Microorganisms in Foods 8

Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance
Author: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441993748
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 400
View: 7297

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Microorganisms in Foods 8: Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance is written by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods with assistance from a limited number of consultants. The purpose of this book is to provide guidance on appropriate testing of food processing environments, processing lines, and finished product to enhance the safety and microbiological quality of the food supply. Microorganisms in Foods 8 consists of two parts. Part I, Principles of Using Data in Microbial Control, builds on the principles of Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management (2002), which illustrates how HACCP and Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) provide greater assurance of safety than microbiological testing, but also identifies circumstances where microbiological testing may play a useful role. Part II, Specific Applications to Commodities, provides practical examples of criteria and other tests and is an updated and expanded version of Part II of Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications (2nd ed. 1986). Part II also builds on the 2nd edition of Microorganisms in Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities (2005) by identifying appropriate tests to evaluation the effectiveness of controls.

Food Safety Management

Chapter 33. Management of Microbiological Hazards: Role of Testing as Verification
Author: Tim Jackson
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 012805672X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 1192
View: 3148

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Microbiological testing programs play an important role in the verification of the effectiveness of control measures for many food products. Such programs may include monitoring of the production environment and processing equipment, and testing of raw materials, in-process and finished products. The relevance and application of testing programs depend upon the design of the product and process, the hygienic status of the processing environment and the availability of other verification information about a product lot. The design and implementation of environmental monitoring programs consider the areas of product exposure and the potential impact of the movement of people, materials and product on product contamination. Raw material testing programs consider the inherent risk of the material, its use in the process and the confidence in the supplier determined by supplier audits and ongoing performance. Finished product testing programs consider customer and regulatory requirements and the hygienic status of the process and production environment. Due to statistical and temporal limitations, microbiological testing programs are most effective when used along with risk-based preventive controls, such as HACCP, hygienic zoning and other prerequisite programs, and when they work together with other verification activities to assess the condition of a food safety system.

Ensuring Global Food Safety

Exploring Global Harmonization
Author: Christine Boisrobert,Aleksandra Stjepanovic,Sangsuk Oh,Huub Lelieveld
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080889306
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 472
View: 7393

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Taking into account toxicity levels at normal consumption levels, intake per kg bodyweight and other acknowledged considerations, each chapter in this book will be based on one or more proven examples. It is intended to provide specific examples and potential improvements to the safety of the world's food supply, while also increasing the amount of food available to those in undernourished countries. This book is designed to to provide science-based tools for improving legislation and regulation. Benefits: Reduce amount of food destroyed due to difference in regulations between nations Positively impact the time-to-market of new food products by recognizing benefit of "one rule that applies to all" Use the comparison of regulations and resulting consequences to make appropriate, fully-informed decisions Employ proven science to obtain global consensus for regulations Understand how to harmonize test protocols and analytical methods for accurate measurement and evaluation Take advantage of using a risk/benefit based approach rather than risk/avoidance to maximize regulatory decisions

Microorganisms in Foods 7

Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management
Author: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319684604
Category: Science
Page: 479
View: 1544

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The second edition of Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management updates and expands on information on the role of microbiological testing in modern food safety management systems. After helping the reader understand the often confusing statistical concepts underlying microbiological sampling, the second edition explores how risk assessment and risk management can be used to establish goals such as a “tolerable levels of risk,” Appropriate Levels of Protection, Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives for use in controlling foodborne illness. Guidelines for establishing effective management systems for control of specific hazards in foods are also addressed, including new examples for pathogens and indicator organisms in powdered infant formula, Listeria monocytogenes in deli-meats, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in leafy green vegetables, viruses in oysters and Campylobacter in poultry. In addition, a new chapter on application of sampling concept to microbiological methods, expanded chapters covering statistical process control, investigational sampling, environmental sampling, and alternative sampling schemes. The respective roles of industry and government are also explored, recognizing that it is through their collective actions that effective food safety systems are developed and verified. Understanding these systems and concepts can help countries determine whether imported foods were produced with an equivalent level of protection. Microorganisms in Foods 7 is intended for anyone using microbiological testing or setting microbiological criteria, whether for governmental food inspection and control, or industrial applications. It is also intended for those identifying the most effective use of microbiological testing in the food supply chain. For students in food science and technology, this book provides a wealth of information on food safety management principles used by government and industry, with many references for further study. The information was prepared by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). The ICMSF was formed in response to the need for internationally acceptable and authoritative decisions on microbiological limits for foods in international commerce. The current membership consists of fifteen food microbiologists from twelve countries, drawn from government, universities, and food processing and related industries.

