Medical Anthropology in Europe

Shaping the Field
Author: Elisabeth Hsu,Caroline Potter
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317613066
Category: Social Science
Page: 144
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This collection brings together three generations of medical anthropologists working at European universities to reflect on past, current and future directions of the field. Medical anthropology emerged on an international playing ground, and while other recently compiled anthologies emphasize North American developments, this volume highlights substantial ethnographic and theoretical studies undertaken in Europe. The first four chapters trace the beginnings of medical anthropology back into the two formative decades between the 1950s-1970s in Italy, German-speaking Europe, the Netherlands, France and the UK, supported by four brief vignettes on current developments. Three core themes that emerged within this field in Europe – the practice of care, the body politic and psycho-sensorial dimensions of healing – are first presented in synopsis and then separately discussed by three leading medical anthropologists Susan Whyte, Giovanni Pizza and René Devisch, complemented by the work of three early career researchers. The chapters aim to highlight how very diverse (and sometimes overlooked) European developments within this rapidly growing field have been, and continue to be. This book will spur reflection on medical anthropology’s potential for future scholarship and practice, by students and established scholars alike. This book was originally published as a special issue of Anthropology and Medicine.

World Politics in Translation

Power, Relationality and Difference in Global Cooperation
Author: Tobias Berger,Alejandro Esguerra
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351806335
Category: Political Science
Page: 236
View: 856

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Virtually all pertinent issues that the world faces today – such as nuclear proliferation, climate change, the spread of infectious disease and economic globalization – imply objects that move. However, surprisingly little is known about how the actual objects of world politics are constituted, how they move and how they change while moving. This book addresses these questions through the concept of 'translation' – the simultaneous processes of object constitution, transportation and transformation. Translations occur when specific forms of knowledge about the environment, international human rights norms or water policies consolidate, travel and change. World Politics in Translation conceptualizes 'translation' for International Relations by drawing on theoretical insights from Literary Studies, Postcolonial Scholarship and Science and Technology Studies. The individual chapters explore how the concept of translation opens new perspectives on development cooperation, the diffusion of norms and organizational templates, the performance in and of international organizations or the politics of international security governance. This book constitutes an excellent resource for students and scholars in the fields of Politics, International Relations, Social Anthropology, Development Studies and Sociology. Combining empirically grounded case studies with methodological reflection and theoretical innovation, the book provides a powerful and productive introduction to world politics in translation.

Reflecting on Reflexivity

The Human Condition as an Ontological Surprise
Author: T. M. S. (Terry) Evens,Don Handelman,Christopher Roberts
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782387536
Category: Social Science
Page: 324
View: 808

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Humanness supposes innate and profound reflexivity. This volume approaches the concept of reflexivity on two different yet related analytical planes. Whether implicitly or explicitly, both planes of thought bear critically on reflexivity in relation to the nature of selfhood and the very idea of the autonomous individual, ethics, and humanness, science as such and social science, ontological dualism and fundamental ambiguity. On the one plane, a collection of original and innovative ethnographically based essays is offered, each of which is devoted to ways in which reflexivity plays a fundamental role in human social life and the study of it; on the other-anthropo-philosophical and developed in the volume's Preface, Introduction, and Postscript-it is argued that reflexivity distinguishes-definitively, albeit relatively-the being and becoming of the human.

Empathy and Healing

Essays in Medical and Narrative Anthropology
Author: Vieda Skultans
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857450360
Category: Social Science
Page: 294
View: 7721

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For more than three decades the author has been concerned with issues to do with emotion, suffering and healing. This volume presents ethnographic studies of South Wales, Maharashtra and post-Soviet Latvia connected by a theoretical interest in healing, emotion and subjectivity. Exploring the uses of narrative in the shaping of memory, autobiography and illness and its connections with the master narratives of history and culture, it focuses on the post-Soviet clinic as an arena in which the contradictions of a liberal economy are translated into a medical language.

