Mountain Environments


Author: Romola Parish
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317875540
Category: Science
Page: 368
View: 9053

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This book breaks the ground in Geographical texts by transcending a strictly regional or topical focus. It presents the opportunities and constraints that mountains and their resources offer to local and global populations; the impacts of environmental and economic change, development and globalisation on mountain environments. Part of the Ecogeography series edited by Richard Hugget

Mediterranean Ecogeography


Author: Harriett Allen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317877136
Category: Science
Page: 286
View: 9600

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A core textbook series that aims to provide students with accessible, up-to-date accounts of Ecogeography - the marriage of ecology with geography - in the primary terrestrial and marine environments. This is the first book in the series on Mediterranean Ecogeography. Biological diversity in the Mediterranean Basin is amongst the highest of any region on earth, both in terms of total species numbers and endemism. The flora is estimated at about 25,000 species of flowering plants and ferns, compared with about 6000 species in non-Mediterranean Europe. About 50% of these are endemic. Diversity amongst vertebrate animals is also high, though endemism rates are lower than for plants. The high levels of diversity contribute to, and are a reflection of, the considerable variability of landscape. This results from a combination of factors including geological and tectonic history, relief and physiography, climate, geomorphological processes, hydrology, soils, the incidence of fires and impact of human activities. The landscapes of the Mediterranean Basin are thus varied and fragmented; a mosaic of ecosystems and communities. Mediterranean Ecogeography aims to examine and explain this heterogeneity, and the approach is focused on the ecogeography of the region. Analysing the factors which account for the present distributions of plants and animals, and the functioning of ecosystems within the Mediterranean Basin can help in the understanding of the relationship between people and natural ecosystems. A key to the conservation of these ecosystems is the wise use of resources, biological and physical. In addition, it is vital to assess how the natural environments of the region will respond to further change. In the last twenty years, understanding of the functioning of mediterranean-type ecosystems has advanced through several international projects. This book draws upon the findings of these, and other research in the Mediterranean Basin, to present a comprehensive text on a key region of the world, and the problems and prospects of its environmental exploitation.

Mountain Environments and Communities


Author: Don Funnell,Romola Parish
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134677359
Category: Science
Page: 432
View: 6962

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Mountain Environments and Communities explains the background physical environment and then explores the environmental and social dimensions of mountain regions. This critical review of the concepts currently employed in mountain research, draws upon a wide range of examples from developed and developing countries. The dynamics of mountain life are described through both historical accounts of village-based systems and examples of the contemporary impact of global capital and sustainable development strategies.

Fundamentals of Geomorphology


Author: Richard John Huggett
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317378385
Category: Science
Page: 544
View: 5648

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The new fourth edition of Fundamentals of Geomorphology continues to provide a comprehensive introduction to the subject by discussing the latest developments in the field, as well as covering the basics of Earth surface forms and processes. The revised edition has an improved logically cohesive structure, added recent material on Quaternary environments and landscapes, landscape evolution and tectonics, as well as updated information in fast-changing areas such as the application of dating techniques, digital terrain modelling, historical contingency, preglacial landforms, neocatastrophism, and biogeomorphology. The book begins with a consideration of the nature of geomorphology, process and form, history, and geomorphic systems, and moves on to discuss: Endogenic processes: structural landforms associated with plate tectonics and those associated with volcanoes, impact craters, and folds, faults, and joints. Exogenic processes: landforms resulting from, or influenced by, the exogenic agencies of weathering, running water, flowing ice and meltwater, ground ice and frost, the wind, and the sea; landforms developed on limestone; and long-term geomorphology, a discussion of ancient landforms, including palaeosurfaces, stagnant landscape features, and evolutionary aspects of landscape change. Featuring over 400 illustrations, diagrams, and tables, Fundamentals of Geomorphology provides a stimulating and innovative perspective on the key topics and debates within the field of geomorphology. Written in an accessible and lively manner, and providing guides to further reading, chapter summaries, and an extensive glossary of key terms, this is an indispensable undergraduate level textbook for students of physical geography.

