Metamagical Themas

Questing For The Essence Of Mind And Pattern
Author: Douglas Hofstadter
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 0786723866
Category: Psychology
Page: 880
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Hofstadter's collection of quirky essays is unified by its primary concern: to examine the way people perceive and think.

Die Analogie

Das Herz des Denkens
Author: Douglas Hofstadter,Emmanuel Sander
Publisher: Klett-Cotta
ISBN: 3608106669
Category: Political Science
Page: 600
View: 9755

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Sie steigen in einen Aufzug, mit dem Sie noch nie zuvor gefahren sind. Wissen Sie, was Sie tun müssen, um nach oben zu kommen? Natürlich – und der Grund dafür sind die Analogien: Der Aufzug funktioniert wie alle anderen Aufzüge. Alles, was wir wissen, setzen wir in Beziehungen und schaffen es dadurch, Ähnlichkeiten zu entdecken, uns im Chaos der Welt zurechtzufinden. Diese Ähnlichkeiten machen wir uns täglich und meist ganz unbewusst im Umgang mit Neuem und Fremdem zunutze. Wie dieses Feuerwerk des Denkens »funktioniert«, das zeigen Douglas Hofstadter, brillanter Autor und Pulitzer-Preisträger, und der Psychologe Emmanuel Sander. Sie nehmen uns mit auf eine abenteuerliche Reise in die Welt der Sprache und des Geistes – und sie zeigen uns, warum Gedanken ohne Einfluss der Vergangenheit undenkbar sind. Ein inspirierendes Lesevergnügen!

DAS SUBSYMBOLISCHE PARADIGMA PAUL SMOLENSKY'S VOR DEM HINTERGRUND DER SYMBOLISMUS VS. KONNEKTIONISMUS DEBATTE


Author: Harald Maurer
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 3837083535
Category:
Page: 162
View: 3660

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Das Buch stellt eine leicht uberarbeitete Fassung meiner Magisterarbeit dar, die ich im Fachbereich Philosophie und Wissenschsaftstheorie bei Prof. Dr. Dr. W. Hoering im Wintersemester 2005/06 und im Sommersemester 2006 geschrieben habe. Es gibt erstmals einen umfassenden Uberblick uber die Debatte zwischen der klassichen Symboltheorie i.S. J.A. Fodor's, Z.W. Pylyshyn's und Br. McLaughlin's und dem bedeutensten Vertreter des konnektionistischen Programms in der kunstlichen Intelligenz, Paul Smolensky, der mit seinem sog. Subsymbolischen Paradigma" den Anspruch erhebt, eine alternative und integrative Theorie der Kognition vorzulegen, indem die Theorie der kunstlichen Neuronalen Netzwerke auf die Kognitionswissenschaft angewendet wird. Die Debatte behandelt dabei das Problem der modelltechnischen Realisation von Information, m.a.W. die Beantwortung der Frage: Wie funktioniert die intelligente Informationsverarbeitung des Menschen? Wahrend in der sog. symbolorientierten Klassischen Kunstlichen Intelligenz," dem Symbolismus, interne mentale Reprasentationen als syntaktisch strukturierte Symbole betrachtet werden, wird in der sog. subsymbolorientierten Kunstlichen Intelligenz," dem Konnektionismus, der Begriff der Reprasentation" auf dynamische Vektor- und Tensorkonstruktionen aus der Theorie der Kunstlichen Neuronalen Netzwerke angewendet, sodass man versuchen kann kognitive Funktionen wie Produktivitat, Systematizitat, Kompositionalitat und logische Inferenz auf der Basis einer sog. vektoriellen Form" zu erklaren, d.h. gegrundet im Dynamischen System- und Selbstorganisations-Paradigma."

Können Roboter lügen? (Telepolis)

Essays zur Robotik und Künstlicher Intelligenz
Author: Raúl Rojas
Publisher: Heise Zeitschriften Verlag GmbH & Co. KG
ISBN: 3944099923
Category: Science
Page: 150
View: 5471

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Dieses e-Book bietet dem Leser eine Sammlung von Essays über Kognitionswissenschaften, Mikroelektronik und Robotik, die in den Jahren 2011 bis 2013 in Telepolis erschienen sind. Wenn wir intelligente Maschinen bauen möchten, sollten wir als erstes die Intelligenz der Menschen und anderer Lebewesen unter der Lupe nehmen. So beschäftigen sich die Texte über das menschliche Gehirn mit der Struktur und Vernetzung unseren Neuronen, mit Messungen der neuronalen Aktivität und mit dem "Human Brain Project". Als Informatiker har Rojas seit Jahrzehnten die rasche Entwicklung der Mikroelektronik und die Möglichkeiten, die sie bietet, verfolgt, um intelligentes Verhalten in Maschinen nachzubauen. Das Mooresche Gesetz scheint sich immer wieder selbst am eigenen Schopf aus dem Sumpf zu ziehen, um alle technischen Schwierigkeiten zu überwinden. Milliarden von elektronischen Komponenten verbergen sich bereits in kleinsten Rechenmaschinen. Das Problem ist aber nun ein anderes, nämlich die Energiezufuhr zu garantieren und die übermäßige Wärmeentwicklung unter Kontrolle zu bringen. An der Stelle bleibt das biologische Vorbild immer noch unerreicht. Der dritte Teil über Robotik und KI gibt einen Einblick in die Arbeit, die in den letzten Jahren auf diesem Gebiet geleistet worden ist. Wir wären froh, mit Robotern die Eleganz eines Insekts bei der Bewältigung von Hindernissen zu erreichen. Wir können aber schon heute kleine und große Roboter - z.B. autonome Fahrzeuge - mit kognitiven Architekturen ausstatten, die eine effiziente und nützliche Funktionalität erlauben. Die Kapitel über Roboter, die lügen, bzw. über das Watson-System zeigen die zwei Seiten der Medaille: Wie weit die künstliche Intelligenz gekommen ist und wie weit entfernt sie doch noch vom Ziel bleibt.

