Medical Anthropology in Europe

Shaping the Field
Author: Elisabeth Hsu,Caroline Potter
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317613066
Category: Social Science
Page: 144
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This collection brings together three generations of medical anthropologists working at European universities to reflect on past, current and future directions of the field. Medical anthropology emerged on an international playing ground, and while other recently compiled anthologies emphasize North American developments, this volume highlights substantial ethnographic and theoretical studies undertaken in Europe. The first four chapters trace the beginnings of medical anthropology back into the two formative decades between the 1950s-1970s in Italy, German-speaking Europe, the Netherlands, France and the UK, supported by four brief vignettes on current developments. Three core themes that emerged within this field in Europe – the practice of care, the body politic and psycho-sensorial dimensions of healing – are first presented in synopsis and then separately discussed by three leading medical anthropologists Susan Whyte, Giovanni Pizza and René Devisch, complemented by the work of three early career researchers. The chapters aim to highlight how very diverse (and sometimes overlooked) European developments within this rapidly growing field have been, and continue to be. This book will spur reflection on medical anthropology’s potential for future scholarship and practice, by students and established scholars alike. This book was originally published as a special issue of Anthropology and Medicine.

World Politics in Translation

Power, Relationality and Difference in Global Cooperation
Author: Tobias Berger,Alejandro Esguerra
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351806335
Category: Political Science
Page: 236
View: 9362

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Virtually all pertinent issues that the world faces today – such as nuclear proliferation, climate change, the spread of infectious disease and economic globalization – imply objects that move. However, surprisingly little is known about how the actual objects of world politics are constituted, how they move and how they change while moving. This book addresses these questions through the concept of 'translation' – the simultaneous processes of object constitution, transportation and transformation. Translations occur when specific forms of knowledge about the environment, international human rights norms or water policies consolidate, travel and change. World Politics in Translation conceptualizes 'translation' for International Relations by drawing on theoretical insights from Literary Studies, Postcolonial Scholarship and Science and Technology Studies. The individual chapters explore how the concept of translation opens new perspectives on development cooperation, the diffusion of norms and organizational templates, the performance in and of international organizations or the politics of international security governance. This book constitutes an excellent resource for students and scholars in the fields of Politics, International Relations, Social Anthropology, Development Studies and Sociology. Combining empirically grounded case studies with methodological reflection and theoretical innovation, the book provides a powerful and productive introduction to world politics in translation.

Reflecting on Reflexivity

The Human Condition as an Ontological Surprise
Author: T. M. S. (Terry) Evens,Don Handelman,Christopher Roberts
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782387536
Category: Social Science
Page: 324
View: 9365

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Humanness supposes innate and profound reflexivity. This volume approaches the concept of reflexivity on two different yet related analytical planes. Whether implicitly or explicitly, both planes of thought bear critically on reflexivity in relation to the nature of selfhood and the very idea of the autonomous individual, ethics, and humanness, science as such and social science, ontological dualism and fundamental ambiguity. On the one plane, a collection of original and innovative ethnographically based essays is offered, each of which is devoted to ways in which reflexivity plays a fundamental role in human social life and the study of it; on the other-anthropo-philosophical and developed in the volume's Preface, Introduction, and Postscript-it is argued that reflexivity distinguishes-definitively, albeit relatively-the being and becoming of the human.

International Encyclopedia of Public Health


Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128037083
Category: Medical
Page: 4470
View: 303

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International Encyclopedia of Public Health, Second Edition is an authoritative and comprehensive guide to the major issues, challenges, methods, and approaches of global public health. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, this new edition combines complementary scientific fields of inquiry, linking biomedical research with the social and life sciences to address the three major themes of public health research, disease, health processes, and disciplines. This book helps readers solve real-world problems in global and local health through a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach. Covering all dimensions of the field, from the details of specific diseases, to the organization of social insurance agencies, the articles included cover the fundamental research areas of health promotion, economics, and epidemiology, as well as specific diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and reproductive health. Additional articles on the history of public health, global issues, research priorities, and health and human rights make this work an indispensable resource for students, health researchers, and practitioners alike. Provides the most comprehensive, high-level, internationally focused reference work available on public health Presents an invaluable resource for both researchers familiar with the field and non-experts requiring easy-to-find, relevant, global information and a greater understanding of the wider issues Contains interdisciplinary coverage across all aspects of public health Incorporates biomedical and health social science issues and perspectives Includes an international focus with contributions from global domain experts, providing a complete picture of public health issues

Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge


Author: William Haviland,Harald Prins,Bunny McBride,Dana Walrath
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1133957420
Category: Social Science
Page: 480
View: 7975