Ecogeography and rural management

a contribution to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
Author: Jean Tricart,Conrad KiewietdeJonge
Publisher: Longman Sc & Tech
ISBN: 9780470218129
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 267
View: 1604

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Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography

in English, Russian, French, Spanish and German
Author: Vladimir Kotlyakov,Anna Komarova
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080488783
Category: Science
Page: 1072
View: 8995

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Geography is a system of highly developed sciences about the environment. Geographical science embracing the study of the Earth's physical phenomena, people and their economic activities has always been in need of an extensive terminology. Geographical terms are related to the terms of natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, etc.) and humanities (history, economics, sociology, etc.) since geography is based on these fundamental subjects. Geography includes a number of disciplines and subdivisions which appeared along with the development of the science In spite of being very different geographical disciplines have some common tools of investigation which is maps, comparative method of exploration, remote sensing, geoinformation systems. Today very well developed terminologies of all the specialist fields of geography and related subjects exist in the main world languages. However, they are not always well-correlated. Nowadays geographical terminology requires unification and international correlation more than ever before. Hence the idea of compiling a multilingual polydisciplinary dictionary. The Dictionary consists of the basic table of terms arranged according to the order of the English alphabet with each term numbered. Each entry consists of the term in English and its equivalents in Russian, French, German, Spanish. Short definitions of terms are given in English and in Russian. The terms are supplied with the necessary grammar labels, such as gender of nouns, plural number, etc. The Dictionary combines two functions: that of a defining dictionary and that of a bilingual dictionary. These two functions are basically contradictory because usually the defining dictionary is aimed at giving one meaning of the word which is the main and essential one, while the bilingual dictionary tries to give different equivalents of a given word in the other language in order to supply the user with maximum possible translations, differing in the shades of meanings, thus giving him the possibility to choose the appropriate word. But in our Dictionary we intentionally decided to combine the two functions – defining and multilingual, because a short definition of the term and equivalents in other languages help to achieve our main aim which consists in showing the basic geographical terminology and harmonizing it in several languages. Having this into consideration we deliberately mixed two types of dictionaries in one. Organized alphabetically via English Provides short definition of geographical terms in English and Russian Includes multilingual translation of terms from English to Russian, French, German, Spanish

Gravel Bed Rivers 6

From Process Understanding to River Restoration
Author: H. Habersack,H. Piegay,M. Rinaldi
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080553597
Category: Science
Page: 836
View: 1492

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Based on the interdisciplinary approaches between earth science, engineering, physical geography, ecology and management, this text focuses on the theoretical questions, case-studies, challenges, and constraints taken from river restoration. It is illustrated with reports of new ground-breaking research covering spatial and temporal scales of physical processes in river catchments, coupling catchment and fluvial processes, grain dynamics and fluvial forms and on geo-ecology and restoration in mountain gravel-bed river environments. Each chapter includes discussions and comments providing experience and feedback from the fundamental research. This book covers scales of analysis for gravel-bed rivers, physics and modeling of processes at local and point scales, sediment delivery and storage, eco-geography and eco-hydraulics, and channel management and restoration. * Major topics in the field are presented by recognized scientific leaders * Chapters cover theories, practices, and methodologies in river management and restoration * Interdisciplinary approach includes case-studies on new, ground-breaking research

World Development Report 2009

Reshaping Economic Geography
Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821376089
Category: Political Science
Page: 300
View: 5275

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Rising densities of human settlements, migration and transport to reduce distances to market, and specialization and trade facilitated by fewer international divisions are central to economic development. The transformations along these three dimensions density, distance, and division are most noticeable in North America, Western Europe, and Japan, but countries in Asia and Eastern Europe are changing in ways similar in scope and speed. 'World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography' concludes that these spatial transformations are essential, and should be encouraged. The conclusion is not without controversy. Slum-dwellers now number a billion, but the rush to cities continues. Globalization is believed to benefit many, but not the billion people living in lagging areas of developing nations. High poverty and mortality persist among the world's 'bottom billion', while others grow wealthier and live longer lives. Concern for these three billion often comes with the prescription that growth must be made spatially balanced. The WDR has a different message: economic growth is seldom balanced, and efforts to spread it out prematurely will jeopardize progress. The Report: documents how production becomes more concentrated spatially as economies grow. proposes economic integration as the principle for promoting successful spatial transformations. revisits the debates on urbanization, territorial development, and regional integration and shows how today's developers can reshape economic geography.

Ecosystem Geography

From Ecoregions to Sites
Author: Robert G. Bailey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387895159
Category: Science
Page: 251
View: 2300

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This book outlines a system that subdivides the Earth into a hierarchy of increasingly finer-scale ecosystems that can serve as a consistent framework for ecological analysis and management. The system consists of a three-part, nested hierarchy of ecosystem units and associated mapping criteria. This new edition has been updated throughout with new text, figures, diagrams, photographs, and tables.

