |g 6.4.6. |t The Schlegel approach to obstacle avoidance -- |g 6.4.7. |t Nearness diagram -- |g 6.4.8. |t Gradient method -- |g 6.4.9. |t Adding dynamic constraints -- |g 6.4.10. |t Other approaches -- |g 6.4.11. |t Overview -- |g 6.5. |t Navigation Architectures -- |g 6.5.1. |t Modularity for code reuse and sharing -- |g 6.5.2. |t Control localization -- |g 6.5.3. |t Techniques for decomposition -- |g 6.5.4. |t Case studies: tiered robot architectures -- |g 6.6. |t Problems -- |t Bibliography -- |t Books -- |t Papers -- |t Referenced Webpages.

**Author**: Milan Sonka,Vaclav Hlavac,Roger Boyle

**Publisher:** Cengage Learning

**ISBN:** 1285981448

**Category:** Technology & Engineering

**Page:** 920

**View:** 4020

The brand new edition of IMAGE PROCESSING, ANALYSIS, AND MACHINE VISION is a robust text providing deep and wide coverage of the full range of topics encountered in the field of image processing and machine vision. As a result, it can serve undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and professionals looking for a readable reference. The book's encyclopedic coverage of topics is wide, and it can be used in more than one course (both image processing and machine vision classes). In addition, while advanced mathematics is not needed to understand basic concepts (making this a good choice for undergraduates), rigorous mathematical coverage is included for more advanced readers. It is also distinguished by its easy-to-understand algorithm descriptions of difficult concepts, and a wealth of carefully selected problems and examples. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

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