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Explore the most fascinating, creative, dangerous, and complex species alive today: you and your neighbors in the global village. With compelling photos, engaging examples, and select studies by anthropologists in far-flung places, the authors of CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY: THE HUMAN CHALLENGE provide a holistic view of anthropology to help you make sense of today’s world. With this text you will discover the different ways humans face the challenge of existence, the connection between biology and culture in the shaping of human beliefs and behavior, and the impact of globalization on peoples and cultures around the world. Available with InfoTrac Student Collections http://gocengage.com/infotrac. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge


Author: William Haviland,Dana Walrath,Harald Prins,Bunny McBride
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1285061411
Category: Social Science
Page: 400
View: 2034

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Offering compelling photos, engaging examples, and select studies by anthropologists in a variety of locations around the globe, Haviland, Walrath, Prins and McBride present evolution and prehistory in vivid, accessible terms, and demonstrate how the field is relevant to understanding the complex world around you. You’ll have the opportunity to explore the different ways humans face the challenge of existence; learn about the connection between biology and culture in the course of human evolutionary history as well as in shaping contemporary human biology, beliefs, and behavior; and see the impact of globalization on the continued survival of our species and planet. Available with InfoTrac Student Collections http://gocengage.com/infotrac. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Anthropology: The Human Challenge


Author: William A. Haviland,Harald E. L. Prins,Walrath,Bunny McBride
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1305583698
Category: Social Science
Page: 784
View: 8267

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With compelling photos, engaging examples, conceptual tools, and select studies by anthropologists in far-flung places, the authors of ANTHROPOLOGY: THE HUMAN CHALLENGE, 15th Edition, provide a holistic view of anthropology to help you gain a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of our complex world. You'll discover the different ways humans face the challenge of existence, the connection between biology and culture in the shaping of human behavior, and the impact of globalization on peoples and cultures around the world. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Medizin im Kontext

Krankheit und Gesundheit in einer vernetzten Welt
Author: Hansjörg Dilger,Bernhard Hadolt
Publisher: Peter Lang
ISBN: 9783631578391
Category: Medical
Page: 447
View: 469

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Wie gestalten sich medizinisches Wissen und medizinische Praktiken in einer global vernetzten Welt? Welchen Herausforderungen steht die Medizinethnologie angesichts der transnationalen Bewegungen von Menschen, sowie medizinbezogener Ideen und Praktiken gegenuber? Dieser Band verweist auf die Bedeutung eines sozial- und kulturanthropologischen Analyseansatzes, wenn Gesundheit und Krankheit im globalen Kontext adaquat verstanden werden sollen. Er pladiert fur eine differenzierte Berucksichtigung der sozialen und kulturellen Dynamiken, die die Politiken des heterogenen und machtbeladenen Felds -Medizin- kennzeichnen. Fallstudien uber Europa, Afrika, Asien und Lateinamerika beleuchten folgende Bereiche: Neue Technologien und medizinische Praxis, Migration und Medizin in transnationalen Verflechtungen, -Traditionelle Medizin- als strategische Ressource, Soziale Sicherung und Gesundheitsfinanzierung sowie Urbanisierung - eine Gefahr fur die Gesundheit?"

Bioethics Around the Globe


Author: Catherine Myser
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199749829
Category: Medical
Page: 336
View: 6551