Artificial Intelligence

Critical Concepts
Author: Ronald Chrisley,Sander Begeer
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9780415193320
Category: Artificial intelligence
Page: 500
View: 6545

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The Age of Spiritual Machines

When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence
Author: Ray Kurzweil
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 9781101077887
Category: Computers
Page: 400
View: 6917

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Ray Kurzweil is the inventor of the most innovative and compelling technology of our era, an international authority on artificial intelligence, and one of our greatest living visionaries. Now he offers a framework for envisioning the twenty-first century--an age in which the marriage of human sensitivity and artificial intelligence fundamentally alters and improves the way we live. Kurzweil's prophetic blueprint for the future takes us through the advances that inexorably result in computers exceeding the memory capacity and computational ability of the human brain by the year 2020 (with human-level capabilities not far behind); in relationships with automated personalities who will be our teachers, companions, and lovers; and in information fed straight into our brains along direct neural pathways. Optimistic and challenging, thought-provoking and engaging, The Age of Spiritual Machines is the ultimate guide on our road into the next century. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Sacred Pain

Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul
Author: Ariel Glucklich
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198030409
Category: Religion
Page: 288
View: 9267

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Why would anyone seek out the very experience the rest of us most wish to avoid? Why would religious worshipers flog or crucify themselves, sleep on spikes, hang suspended by their flesh, or walk for miles through scorching deserts with bare and bloodied feet? In this insightful new book, Ariel Glucklich argues that the experience of ritual pain, far from being a form of a madness or superstition, contains a hidden rationality and can bring about a profound transformation of the consciousness and identity of the spiritual seeker. Steering a course between purely cultural and purely biological explanations, Glucklich approaches sacred pain from the perspective of the practitioner to fully examine the psychological and spiritual effects of self-hurting. He discusses the scientific understanding of pain, drawing on research in fields such as neuropsychology and neurology. He also ranges over a broad spectrum of historical and cultural contexts, showing the many ways mystics, saints, pilgrims, mourners, shamans, Taoists, Muslims, Hindus, Native Americans, and indeed members of virtually every religion have used pain to achieve a greater identification with God. He examines how pain has served as a punishment for sin, a cure for disease, a weapon against the body and its desires, or a means by which the ego may be transcended and spiritual sickness healed. "When pain transgresses the limits," the Muslim mystic Mizra Asadullah Ghalib is quoted as saying, "it becomes medicine." Based on extensive research and written with both empathy and critical insight, Sacred Pain explores the uncharted inner terrain of self-hurting and reveals how meaningful suffering has been used to heal the human spirit.

Modelling and Simulation in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View


Author: R. Hegselmann,Ulrich Mueller,Klaus G. Troitzsch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401586861
Category: Social Science
Page: 320
View: 9700

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Model building in the social sciences can increasingly rely on well elaborated formal theories. At the same time inexpensive large computational capacities are now available. Both make computer-based model building and simulation possible in social science, whose central aim is in particular an understanding of social dynamics. Such social dynamics refer to public opinion formation, partner choice, strategy decisions in social dilemma situations and much more. In the context of such modelling approaches, novel problems in philosophy of science arise which must be analysed - the main aim of this book. Interest in social simulation has recently been growing rapidly world- wide, mainly as a result of the increasing availability of powerful personal computers. The field has also been greatly influenced by developments in cellular automata theory (from mathematics) and in distributed artificial intelligence which provided tools readily applicable to social simulation. This book presents a number of modelling and simulation approaches and their relations to problems in philosophy of science. It addresses sociologists and other social scientists interested in formal modelling, mathematical sociology, and computer simulation as well as computer scientists interested in social science applications, and philosophers of social science.