Fatness and the Maternal Body

Women's Experiences of Corporeality and the Shaping of Social Policy
Author: Maya Unnithan-Kumar,Soraya Tremayne
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 0857451235
Category: Social Science
Page: 246
View: 7128

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Obesity is a rising global health problem. On the one hand a clearly defined medical condition, it is at the same time a corporeal state embedded in the social and cultural perception of fatness, body shape and size. Focusing specifically on the maternal body, contributors to the volume examine how the language and notions of obesity connect with, or stand apart from, wider societal values and moralities to do with the body, fatness, reproduction and what is considered 'natural'. A focus on fatness in the context of human reproduction and motherhood offers instructive insights into the global circulation and authority of biomedical facts on fatness (as 'risky' anti-fit, for example). As with other social and cultural studies critical of health policy discourse, this volume challenges the spontaneous connection being made in scientific and popular understanding between fatness and ill health.

Where There Is No Midwife

Birth and Loss in Rural India
Author: Sarah Pinto
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9780857454485
Category: Social Science
Page: 342
View: 8719

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In the Sitapurdistrict of Uttar Pradesh, an agricultural region with high rates of infant mortality, maternal health services are poor while family planning efforts are intensive. By following the daily lives of women in this setting, the author considers the women’s own experiences of birth and infant death, their ways of making-do, and the hierarchies they create and contend with. This book develops an approach to the care that focuses on emotion, domestic spaces, illicit and extra-institutional biomedicine, and household and neighborly relations that these women are able to access. It shows that, as part of the concatenation of affect and access, globalized moralities about reproduction are dependent on ambiguous ideas about caste. Through the unfolding of birth and death, a new vision of "untouchability" emerges that is integral to visions of progress.

International Encyclopedia of Public Health

Author: N.A
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128037083
Category: Medical
Page: 4470
View: 7314

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International Encyclopedia of Public Health, Second Edition is an authoritative and comprehensive guide to the major issues, challenges, methods, and approaches of global public health. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, this new edition combines complementary scientific fields of inquiry, linking biomedical research with the social and life sciences to address the three major themes of public health research, disease, health processes, and disciplines. This book helps readers solve real-world problems in global and local health through a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach. Covering all dimensions of the field, from the details of specific diseases, to the organization of social insurance agencies, the articles included cover the fundamental research areas of health promotion, economics, and epidemiology, as well as specific diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and reproductive health. Additional articles on the history of public health, global issues, research priorities, and health and human rights make this work an indispensable resource for students, health researchers, and practitioners alike. Provides the most comprehensive, high-level, internationally focused reference work available on public health Presents an invaluable resource for both researchers familiar with the field and non-experts requiring easy-to-find, relevant, global information and a greater understanding of the wider issues Contains interdisciplinary coverage across all aspects of public health Incorporates biomedical and health social science issues and perspectives Includes an international focus with contributions from global domain experts, providing a complete picture of public health issues

Property in East Central Europe

Notions, Institutions, and Practices of Landownership in the Twentieth Century
Author: Hannes Siegrist,Dietmar Müller
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 1782384626
Category: History
Page: 344
View: 2608

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Property is a complex phenomenon comprising cultural, social, and legal rules. During the twentieth century, property rights in land suffered massive interference in Central and Eastern Europe. The promise of universal and formally equal rights of land ownership, ensuring predictability of social processes and individual autonomy, was largely not fulfilled. The national appropriation of property in the interwar period and the communist era represent an onerous legacy for the postcommunist (re)construction of a liberal-individualist property regime. However, as the scholars in this collection show, after the demise of communism in Eastern Europe property is again a major factor in shaping individual identity and in providing the political order and culture with a foundational institution. This volume analyzes both historical and contemporary forms of land ownership in Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia in a multidisciplinary framework including economic history, legal and political studies, and social anthropology.

Medical Anthropology in Europe

Teaching and Doctoral Research
Author: Elisabeth Hsu,Doreen Montag
Publisher: Sean Kingston Pub
ISBN: 9780954557256
Category: Social Science
Page: 111
View: 1453

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This handbook to existing medical anthropology programs at the undergraduate and postgraduate level in Europe is designed for students who are looking for suitable training and professionals who are looking for expertise in the field.

