Mirror-Image Asymmetry

An Introduction to the Origin and Consequences of Chirality
Author: James P. Riehl
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470588871
Category: Science
Page: 184
View: 1358

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An overview of the importance and consequences of asymmetry from molecules to the macroscopic world As scientists have become more capable of probing the structure of three-dimensional objects at the molecular level, the need to understand the concept and the consequences of mirror-image asymmetry—chirality—has increased enormously. Written at an introductory level, Mirror-Image Asymmetry provides an overview of the importance and effects of asymmetry from the atomic and molecular world of physics and chemistry to the organisms and structures that we see and use in our everyday life. The reader will develop a broad appreciation of three-dimensional asymmetry from the microscopic molecular world to the macroscopic world of handedness, automobile driving, windmills, sports, and similar phenomena. The book features: An introduction to basic definitions and the nomenclature of asymmetric and dissymmetric molecules Up-to-date examples of the importance and consequences of asymmetry in modern drug applications, current theories of the origin of asymmetry in nature, and examples of molecular asymmetry in smell, taste, and insect communication Many illustrations, chemical structures, and photographs that enable the reader to connect the actual asymmetrical structures to the different phenomena that depend on structural asymmetry In the 150 years since Louis Pasteur discovered asymmetry in molecular structures, scientists have made great progress in understanding how interactions between chiral molecules influence biochemical processes. This knowledge is leading to very sophisticated asymmetric synthetic techniques that have greatly benefitted many research groups especially those in the pharmaceutical industry. This guide to the role of molecular and macroscopic chirality will inspire students and scientists in chemistry, biology, physics, and drug discovery.

Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Chiral Molecules and Supramolecular Architectures


Author: Ron Naaman,David N Beratan,David Waldeck
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642181031
Category: Science
Page: 312
View: 4803

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Time-dependent density functional response theory for electronic chiroptical properties of chiral molecules; by Jochen Autschbach, Lucia Nitsch–Velasquez, and Mark Rudolph * Chiroptical Properties of Charge-Transfer Compounds; by Yoshihisa Inoue, Tadashi Mori * G-C content independent long-range charge transfer through DNA; by Tetsuro Majima * Induced chirality in porphiryn aggregates: the role of weak and strong interactions; by Roberto Purrello * Vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy of chiral molecules in solution; by Yunjie Xu * Magneto-electric properties of self-assembled monolayers of chiral molecules; by Zeev Vager and Ron Naaman * Theory of adsorption induced chirality and electron transfer through chiral systems; by Spiros Skourtis and David Beratan * Chiral-selective surface chemistry induced by spin-polarized secondary electrons; by Richard Rosenberg

Chirality and Life

A Short Introduction to the Early Phases of Chemical Evolution
Author: Rolf M. Flügel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642169779
Category: Science
Page: 90
View: 8932

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This book presents the fascinating formation of the first simple bioorganic molecules and describes the hidden aspects of chiral compounds, which raise questions on the molecular beginnings of life. The occurrences of extraterrestrial, non-standard amino acids in meteorites are dealt with in detail, as well as their subsequent transfer to proteinogenic amino acids. The concept of asymmetric organo-catalysis for the synthesis of carbohydrates and ribonucleosides are considered. The notion of a single amino acid that functions as an enzyme is developed. Attempts to simulate ancient world scenarios are critically reviewed. There is a special focus on ribozymes and the resulting RNA world. Combinations of different world scenarios are discussed in view of an on-going evolution. The currently most plausible hypotheses and visions of ancient world scenarios that led to today’s DNA world are also provided. Included is a pre-cellular world of viruses that is presented for the first time.

Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis


Author: Iwao Ojima
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118678443
Category: Science
Page: 768
View: 8848

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Praise for the previous editions "An excellent text . . . will no doubt provide the benchmark for comparative works for many years." —Journal of the American Chemical Society "An excellent state-of-the-art compilation of catalytic asymmetric chemistry . . . should be included in any chemistry reference collection." —Choice "This is a tremendous resource and an excellent read. I recommend immediate purchase." —Perkin Transactions Since this important work was first published in 1993, the field of catalytic asymmetric synthesis has grown explosively, spawning effective new methods for obtaining enantiomerically pure compounds on a large scale and stimulating new applications in diverse fields—from medicine to materials science. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis, Third Edition addresses these rapid changes through contributions from highly recognized world leaders in the field. This seminal text presents detailed accounts of the most important catalytic asymmetric reactions known today, and discusses recent advances and essential information on the initial development of certain processes. An excellent working resource for academic researchers and industrial chemists alike, the Third Edition features: Six entirely new chapters focusing on novel approaches to catalytic asymmetric synthesis including non-conventional media/conditions, organocatalysis, chiral Lewis and Bronsted acids, CH activation, carbon-heteroatom bond-forming reactions, and enzyme-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis A new section focusing on the important new reaction, asymmetric metathesis, in carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions Updated chapters on hydrogenation, carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, hydrosilylations, carbonylations, oxidations, amplifications and autocatalysis, and polymerization reactions Retaining the best of its predecessors but now thoroughly up to date, Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis, Third Edition serves as an excellent desktop reference and text for researchers and students from the upper-level undergraduates through experienced professionals in industry or academia.