Hidden in Plain Sight

The Social Structure of Irrelevance
Author: Eviatar Zerubavel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199366632
Category: Social Science
Page: 208
View: 8063

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Many of us take for granted that what we perceive is a completely accurate representation of the world around us. Yet we have all had the experience of suddenly realizing that the keys or glasses that we had been looking for in vain were right in front of us the whole time. The capacity of our sense organs far exceeds our mental capabilities, and as such, looking at something does not guarantee that we will notice it. Our minds constantly prioritize and organize the information we take in, bringing certain things to the foreground, while letting others - that which we deem irrelevant - recede into the background. What ultimately determines what we perceive, and what we do not? In this fascinating book, noted sociologist Eviatar Zerubavel argues that we perceive things not just as human beings but as social beings. Drawing on fascinating examples from science, the art world, optical illusions, and all walks of life, he shows that what we notice or ignore varies across cultures and throughout history, and illustrates how our environment and our social lives - everything from our lifestyles to our professions to our nationalities - play a role in determining how we actually use our senses to access the world. A subtle yet powerful examination of one of the central features of our conscious life, this book offers a way to think about all that might otherwise remain hidden in plain sight.

Rationality + Consciousness = Free Will


Author: David Hodgson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190208600
Category: Philosophy
Page: 288
View: 7504

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In recent years, philosophical discussions of free will have focused largely on whether or not free will is compatible with determinism. In this challenging book, David Hodgson takes a fresh approach to the question of free will, contending that close consideration of human rationality and human consciousness shows that together they give us free will, in a robust and indeterministic sense. In particular, they give us the capacity to respond appositely to feature-rich gestalts of conscious experiences, in ways that are not wholly determined by laws of nature or computational rules. The author contends that this approach is consistent with what science tells us about the world; and he considers its implications for our responsibility for our own conduct, for the role of retribution in criminal punishment, and for the place of human beings in the wider scheme of things. Praise for David Hodgson's previous work, The Mind Matters "magisterial...It is balanced, extraordinarily thorough and scrupulously fair-minded; and it is written in clear, straightforward, accessible prose." --Michael Lockwood, Times Literary Supplement "an excellent contribution to the literature. It is well written, authoritative, and wonderfully wide-ranging. ... This account of quantum theory ... will surely be of great value. ... On the front cover of the paper edition of this book Paul Davies is quoted as saying that this is "a truly splendid and provocative book". In writing this review I have allowed myself to be provoked, but I am happy to close by giving my endorsement to this verdict in its entirety!" --Euan Squires, Journal of Consciousness Studies "well argued and extremely important book." --Sheena Meredith, New Scientist "His reconstructions and explanations are always concise and clear." --Jeffrey A Barrett, The Philosophical Review "In this large-scale and ambitious work Hodgson attacks a modern orthodoxy. Both its proponents and its opponents will find it compelling reading." --J. R. Lucas, Merton College, Oxford

No Contest

The Case Against Competition
Author: Alfie Kohn
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 054752739X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 336
View: 6890

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No Contest stands as the definitive critique of competition. Contrary to accepted wisdom, competition is not basic to human nature; it poisons our relationships and holds us back from doing our best. In this new edition, Alfie Kohn argues that the race to win turns all of us into losers.

Philosophy of Biology


Author: Brian Garvey
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317493664
Category: Philosophy
Page: 320
View: 782

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This major new series in the philosophy of science aims to provide a new generation of textbooks for the subject. The series will not only offer fresh treatments of core topics in the theory and methodology of scientific knowledge, but also introductions to newer areas of the discipline. Furthermore, the series will cover topics in current science that raise significant foundational issues both for scientific theory and for philosophy more generally. Biology raises distinct questions of its own not only for philosophy of science, but for metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. This comprehensive new textbook for a rapidly growing field of study provides students new to the subject with an up-to-date presentation of the key philosophical issues. Care is taken throughout to keep the technicalities accessible to the non-biologist but without sacrificing the philosophical subtleties. The first part of the book covers the philosophical challenges posed by evolution and evolutionary biology, beginning with Darwin's central argument in the Origin of the Species. Individual chapters cover natural selection, the selfish gene, alternative units of selection, developmental systems theory, adaptionism and issues in macroevolution. The second part of the book examines philosophical questions arising in connection with biological traits, function, nature and nurture, and biological kinds. The third part of the book examines metaphysical questions, biology's relation with the traditional concerns of philosophy of science, and how evolution has been introduced into epistemological debates. The final part considers the relevance of biology to questions about ethics, religion and human nature.

Signs, Search and Communication

Semiotic Aspects of Artificial Intelligence
Author: René J. Jorna,Barend van Heusden,Roland Posner
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110136586
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 377
View: 7774

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A selection of papers presented at the conference Expert Systems, Culture and Semiotics, held in Groningen, the Netherlands, December 1990. The volume is divided into three parts. The first part is about signs and representations, the second about reasoning and search, and the third about communicat

Writing to Learn

How to Write - and Think - Clearly About Any Subject at All
Author: William Zinsser
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0062244698
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 272
View: 7888

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This is an essential book for everyone who wants to write clearly about any subject and use writing as a means of learning.

Zahl und Numerale

eine Untersuchung zur Korrelation konzeptueller und sprachlicher Strukturen
Author: Heike Wiese
Publisher: De Gruyter Akademie Forschung
ISBN: N.A
Category: Grammar, Comparative and general
Page: 389
View: 4149

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Ideas, Obsessions, Intertexts

A Nonlinear Approach to Russell Hoban's Fiction
Author: Yvonne Studer
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783772024405
Category: Children's stories, American
Page: 539
View: 1433

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