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Contemporary bioethics, now roughly 40 years old as a discipline, originated in the United States with a primarily Anglo-American cultural ethos. It continues to be professionalized and institutionalized as a maturing discipline at the intersections of philosophy, medicine, law, social sciences, and humanities. Increasingly bioethics - along with its foundational values, concepts and principals - has been exported to other countries, not only in the developed West, but also in developing and/or Eastern countries. Bioethics thus continues to undergo intriguing transformations as it is globalized and adapted to local cultures. These processes have occurred rapidly in the last two decades, with relatively little reflection and examination. This volume brings together contributors from a wide variety of disciplines to take a critical, empirical look at bioethics around the globe, examining how it is being transformed - at both local and global levels - in this process of cross-cultural exporting and importing. One concern is to identify sociocultural forces and consequences which may positively or negatively affect ethics and social justice goals. This book thereby offers the first comparative anthropology and sociology of globalizing bioethics in the field, exploring the global dissemination, local adaptations, cultural meanings and social functions of bioethics theories, practices and institutions and comparing developed and developing countries. The volume considers a full range of countries on every inhabited continent, including: Africa, Asia, Australia, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, and North America. Topics include government agendas such as nationalism and nation building; agendas of powerful, associated professions (e.g., medicine, law); theological and political agendas such as 'culture wars'; agendas of entrepreneurial economies of profit; and other cultural and ideological agendas consciously or unconsciously advanced or contested by bioethics work in particular countries based on their unique history, politics and culture. This cross-cultural exploration of globalizing bioethics will be of great interest to a field that is increasingly introspective about its underlying sociocultural assumptions and biases. "At last-an unabashedly sociological and anthropological look at the globalization of bioethics, a really fresh approach to a maturing discipline. The chapters speak from the perspective of sophisticated Western-developed exporters of the bioethical paradigm [and equally sophisticated] Eastern-developing and third-world and interdisciplinary critics suspicious of the canonical view. Trained in the dominant school of American, mainstream philosophy, Myser draws on her long-standing commitment to a social and cultural approach to bioethics to take a fresh look at bioethics globally. She grasps the globalization of bioethics and the skepticism about analytical philosophy's Americanized consensus. The book sets the stage for a new era in bioethics theory and practice {debating] whether a universal common morality underlies the rich variation in national and cultural bioethics traditions." - Robert Veatch, Georgetown University "This path-breaking volume is the first to explore the global export of Western bioethics to a variety of non-Western settings. Explicitly critical, the book also points to the liberating potential of bioethics to achieve social justice and improve the lives of patients around the world. The book is a must-read for all medical anthropologists interested in bioethics." - Marcia Inhorn, Yale University "Bioethics Around the Globe should change the way bioethics is conceived and practiced in the U.S. and elsewhere. Its rich and wide-ranging comparative examination opens new possibilities for bioethical reflection. I enthusiastically recommend this wonderful book." - James F. Childress, University of Virginia "The past 40 years have seen a remarkable spread of bioethics to every part of the world. Dr. Myser's collection is a wonderful and rich exploration of its international impact, revealing important similarities and differences from country to country. It will have an important impact." - Daniel Callahan, The Hastings Center

Ordering Africa

anthropology, European imperialism and the politics of knowledge
Author: Helen Tilley,Robert J. Gordon
Publisher: Manchester Univ Pr
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 390
View: 5359

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A major collection of essays that will be welcomed by scholars interested in imperial history and the history of Africa.

Die Heilkunst des Pien Lu

Arzt und Krankheit in bildhaften Ausdrücken der chinesischen Sprache
Author: Erhard Rosner
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Chinese language
Page: 216
View: 7374

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The Bioarchaeology of Artificial Cranial Modifications

New Approaches to Head Shaping and its Meanings in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and Beyond
Author: Vera Tiesler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461487609
Category: Social Science
Page: 269
View: 4702

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The artificial shaping of the skull vault of infants expresses fundamental aspects of crafted beauty, of identity, status and gender in a way no other body practice does. Combining different sources of information, this volume contributes new interpretations on Mesoamerican head shaping traditions. Here, the head with its outer insignia was commonly used as a metaphor for designating the “self” and personhood and, as part of the body, served as a model for the indigenous universe. Analogously, the outer “looks” of the head and its anatomical constituents epitomized deeply embedded worldviews and longstanding traditions. It is in this sense that this book explores both the quotidian roles and long-standing ideological connotations of cultural head modifications in Mesoamerica and beyond, setting new standards in the discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this study. The systematic examination of Mesoamerican skeletal series fosters an explained review of indigenous cultural history through the lens of emblematic head models with their nuanced undercurrents of religious identity and ethnicity, social organization and dynamic cultural shift. The embodied expressions of change are explored in different geocultural settings and epochs, being most visible in the centuries surrounding the Maya collapse and following the cultural clash implied by the European conquest. These glimpses on the Mesoamerican past through head practices are novel, as is the general treatment of methodology and theoretical frames. Although it is anchored in physical anthropology and archaeology (specifically bioarchaeology), this volume also integrates knowledge derived from anatomy and human physiology, historical and iconographic sources, linguistics (polisemia) and ethnography. The scope of this work is rounded up by the transcription and interpretation of the many colonial eye witness accounts on indigenous head treatments in Mesoamerica and beyond.

Anthropology

The Human Challenge
Author: William A. Haviland,Harald E. L. Prins,Dana Walrath,Bunny McBride
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company
ISBN: 9781133959885
Category: Anthropology
Page: 731
View: 8417

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Explore the most fascinating, creative, dangerous, and complex species alive today: you and your neighbors in the global village. With compelling photos, engaging examples, and select studies by anthropologists in far-flung places, the authors of ANTHROPOLOGY: THE HUMAN CHALLENGE, 14E, International Edition provide a holistic view of anthropology to help you make sense of today’s world. You’ll discover the different ways humans face the challenge of existence; the connection between biology and culture in the shaping of human behavior; and the impact of globalization on peoples and cultures around the world.

