Modern Crystallography 2

Structure of Crystals
Author: Boris K. Vainshtein,Vladimir M. Fridkin,Vladimir L. Indenbom
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642572545
Category: Science
Page: 521
View: 5284

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The four-volume treatment Modern Crystallography presents an encyclopaedic exposition of problems concerning the structure of crystals, their growth and their properties. Structure of Crystals deals with crystal structures in inorganic and organic compounds, polymers, liquid crystals, biological crystals and macromolecules.

Structure of Crystals


Author: Boris K. Vainshtein,Vladimir M. Friedkin,Vladimir L. Indenbom
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642975127
Category: Science
Page: 520
View: 3402

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Modern Crystallography provides an encyclopedic exposition of the field in four volumes written by Russian scientists. Structures of Crystals considers the ideal and real atomic structure of crystals as well as their electronic structures, the fundamentals of chemical bonding between atoms, geometric representations in the theory of crystal structure and crystal chemistry, as well as lattice energy. The important classes of crystal structures in inorganic compounds as well as structure polymers, liquid crystals, biological crystals, and macromolecules are treated. This second edition is complemented by recent data on many types of crystal structures - fullerenes, high-temperature superconductors, minerals, liquid crystals, etc.

Fundamentals of Crystals

Symmetry, and Methods of Structural Crystallography
Author: Boris K. Vainshtein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662029758
Category: Science
Page: 482
View: 7185

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From the reviews: "[...] an excellent reference book. I have no doubt it will become a much-thumbed resource for students and researchers in mineralogy and crystallography." Geological Magazine

Magnetism and the Electronic Structure of Crystals


Author: Vladimir A. Gubanov,Alexandr I. Liechtenstein,Andrei V. Postnikov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642844111
Category: Science
Page: 170
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The quantum theory of magnetism is a well-developed part of contemporary solid-state physics. The basic concepts of this theory can be used to describe such important effects as ferromagnetic ordering oflocalized magnetic moments in crystals and ferromagnetism of metals produced by essentially delocalized electrons, as well as various types of mutual orientation of atomic magnetic moments in solids possessing different crystal lattices and compositions. In recent years,the spin-fluctuational approach has been developed, which can overcome some contradictions between "localized" and "itinerant" models in the quantum mechanics of magnetic crystals. These are only some of the principal achievements of quantum magnetic theory. Almost all of the known magnetic properties of solids can be qualitat ively explained on the basis of its concepts. Further developments should open up the possibility of reliable quantitative description of magnetic properties of solids. Unfortunately, such calculations based on model concepts appear to be very complicated and, quite often, not definite enough. The rather small number of parameters of qualitative models are usually not able to take into account the very different types of magnetic interactions that appear in crystals. Further development of magnetic theory requires quantitative information on electronic wave function in the crystal considered. This can be proved by electronic band structure and cluster calculations. In many cases the latter can be a starting point for quantitative calculations of parameters used in magnetic theory.

Point Defects in Semiconductors II

Experimental Aspects
Author: J. Bourgoin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642818323
Category: Science
Page: 295
View: 3309

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In introductory solid-state physics texts we are introduced to the concept of a perfect crystalline solid with every atom in its proper place. This is a convenient first step in developing the concept of electronic band struc ture, and from it deducing the general electronic and optical properties of crystalline solids. However, for the student who does not proceed further, such an idealization can be grossly misleading. A perfect crystal does not exist. There are always defects. It was recognized very early in the study of solids that these defects often have a profound effect on the real physical properties of a solid. As a result, a major part of scientific research in solid-state physics has,' from the early studies of "color centers" in alkali halides to the present vigorous investigations of deep levels in semiconductors, been devoted to the study of defects. We now know that in actual fact, most of the interest ing and important properties of solids-electrical, optical, mechanical- are determined not so much by the properties of the perfect crystal as by its im perfections.

Structure of Materials

An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry
Author: Marc De Graef,Michael E. McHenry
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139560476
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: N.A
View: 892

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This highly readable, popular textbook for upper undergraduates and graduates comprehensively covers the fundamentals of crystallography and symmetry, applying these concepts to a large range of materials. New to this edition are more streamlined coverage of crystallography, additional coverage of magnetic point group symmetry and updated material on extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. New exercises at the end of chapters, plus over 500 additional exercises available online, allow students to check their understanding of key concepts and put into practice what they have learnt. Over 400 illustrations within the text help students visualise crystal structures and more abstract mathematical objects, supporting more difficult topics like point group symmetries. Historical and biographical sections add colour and interest by giving an insight into those who have contributed significantly to the field. Supplementary online material includes password-protected solutions, over 100 crystal structure data files, and Powerpoints of figures from the book.

Crystal Structure Determination


Author: Werner Massa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662042487
Category: Science
Page: 206
View: 9079

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A concise introduction to modern crystal structure determination, emphasizing both the crystallographic background and the successive practical steps. In the theoretical sections, more importance is attached to a good understanding, than to a rigorous mathematical treatment. The most important measuring techniques, including the use of modern area detectors, and the methods of data reduction, structure solution and refinement are discussed from a practical point of view. Special emphasis is put on the ability to recognize and avoid possible errors and traps, and to judge the quality of results.