Quantitative Microbiology in Food Processing

Modeling the Microbial Ecology
Author: Anderson de Souza Sant'Ana
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118823052
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 696
View: 1054

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Microorganisms are essential for the production of many foods, including cheese, yoghurt, and bread, but they can also cause spoilage and diseases. Quantitative Microbiology of Food Processing: Modeling the Microbial Ecology explores the effects of food processing techniques on these microorganisms, the microbial ecology of food, and the surrounding issues concerning contemporary food safety and stability. Whilst literature has been written on these separate topics, this book seamlessly integrates all these concepts in a unique and comprehensive guide. Each chapter includes background information regarding a specific unit operation, discussion of quantitative aspects, and examples of food processes in which the unit operation plays a major role in microbial safety. This is the perfect text for those seeking to understand the quantitative effects of unit operations and beyond on the fate of foodborne microorganisms in different foods. Quantitative Microbiology of Food Processing is an invaluable resource for students, scientists, and professionals of both food engineering and food microbiology.

Microbiological Examination Methods of Food and Water

A Laboratory Manual
Author: Neusely da Silva,Marta Hirotomi Taniwaki,Valéria Christina Junqueira,Neliane Silveira,Maristela da Silva do Nascimento,Renato Abeilar Romeiro Gomes
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203168399
Category: Science
Page: 484
View: 1241

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Microbiological Examination Methods of Food and Water is an illustrated laboratory manual that provides an overview of current standard microbiological culture methods for the examination of food and water, adhered to by renowned international organizations, such as ISO, AOAC, APHA, FDA and FSIS/USDA. It includes methods for the enumeration of indicator microorganisms of general contamination, indicators of hygiene and sanitary conditions, sporeforming, spoilage fungi and pathogenic bacteria. Every chapter begins with a comprehensive, in-depth and updated bibliographic reference on the microorganism(s) dealt with in that particular section of the book. The latest facts on the taxonomic position of each group, genus or species are given, as well as clear guidelines on how to deal with changes in nomenclature on the internet. All chapters provide schematic comparisons between the methods presented, highlighting the main differences and similarities. This allows the user to choose the method that best meets his/her needs. Moreover, each chapter lists validated alternative quick methods, which, though not described in the book, may and can be used for the analysis of the microorganism(s) dealt with in that particular chapter. The didactic setup and the visualization of procedures in step-by-step schemes allow the user to quickly perceive and execute the procedure intended. This compendium will serve as an up-to-date practical companion for laboratory professionals, technicians and research scientists, instructors, teachers and food and water analysts. Alimentary engineering, chemistry, biotechnology and biology (under)graduate students specializing in food sciences will also find the book beneficial. It is furthermore suited for use as a practical/laboratory manual for graduate courses in Food Engineering and Food Microbiology.

Microorganisms in Foods 6

Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities
Author: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781441934659
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 764
View: 9710

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The second edition ofMicrobiologyofFoods6:MicrobialEcologyofFoodCommodities was written by the ICMSF, comprising 16 scientists from 11 countries, plus consultants and other contributors to chapters. The intention of the second edition was to bring the ?rst edition (published in 1996) up to date, taking into account developments in food processing and packaging, new products, and recognition of new pathogens and their control acquired since the ?rst edition. Theoverallstructure ofthechapters hasbeen retained,vizeachcovers(i)theimportantpropertiesof thefoodcommoditythataffectitsmicrobialcontentandecology,(ii)theinitialmicro?oraatslaughteror harvest, (iii) the effects of harvesting, transportation, processing, and storage on the microbial content, and (iv) an assessment of the hazards and risks of the food commodities and (v) the processes applied to control the microbial load. In 1980s, control of food safety was largely by inspection and compliance with hygiene regulations, together with end-product testing.MicroorganismsinFoods2:SamplingforMicrobiologicalAnalysis: PrinciplesandSpeci?cApplications(2nded.1986)putsuchtestingonasounderstatisticalbasisthrough samplingplans,whichremainusefulwhenthereisnoinformationontheconditionsunderwhichafood has been produced or processed, e.g. at port-of-entry. At an early stage, the Commission recognized that no sampling plan can ensure the absence of a pathogen in food. Testing foods at ports of entry, or elsewhere in the food chain, cannot guarantee food safety.

Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management


Author: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods Staff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468483692
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 362
View: 9894

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2. 11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 CHAPTER 3-MEETING THE FSO THROUGH CONTROL MEASURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 2 Control Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3. 3 Confirm That the FSO Is Technically Achievable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3. 4 Importance of Control Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3. 5 Performance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 3. 6 Process and Product Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3. 7 The Use of Microbiological Sampling and Performance Criteria . . . . . . . . . 59 3. 8 Default Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3. 9 Process Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3. 10 Monitoring and Verifying Control Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3. 11 Examples of Control Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3. 12 Assessing Equivalency of Food Safety Management Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3. 13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Appendix 3-A: Control Measures Commonly Applied to Foodborne Diseases . . 71 CHAPTER 4-SELECTION AND USE OF ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4. 2 Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4. 3 Establishment of Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4. 4 Application of Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 4. 5 Determining Acceptance by Approval of Supplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4. 6 Examples To Demonstrate the Process of Lot Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4. 7 Auditing Food Operations for Supplier Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4. 8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 CHAPTER 5-ESTABLISHMENT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR LOT ACCEPTANCE . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 99 5. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5. 2 Purposes and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods . . . . . . . . . 10 1 5. 3 Definition of Microbiological Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1 5. 4 Types of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 5. 5 Application of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5. 6 Principles for the Establishment of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5. 7 Components of Microbiological Criteria for Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 5. 8 Examples of Microbiological Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Microorganisms in Foods 8

Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance
Author: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781489978158
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 400
View: 8779

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Microorganisms in Foods 8: Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance is written by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods with assistance from a limited number of consultants. The purpose of this book is to provide guidance on appropriate testing of food processing environments, processing lines, and finished product to enhance the safety and microbiological quality of the food supply. Microorganisms in Foods 8 consists of two parts. Part I, Principles of Using Data in Microbial Control, builds on the principles of Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management (2002), which illustrates how HACCP and Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) provide greater assurance of safety than microbiological testing, but also identifies circumstances where microbiological testing may play a useful role. Part II, Specific Applications to Commodities, provides practical examples of criteria and other tests and is an updated and expanded version of Part II of Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications (2nd ed. 1986). Part II also builds on the 2nd edition of Microorganisms in Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities (2005) by identifying appropriate tests to evaluation the effectiveness of controls.

Microorganisms in Foods 5

Characteristics of Microbial Pathogens
Author: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780412473500
Category: Science
Page: 513
View: 1658

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The control of food safety in modern food processing relies upon HACCP and other systems that identify hazards and define processes to control them. These demand a thorough understanding of the properties of microbial pathogens under all the conditions that could be found in foods and the food processing environment. Detailed information about each of the main organisms responsible for causing microbial food poisoning is presented here in an accessible and systematic way. An overview of key properties for each organism is followed by a series of tables detailing the response of the organism under a range of variable conditions. This information has been prepared by the International Commission for the Microbiological Specifications of Foods (ICMSF).

Food Microbiology

Fundamentals and Frontiers
Author: Michael P. Doyle,Robert L. Buchanan
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press
ISBN: 1555816266
Category: Science
Page: 1138
View: 7517

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This essential reference emphasizes the molecular and mechanistic aspects of food microbiology in one comprehensive volume. • Addresses the field's major concerns, including spoilage, pathogenic bacteria, mycotoxigenic molds, viruses, prions, parasites, preservation methods, fermentation, beneficial microorganisms, and food safety. • Details the latest scientific knowledge and concerns of food microbiology • Offers a description of the latest and most advanced techniques for detecting, analyzing, tracking, and controlling microbiological hazards in food. • Serves as significant reference book for professionals who conduct research, teach food microbiology courses, analyze food samples, conduct epidemiologic investigations, and craft food safety policies.

Food Control and Biosecurity


Author: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu,Alina Maria Holban
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128114975
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 612
View: 8569

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Food Control and Biosecurity, Volume Sixteen, the latest release in the Handbook of Food Bioengineering series, is an essential resource for anyone in the food industry who needs to understand safety and quality control to prevent or reduce the spread of foodborne diseases. The book covers information from exporter to transporter, importer and retailer, and offers valuable tools to measure food quality while also addressing government standards and regulations for food production, processing and consumption. The book presents cutting-edge methods for detecting hazardous compounds within foods, including carcinogenic chemicals. Other related topics addressing food insecurity and food defense are also discussed. Identifies the latest import/export regulations related to food control and biosecurity Provides detection and analysis methods to ensure a safe food supply Presents risk assessment tools and prevention strategies for food safety and process control

Food Safety

Emerging Issues, Technologies and Systems
Author: Steven C Ricke,Janet R Donaldson,Carol A Phillips
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128004045
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 464
View: 6256

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Food Safety: Emerging Issues, Technologies and Systems offers a systems approach to learning how to understand and address some of the major complex issues that have emerged in the food industry. The book is broad in coverage and provides a foundation for a practical understanding in food safety initiatives and safety rules, how to deal with whole-chain traceability issues, handling complex computer systems and data, foodborne pathogen detection, production and processing compliance issues, safety education, and more. Recent scientific industry developments are written by experts in the field and explained in a manner to improve awareness, education and communication of these issues. Examines effective control measures and molecular techniques for understanding specific pathogens Presents GFSI implementation concepts and issues to aid in implementation Demonstrates how operation processes can achieve a specific level of microbial reduction in food Offers tools for validating microbial data collected during processing to reduce or eliminate microorganisms in foods