Philosophy of Anthropology and Sociology

A Volume in the Handbook of the Philosophy of Science Series
Author: N.A
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080466648
Category: Philosophy
Page: 900
View: 6191

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This volume concerns philosophical issues that arise from the practice of anthropology and sociology. The essays cover a wide range of issues, including traditional questions in the philosophy of social science as well as those specific to these disciplines. Authors attend to the historical development of the current debates and set the stage for future work. · Comprehensive survey of philosophical issues in anthropology and sociology · Historical discussion of important debates · Applications to current research in anthropology and sociology

A History of Intelligence and 'Intellectual Disability'

The Shaping of Psychology in Early Modern Europe
Author: C F Goodey
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409482359
Category: Medical
Page: 392
View: 8493

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Starting with the hypothesis that not only human intelligence but also its antithesis 'intellectual disability' are nothing more than historical contingencies, C.F. Goodey's paradigm-shifting study traces the rich interplay between labelled human types and the radically changing characteristics attributed to them. From the twelfth-century beginnings of European social administration to the onset of formal human science disciplines in the modern era, A History of Intelligence and 'Intellectual Disability' reconstructs the socio-political and religious contexts of intellectual ability and disability, and demonstrates how these concepts became part of psychology, medicine and biology. Goodey examines a wide array of classical, late medieval and Renaissance texts, from popular guides on conduct and behavior to medical treatises and from religious and philosophical works to poetry and drama. Focusing especially on the period between the Protestant Reformation and 1700, Goodey challenges the accepted wisdom that would have us believe that 'intelligence' and 'disability' describe natural, trans-historical realities. Instead, Goodey argues for a model that views intellectual disability and indeed the intellectually disabled person as recent cultural creations. His book is destined to become a standard resource for scholars interested in the history of psychology and medicine, the social origins of human self-representation, and current ethical debates about the genetics of intelligence.

Challenges for Europe in the World, 2030

Author: Lord John Eatwell,Mr Pascal Petit,Professor Terry McKinley
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472419286
Category: Political Science
Page: 408
View: 2257

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Challenges for Europe in the World, 2030 embodies critical thinking about the long-term implications for Europe of the clear shift of power from the West to the East and the South. Designed as a multi-faceted project, this book presents an integrated assessment covering a wide range of policy areas and alternative assumptions about trends in global and European governance. In order to reach this ambitious objective in a comprehensive and consistent way, several types of quantitative and qualitative approaches have been combined: a model of macro regions of the world economy, an institutional perspective, and lessons from foresight studies. With a strong focus on policy implications, the book is introduced by an executive summary which outlines the project assumptions, especially on the future of Europe in the context of the current economic crisis and of the emergence of a new balance of powers in the global economy. Subsequent chapters cover the regulation of finance, trade and technology developments, environmental sustainability, employment conditions and population wellbeing. The book concludes with an assessment of the extent to which these developments are likely to lead to significant political changes in Europe. In sum this book challenges public policy makers to re-assess their thinking in shaping Europe’s future.

Shaping the Transnational Sphere

Experts, Networks and Issues from the 1840s to the 1930s
Author: Davide Rodogno,Bernhard Struck,Jakob Vogel
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 178238359X
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 7692

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In the second half of the nineteenth century a new kind of social and cultural actor came to the fore: the expert. During this period complex processes of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and nation-building gained pace, particularly in Western Europe and North America. These processes created new forms of specialized expertise that grew in demand and became indispensible in fields like sanitation, incarceration, urban planning, and education. Often the expertise needed stemmed from problems at a local or regional level, but many transcended nation-state borders. Experts helped shape a new transnational sphere by creating communities that crossed borders and languages, sharing knowledge and resources through those new communities, and by participating in special events such as congresses and world fairs.

Ordering Africa

anthropology, European imperialism and the politics of knowledge
Author: Helen Tilley,Robert J. Gordon
Publisher: Manchester Univ Pr
Category: History
Page: 390
View: 3571

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A major collection of essays that will be welcomed by scholars interested in imperial history and the history of Africa.

Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge

Author: William Haviland,Harald Prins,Bunny McBride,Dana Walrath
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1133957420
Category: Social Science
Page: 480
View: 6370

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Explore the most fascinating, creative, dangerous, and complex species alive today: you and your neighbors in the global village. With compelling photos, engaging examples, and select studies by anthropologists in far-flung places, the authors of CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY: THE HUMAN CHALLENGE provide a holistic view of anthropology to help you make sense of today’s world. With this text you will discover the different ways humans face the challenge of existence, the connection between biology and culture in the shaping of human beliefs and behavior, and the impact of globalization on peoples and cultures around the world. Available with InfoTrac Student Collections Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Shape of Thought

How Mental Adaptations Evolve
Author: H. Clark Barrett
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190463600
Category: Science
Page: 416
View: 2078

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The Shape of Thought: How Mental Adaptations Evolve presents a road map for an evolutionary psychology of the twenty-first century. It brings together theory from biology and cognitive science to show how the brain can be composed of specialized adaptations, and yet also an organ of plasticity. Although mental adaptations have typically been seen as monolithic, hard-wired components frozen in the evolutionary past, The Shape of Thought presents a new view of mental adaptations as diverse and variable, with distinct functions and evolutionary histories that shape how they develop, what information they use, and what they do with that information. The book describes how advances in evolutionary developmental biology can be applied to the brain by focusing on the design of the developmental systems that build it. Crucially, developmental systems can be plastic, designed by the process of natural selection to build adaptive phenotypes using the rich information available in our social and physical environments. This approach bridges the long-standing divide between "nativist" approaches to development, based on innateness, and "empiricist" approaches, based on learning. It shows how a view of humans as a flexible, culturally-dependent species is compatible with a complexly specialized brain, and how the nature of our flexibility can be better understood by confronting the evolved design of the organ on which that flexibility depends.

Chronic Conditions, Fluid States

Chronicity and the Anthropology of Illness
Author: Lenore Manderson,Carolyn Smith-Morris
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 0813547466
Category: Medical
Page: 320
View: 8173

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"A major collection of essays from leaders in the field of medical anthropology, Chronic Conditions, Fluid States pays much-needed attention to one of the greatest challenges currently faced by both the wealthiest and poorest of nations. For anyone wishing to think critically about chronic illness in cross-cultural perspective, the social forces shaping this issue, and its impact on the lived experiences of people worldwide, there is no better place to start than this pioneering volume."---Richard Parker, Columbia University, and editor-in-chief, Global Public Health --

Evidence, Ethos and Experiment

The Anthropology and History of Medical Research in Africa
Author: P. Wenzel Geissler,Catherine Molyneux
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 085745093X
Category: Social Science
Page: 508
View: 1314

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Medical research has been central to biomedicine in Africa for over a century, and Africa, along with other tropical areas, has been crucial to the development of medical science. At present, study populations in Africa participate in an increasing number of medical research projects and clinical trials, run by both public institutions and private companies. Global debates about the politics and ethics of this research are growing and local concerns are prompting calls for social studies of the "trial communities" produced by this scientific work. Drawing on rich, ethnographic and historiographic material, this volume represents the emergent field of anthropological inquiry that links Africanist ethnography to recent concerns with science, the state, and the culture of late capitalism in Africa.

Shaping Rural Areas in Europe

Perceptions and Outcomes on the Present and the Future
Author: Luís Silva,Elisabete Figueiredo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940076796X
Category: Social Science
Page: 268
View: 7652

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Shaping Rural Areas in Europe. Perceptions and Outcomes on the Present and the Future sets out to investigate the effect of urban perceptions about the rural and consequent demands on rurality on the present and future configurations of rural territories in Europe in the early twenty-first century. This volume presents and discusses a broad range of case studies and theoretical and methodological approaches from different academic fields, mainly Anthropology, Sociology and Geography.

Sibling Relations and the Transformations of European Kinship, 1300-1900

Author: Christopher H. Johnson,David Warren Sabean
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9780857450463
Category: History
Page: 368
View: 1836

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Recently considerable interest has developed about the degree to which anthropological approaches to kinship can be used for the study of the long-term development of European history. From the late middle ages to the dawn of the twentieth century, kinship - rather than declining, as is often assumed - was twice reconfigured in dramatic ways and became increasingly significant as a force in historical change, with remarkable similarities across European society. Applying interdisciplinary approaches from social and cultural history and literature and focusing on sibling relationships, this volume takes up the challenge of examining the systemic and structural development of kinship over the long term by looking at the close inner-familial dynamics of ruling families (the Hohenzollerns), cultural leaders (the Mendelssohns), business and professional classes, and political figures (the Gladstones)in France, Italy, Germany, and England. It offers insight into the current issues in kinship studies and draws from a wide range of personal documents: letters, autobiographies, testaments, memoirs, as well as genealogies and works of art.