The Lentil

Botany, Production and Uses
Author: N.A
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845934881
Category: Science
Page: 457
View: 5788

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The lentil is a crop primarily grown in the developing world. It has the ability to use water efficiently and grow in marginal environments as well as being high in protein. This title includes chapters that outline improvements in production, such as water and soil nutrient management, agronomy, mechanization, and weed management.

Plant Genetic Conservation

The in situ approach
Author: Nigel Maxted,B.V. Ford-Lloyd,J.G. Hawkes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400914377
Category: Science
Page: 446
View: 1847

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The recent development of ideas on biodiversity conservation was already being considered almost three-quarters of a century ago for crop plants and the wild species related to them, by the Russian geneticist N.!. Vavilov. He was undoubtedly the first scientist to understand the impor tance for humankind of conserving for utilization the genetic diversity of our ancient crop plants and their wild relatives from their centres of diversity. His collections showed various traits of adaptation to environ mental extremes and biotypes of crop diseases and pests which were unknown to most plant breeders in the first quarter of the twentieth cen tury. Later, in the 1940s-1960s scientists began to realize that the pool of genetic diversity known to Vavilov and his colleagues was beginning to disappear. Through the replacement of the old, primitive and highly diverse land races by uniform modem varieties created by plant breed ers, the crop gene pool was being eroded. The genetic diversity of wild species was equally being threatened by human activities: over-exploita tion, habitat destruction or fragmentation, competition resulting from the introduction of alien species or varieties, changes and intensification of land use, environmental pollution and possible climate change.

Essay on the Geography of Plants


Author: Alexander von Humboldt,Aimé Bonpland
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226360687
Category: Science
Page: 296
View: 6729

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The legacy of Alexander von Humboldt (1769–1859) looms large over the natural sciences. His 1799–1804 research expedition to Central and South America with botanist Aimé Bonpland set the course for the great scientific surveys of the nineteenth century, and inspired such essayists and artists as Emerson, Goethe, Thoreau, Poe, and Church. The chronicles of the expedition were published in Paris after Humboldt’s return, and first among them was the 1807 “Essay on the Geography of Plants.” Among the most cited writings in natural history, after the works of Darwin and Wallace, this work appears here for the first time in a complete English-language translation. Covering far more than its title implies, it represents the first articulation of an integrative “science of the earth, ” encompassing most of today’s environmental sciences. Ecologist Stephen T. Jackson introduces the treatise and explains its enduring significance two centuries after its publication.

Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century


Author: Gary L. Gaile,Cort J. Willmott
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199295867
Category: Science
Page: 820
View: 6491

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Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century surveys American geographers' current research in their specialty areas and tracks trends and innovations in the many subfields of geography. As such, it is both a 'state of the discipline' assessment and a topical reference. It includes an introduction by the editors and 47 chapters, each on a specific specialty. The authors of each chapter were chosen by their specialty group of the American Association of Geographers (AAG). Based on a process of review and revision, the chapters in this volume have become truly representative of the recent scholarship of American geographers. While it focuses on work since 1990, it additionally includes related prior work and work by non-American geographers. The initial Geography in America was published in 1989 and has become a benchmark reference of American geographical research during the 1980s. This latest volume is completely new and features a preface written by the eminent geographer, Gilbert White.

Fundamentals of Biogeography


Author: Richard J. Huggett
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415323468
Category: Social Science
Page: 439
View: 4342

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Fundamentals of Biogeography presents an accessible, engaging and comprehensive introduction to biogeography, explaining the ecology, geography, history and conservation of animals and plants. Starting with an outline of how species arise, disperse, diversify and become extinct, the book examines: how environmental factors (climate, substrate, topography, and disturbance) influence animals and plants; investigates how populations grow, interact and survive; how communities form and change; and explores the connections between biogeography and conservation. The second edition has been extensively revised and expanded throughout to cover new topics and revisit themes from the first edition in more depth. Illustrated throughout with informative diagrams and attractive photos and including guides to further reading, chapter summaries and an extensive glossary of key terms, Fundamentals of Biogeography clearly explains key concepts in the history, geography and ecology of life systems. In doing so, it tackles some of the most topical and controversial environmental and ethical concerns including species over-exploitation, the impacts of global warming, habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss and ecosystem restoration.