Comets And Their Origin

The Tools To Decipher A Comet
Author: Uwe Meierhenrich
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527412816
Category: Science
Page: 352
View: 7367

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Divided into two parts, the first four chapters of Comets and their Origin refer to comets and their formation in general, describing cometary missions, comet remote observations, astrochemistry, artificial comets, and the chirality phenomenon. The second part covers the cometary ROSETTA mission, its launch, journey, scientific objectives, and instrumentations, as well as the landing scenario on a cometary nucleus. Along the way, the author presents general questions concerning the origin of terrestrial water and the molecular beginnings of life on Earth, as well as how the instruments used on a space mission like ROSETTA can help answer them. The text concludes with a chapter on what scientists expect from the ROSETTA mission and how its data will influence our life on Earth. As a result, the author elucidates highly topical and fascinating knowledge to scientists and students of various scientific backgrounds, allowing them to work with ROSETTA's data.

Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life

Caught in the Act of Formation
Author: Uwe Meierhenrich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540768866
Category: Science
Page: 242
View: 8221

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"How did life originate and why were left-handed molecules selected for its architecture?" This question of high public and interdisciplinary scientific interest is the central theme of this book. It is widely known that in processes triggering the origin of life on Earth, the equal occurrence, the parity between left-handed amino acids and their right-handed mirror images, was violated. The balance was inevitably tipped to the left – as a result of which life's proteins today exclusively implement the left form of amino acids. Written in an engaging style, this book describes how the basic building blocks of life, the amino acids, formed. After a comprehensible introduction to stereochemistry, the author addresses the inherent property of amino acids in living organisms, namely the preference for left-handedness. What was the cause for the violation of parity of amino acids in the emergence of life on Earth? All the fascinating models proposed by physicists, chemists and biologist are vividly presented including the scientific conflicts. The author describes the attempt to verify any of those models with the chirality module of the ROSETTA mission, a probe built and launched with the mission to land on a comet and analyse whether there are chiral organic compounds that could have been brought to the Earth by cometary impacts. A truly interdisciplinary astrobiology book, "Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life" will fascinate students, researchers and all readers with backgrounds in natural sciences. With a foreword by Henri B. Kagan.

Protein Folds

A Distance-Based Approach
Author: Henrik Bohr,Soren Brunak
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849340093
Category: Medical
Page: 336
View: 681

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Written by outstanding scientists in physics and molecular biology, this book addresses the most recent advances in the analysis of the protein folding processes and protein structure determination. Emphasis is also placed on modelling and presentation of experimental results of structural membrane bound proteins. Many color plates help to illustrate structural aspects covered including: Defining folds of protein domains Structure determination from sequence Distance geometry Lattice theories Membrane proteins Protein-Ligand interaction Topological considerations Docking onto receptors All analysis is presented with proven theory and experimentation. Protein Folds: A Distance-Based Approach is an excellent text/reference for biotechnologists and biochemists as well as graduate students studying in the research sciences.

Molecules in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

Molecular Phenomena in Biological Sciences
Author: Jean Maruani
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400911734
Category: Science
Page: 353
View: 2565

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Volume 1: General Introduction to Molecular Sciences Volume 2: Physical Aspects of Molecular Systems Volume 3: Electronic Structure and Chemical Reactivity Volume 4: Molecular Phenomena in Biological Sciences

Grenzgänger


Author: Cormac McCarthy
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644039518
Category: Fiction
Page: 448
View: 8670

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"Dieses Epos ist Weltliteratur." (Tempo) Billy Parham und sein Bruder Boyd überschreiten noch einmal die Grenze nach Mexiko. Sie sind auf der Suche nach gestohlenen Pferden und den Mördern ihrer Eltern. Abenteuer in der Wildnis, Leben am Rand der Zivilisation - Cormac McCarthys überwältigender Roman ist ein apokalyptisches Epos über die Liebe, den Tod und die Suche nach Identität.

Modern Thermodynamics

From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures
Author: Dilip Kondepudi,Ilya Prigogine
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118698703
Category: Science
Page: 552
View: 5840

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Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Second Edition presents a comprehensive introduction to 20th century thermodynamics that can be applied to both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems, unifying what was traditionally divided into ‘thermodynamics’ and ‘kinetics’ into one theory of irreversible processes. This comprehensive text, suitable for introductory as well as advanced courses on thermodynamics, has been widely used by chemists, physicists, engineers and geologists. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition includes the following updates and features: Includes a completely new chapter on Principles of Statistical Thermodynamics. Presents new material on solar and wind energy flows and energy flows of interest to engineering. Covers new material on self-organization in non-equilibrium systems and the thermodynamics of small systems. Highlights a wide range of applications relevant to students across physical sciences and engineering courses. Introduces students to computational methods using updated Mathematica codes. Includes problem sets to help the reader understand and apply the principles introduced throughout the text. Solutions to exercises and supplementary lecture material provided online at http://sites.google.com/site/modernthermodynamics/. Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Second Edition is an essential resource for undergraduate and graduate students taking a course in thermodynamics.