FDA Investigations Operations Manual


Author: United States. Food and Drug Administration
Publisher: Government Inst
ISBN: 9780865879737
Category: Law
Page: 599
View: 2726

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Available now to FDA-regulated organizations, this manual allows facility managers to look at their operation's regulatory compliance through the eyes of the government. Because this is the primary reference manual used by FDA personnel to conduct field investigation activities, you can feel confident you are preparing appropriate planning or action. This manual includes revised instructions regarding the release of information and covers FDA's policies and expectations on a comprehensive range of topics: FDA's authority to enter and inspect, inspection notification, detailed inspection procedures, recall monitoring, inspecting import procedures, computerized data requests, federal/state inspection relationships, discussions with management regarding privileged information, seizure and prosecution, HACCP, bioengineered food, dietary supplements, cosmetics, bioterrorism, and product disposition. The manual also includes a directory of Office of Regulatory Affairs offices and divisions.

The Use of Drugs in Food Animals:

Benefits and Risks
Author: Panel on Animal Health, Food Safety, and Public Health,Committee on Drug Use in Food Animals,National Research Council,Board on Agriculture
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309054346
Category: Medical
Page: 276
View: 1061

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The use of drugs in food animal production has resulted in benefits throughout the food industry; however, their use has also raised public health safety concerns. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals provides an overview of why and how drugs are used in the major food-producing animal industries--poultry, dairy, beef, swine, and aquaculture. The volume discusses the prevalence of human pathogens in foods of animal origin. It also addresses the transfer of resistance in animal microbes to human pathogens and the resulting risk of human disease. The committee offers analysis and insight into these areas Monitoring of drug residues. The book provides a brief overview of how the FDA and USDA monitor drug residues in foods of animal origin and describes quality assurance programs initiated by the poultry, dairy, beef, and swine industries. Antibiotic resistance. The committee reports what is known about this controversial problem and its potential effect on human health. The volume also looks at how drug use may be minimized with new approaches in genetics, nutrition, and animal management. November

Assessment and management of seafood safety and quality


Author: Hans Henrik Huss,Lahsen Ababouch,Lone Gram,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org
ISBN: N.A
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 230
View: 9866

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This paper compiles the state of knowledge on fish safety and quality with the view of providing a succinct yet comprehensive resource book for risk and fish quality managers. After an introduction to world fish production and consumption and the developments in safety and quality systems, it provides a detailed review of the hazards that cause public health concerns in fish and fish products. Several chapters are devoted to risk mitigation and management tools, with a detailed description of the requirements for the implementation of the Good Hygienic and Manufacturing Practices (GHP/GMP) of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System and of the monitoring programs to control biotoxins, pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and chemical pollutants. Chapters on the use of microbiological criteria, the use of the HACCP approach to target quality aspects other than safety matters, predictive microbiology, traceability, and examples of food safety objectives complete the document.

Bacteriophages in the Control of Food- and Waterborne Pathogens


Author: Parviz M. Sabour,Mansel W. Griffiths
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press
ISBN: 1555815022
Category: Science
Page: 364
View: 6744

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Gain a better understanding of how these fascinating microorganisms can help ensure a safe food supply. • Provides a unique comprehensive review of the literature on the application of bacteriophages as therapeutic and prophylactic agents in the food production and processing industries, including food animals, plants, and aquaculture. • Describes how bacteriophages function, explaining why they have the potential to be highly effective antimicrobials, and explores opportunities to use bacteriophages to detect bacterial contamination of foods and water and to control pathogens during both food production and processing. • Examines bacteriophages that can have a negative effect on industrial food processes and bacteriophages that potentially can lead to the evolution of foodborne pathogens; and covers safety and regulatory issues that are crucial to the success of bacteriophage use. • Serves as a resource for food microbiologists, food industry professionals, government regulators.

Food Safety and Preservation

Modern Biological Approaches to Improving Consumer Health
Author: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu,Alina Maria Holban
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128149574
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 696
View: 5212

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Food Safety and Preservation: Modern Biological Approaches to Improving Consumer Health explores the most recent and investigated hot topics in food safety, microbial contamination, food-borne diseases and advanced preservation methods. It brings together the significant, evidence-based scientific progress of various approaches to improve the safety and quality of foods, also offering solutions to help address food industry challenges. Recent studies and technological advancements in biological control are presented to control foodborne pathogens. In addition, analytical methods for reducing potential biological hazards make this book essential to researchers, scientists, technologists and grad students. Covers all aspects of food contamination, from food degradation, to food-borne diseases Examines validated, biological control approaches to reduce microbial and chemical contamination Includes detailed discussions of risk and safety assessments in food preservation