X-ray Analysis and the Structure of Organic Molecules


Author: Jack D. Dunitz
Publisher: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 9783906390147
Category: Science
Page: 514
View: 5750

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This book is the second corrected reprint of 'X-Ray Analysis', published in 1979 and consists of two parts. Part one is about Crystal Structure Analysis, part two deals with Molecular Structure. All the information in this volume is of considerable value especially to those engaged in, or about to embark upon, X-ray crystal structure analysis.

Symmetry Relationships Between Crystal Structures

Applications of Crystallographic Group Theory in Crystal Chemistry
Author: Ulrich Müller
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199669953
Category: Science
Page: 332
View: 1962

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The book presents the basic information needed to understand and to organize the huge amount of known structures of crystalline solids. Its basis is crystallographic group theory (space group theory), with special emphasis on the relations between the symmetry properties of crystals.

Modern Crystallography III

Crystal Growth
Author: A.A. Chernov
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642818370
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 517
View: 6628

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Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the atomic structure of matter, thus giving a new impetus to the development of solid-state physics. Crystallographic methods, pri marily x-ray diffraction analysis, penetrated into materials sciences, mol ecular physics, and chemistry, and also into many other branches of science. Later, electron and neutron diffraction structure analyses be came important since they not only complement x-ray data, but also supply new information on the atomic and the real structure of crystals. Electron microscopy and other modern methods of investigating mat ter-optical, electronic paramagnetic, nuclear magnetic, and other res onance techniques-yield a large amount of information on the atomic, electronic, and real crystal structures. Crystal physics has also undergone vigorous development. Many re markable phenomena have been discovered in crystals and then found various practical applications. Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth (which brought crystallography closer to thermodynamics and physical chem istry) and the development of the various methods of growing synthetic crystals dictated by practical needs. Man-made crystals became increas ingly important for physical investigations, and they rapidly invaded technology. The production . of synthetic crystals made a tremendous impact on the traditional branches: the mechanical treatment of mate rials, precision instrument making, and the jewelry industry.

Crystal Symmetries

Shubnikov Centennial Papers
Author: B. K. Vainshtein,I. Hargittai
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483299104
Category: Science
Page: 321
View: 4761

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Crystal Symmetries is a timely account of the progress in the most diverse fields of crystallography. It presents a broad overview of the theory of symmetry and contains state of the art reports of its modern directions and applications to crystal physics and crystal properties. Geometry takes a special place in this treatise. Structural aspects of phase transitions, correlation of structure and properties, polytypism, modulated structures, and other topics are discussed. Applications of important techniques, such as X-ray crystallography, biophysical studies, EPR spectroscopy, crystal optics, and nuclear solid state physics, are represented. Contains 30 research and review papers.

Modern crystallography


Author: Boris Konstantinovich Vaĭnshteĭn
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783540105176
Category: Crystallography
Page: 433
View: 8346

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Topological Crystallography

With a View Towards Discrete Geometric Analysis
Author: Toshikazu Sunada
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431541772
Category: Mathematics
Page: 229
View: 8782

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Geometry in ancient Greece is said to have originated in the curiosity of mathematicians about the shapes of crystals, with that curiosity culminating in the classification of regular convex polyhedra addressed in the final volume of Euclid’s Elements. Since then, geometry has taken its own path and the study of crystals has not been a central theme in mathematics, with the exception of Kepler’s work on snowflakes. Only in the nineteenth century did mathematics begin to play a role in crystallography as group theory came to be applied to the morphology of crystals. This monograph follows the Greek tradition in seeking beautiful shapes such as regular convex polyhedra. The primary aim is to convey to the reader how algebraic topology is effectively used to explore the rich world of crystal structures. Graph theory, homology theory, and the theory of covering maps are employed to introduce the notion of the topological crystal which retains, in the abstract, all the information on the connectivity of atoms in the crystal. For that reason the title Topological Crystallography has been chosen. Topological crystals can be described as “living in the logical world, not in space,” leading to the question of how to place or realize them “canonically” in space. Proposed here is the notion of standard realizations of topological crystals in space, including as typical examples the crystal structures of diamond and lonsdaleite. A mathematical view of the standard realizations is also provided by relating them to asymptotic behaviors of random walks and harmonic maps. Furthermore, it can be seen that a discrete analogue of algebraic geometry is linked to the standard realizations. Applications of the discussions in this volume include not only a systematic enumeration of crystal structures, an area of considerable scientific interest for many years, but also the architectural design of lightweight rigid structures. The reader therefore can see the agreement of theory and practice.

Crystal Structure Analysis

Principles and Practice
Author: Alexander J Blake,William Clegg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019921946X
Category: Science
Page: 387
View: 8799

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By choosing an approach that avoids undue emphasis on the mathematics involved, this book gives practical advice on topics such as growing crystals, solving and refining structures, and understanding and using the results.

Structure and Bonding in Crystalline Materials


Author: Gregory S. Rohrer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521663793
Category: Science
Page: 540
View: 2614

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A graduate level textbook for materials scientists that describes the established principles of crystallography and bonding.

Highlights in Mineralogical Crystallography


Author: Thomas Armbruster,Rosa Micaela Danisi
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110417103
Category: Science
Page: 213
View: 8313

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This book covers the recent developments in Mineralogical Crystallography by presenting a collection of review articles written by prestigious, international authors in the field. The common topic of the papers is the structural characterization of minerals and synthetic analogues using different techniques.