Progress in Biological Chirality


Author: Gyula Palyi,Claudia Zucchi,Luciano Caglioti
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080474038
Category: Science
Page: 444
View: 2719

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Following on from Advances in BioChirality, Progress in Biological Chirality provides a unique summary and review of the most recent developments in the field of biochirality. Living organisms use only one enantiomer of chiral molecules in the majority of biologically important processes. The exact origin and mechanisms for this surprising selectivity are not yet known. This book discusses current research aimed at identifying the scientific reasons that may contribute to this phenomenon. Progress in Biological Chirality takes an interdisciplinary approach to this exciting field, covering a wide range of topics, such as, theory, palaeontology and food technology, to name but a few. This book presents findings via a broad spectrum of scientific approaches making it an excellent overview of Biological Chirality, suitable for postgraduate students, practitioners and researchers in the field of chemistry, biochemistry, biology, palaeontology, and food science with an interest in Chirality. This book contains 32 chapters written by Authors, who are leading authorities in the field Presents the most recent research taking place in this highly challenging field Contains both reference material for the specialist and provides an overview for those who are interested in the fundamental problems of biology and chemistry

Physical Review

Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Statistical physics
Page: N.A
View: 9382

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Shape in chemistry

an introduction to molecular shape and topology
Author: Paul G. Mezey
Publisher: Wiley-VCH
ISBN: 9780895737274
Category: Mathematics
Page: 224
View: 6935

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Organische Chemie


Author: Kurt Peter C. Vollhardt,Neil Eric Schore
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527327541
Category: Chemistry, Organic
Page: 1452
View: 8274

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Besser Konzepte und Ideen der organischen Chemie verstehen, als eine Vielzahl von Fakten auswendig beherrschen! Diesem Motto bleibt der "Vollhardt/Schore" auch in der neuesten Auflage treu. Das neu gestaltete Layout, beispielhaft gelöste Übungsaufgaben und die deutlich erweiterten Verständnisübungen führen einprägsam an die Methodik zur Lösung organisch-chemischer Probleme heran. So werden nicht nur die stofflichen Grundlagen der organischen Chemie, sondern auch das "Gewusst wie" fast schon spielerisch vermittelt. Nicht nur für Chemiestudenten, auch für Biochemiker, Pharmazeuten, Biologen und Mediziner ist der "Vollhardt/Schore" der fachliche Grundstock für die organische Chemie.

Symmetrie und Struktur

Eine Einführung in die Gruppentheorie
Author: N.A
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3663012077
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 393
View: 6136

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Es ist behauptet worden, Gruppentheorie sei kaum mehr als angewandter gesun der Menschenverstand. Wenn dem so ist, sollte es möglich sein, sie so darzustel len, daß der explizite Gebrauch von formaler Mathematik und vor allem von Matrizenalgebra vermieden wird. Matrizenalgebra ist kein schwieriges Thema; viele Studenten werden ihr vor dem Studium begegnet sein. Daher mag es sinnlos erscheinen, ein weiteres Buch zu schreiben, nur um die Verwendung von Matri zenalgebra zu umgehen. Dennoch ist dies ein solches Buch; der Grund für seine Existenz liegt tiefer. Nach meiner Erfahrung denken Chemiker lieber in Model len und Bildern als in mathematischen Begriffen; sie finden es leichter, ein Modell mathematisch zu beschreiben, als mit einer mathematischen Herleitung zu beginnen und daraus ein Bild zu gewinnen. Zum vollen Verständnis der Gruppentheorie benötigt man sowohl das Bild als auch die Mathematik; daher werden üblicherweise beide gemeinsam behandelt. Die Gruppentheorie ist al lerdings ein systematisch aufgebautes Gebiet - jede Stufe hängt von den vor hergehenden Stufen ab, so daß man sich in einem Lehrbuch ständig auf frühere Seiten beziehen muß. Da die mathematische Behandlung genauer und umfas sender ist als die bildhafte Beschreibung, wird dabei am ehesten auf vorausge gangene mathematische Abschnitte verwiesen. Nach meiner Erfahrung wird das physikalische Bild für die meisten Studenten zunehmend verschwommener, je mehr die Mathematik die Oberhand gewinnt. Dies ist der Grund für den Aufbau des vorliegenden Buchs.

Optical Engineering

The Journal of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
Author: N.A
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Optical instruments
Page: N.A
View: 1157

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Publishes papers reporting on research and development in optical science and engineering and the practical applications of known optical science, engineering, and technology.