Medizinische Diskurse zu Irresein in China (1600-1930)


Author: Angelika C. Messner
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag
ISBN: 9783515075480
Category: History
Page: 294
View: 4356

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Die Er�ffnung des ersten Irrenhauses in Kanton (1898) durch einen amerikanischen Missionsarzt markiert den Beginn der �westlichen� Psychiatrie in China. W�hrend der Republikzeit (1911-1949) wurde sie - insbesondere die Idee der Institution �Irrenhaus� - von reformorientierten Intellektuellen im Rahmen ihres �modernistischen Diskurses� als zentrale Notwendigkeit fuer Chinas Rettung und Erneuerung propagiert. Die vorliegende Monographie fragt nicht nur nach den Hintergruenden und nach den Bemuehungen, das spezifisch westliche medizinische Vokabular in die chinesische Sprache einzugliedern, sondern wesentlich auch nach den medizinischen Sicht- und Handhabungsweisen im indigenen Kontext. Wie haben chinesische �rzte Irresein wahrgenommen und behandelt? Warum ergab sich im chinesischen Kontext niemals die Notwendigkeit, spezielle H�user zur Behandlung von �Wahnsinnigen� einzurichten? "�innovative, well-structured and immensely useful�" Medical History.

Understanding childhood

A Cross Disciplinary Approach
Author: Mary Jane Kehily
Publisher: Policy Press
ISBN: 1447305809
Category: Social Science
Page: 336
View: 9040

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Understanding childhood is a fresh look at how childhood has changed in recent years and reveals how children's needs and experiences have achieved a new visibility

Soviet Medicine

Culture, Practice, and Science
Author: Frances Lee Bernstein,Christopher Burton,Dan Healey
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 294
View: 6733

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Thanks to the opening of archives and the forging of exchanges between Russian and Western scholars interested in the history of medicine, it is now possible to write new forms of social and political history in the Soviet medical field. Using the lenses of critical social histories of healthcare and medical science, and looking at both new material from Russian archives and interviews with those who experienced the Soviet health system, the contributors to this volume explore the ways experts and the Soviet state radically reshaped medical provision after the Revolution of 1917. Soviet Medicine presents the work of an international group of leading scholars. Twelve essays—treating subjects that span the 74-year history of the Soviet Union—cover such diverse topics as how epidemiologists handled plague on the Soviet borderlands in the revolutionary era, how venereologists fighting sexually transmitted disease struggled to preserve the patient’s right to secrecy, and how Soviet forensic experts falsified the evidence of the Katyn Forest massacre of 1940. This important volume demonstrates the crucial role played by medical science, practice, and culture in the shaping of a modern Soviet Union and illustrates how the study of Soviet medical history can benefit historians of medicine, science, the Soviet Union, and social and gender historians.

Jenseits von Natur und Kultur


Author: Philippe Descola
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518768409
Category: Social Science
Page: 638
View: 988

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Seit der Zeit der Renaissance ist unser Weltbild von einer zentralen Unterscheidung bestimmt: der zwischen Natur und Kultur. Dort die von Naturgesetzen regierte, unpersönliche Welt der Tiere und Dinge, hier die Menschenwelt mit ihrer individuellen und kulturellen Vielfalt. Diese fundamentale Trennung beherrscht unser ganzes Denken und Handeln. In seinem faszinierenden Buch zeigt der große französische Anthropologe und Schüler von Claude Lévi-Strauss, Philippe Descola, daß diese Kosmologie alles andere als selbstverständlich ist. Dabei stützt er sich auf reiches Material aus zum Teil eigenen anthropologischen Feldforschungen bei Naturvölkern und indigenen Kulturen in Afrika, Amazonien, Neuguinea oder Sibirien. Descola führt uns vor Augen, daß deren Weltbilder ganz andersartig aufgebaut sind als das unsere mit seinen »zwei Etagen« von Natur und Kultur. So betrachten manche Kulturen Dinge als beseelt oder glauben, daß verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen zwischen Tieren und Menschen bestehen. Descola plädiert für eine monistische Anthropologie und entwirft eine Typologie unterschiedlichster Weltbilder. Auf diesem Wege lassen sich neben dem westlichen dualistischen Naturalismus totemistische, animistische oder analogistische Kosmologien entdecken. Eine fesselnde Reise in fremde Welten, die uns unsere eigene mit anderen Augen sehen läßt.