Mathematical Logic


Author: R.O. Gandy,C.E.M. Yates
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080535920
Category: Computers
Page: 306
View: 1117

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Mathematical Logic is a collection of the works of one of the leading figures in 20th-century science. This collection of A.M. Turing's works is intended to include all his mature scientific writing, including a substantial quantity of unpublished material. His work in pure mathematics and mathematical logic extended considerably further; the work of his last years, on morphogenesis in plants, is also of the greatest originality and of permanent importance. This book is divided into three parts. The first part focuses on computability and ordinal logics and covers Turing's work between 1937 and 1938. The second part covers type theory; it provides a general introduction to Turing's work on type theory and covers his published and unpublished works between 1941 and 1948. Finally, the third part focuses on enigmas, mysteries, and loose ends. This concluding section of the book discusses Turing's Treatise on the Enigma, with excerpts from the Enigma Paper. It also delves into Turing's papers on programming and on minimum cost sequential analysis, featuring an excerpt from the unpublished manuscript. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, logicians, and computer scientists.

A Companion to Philosophical Logic


Author: Dale Jacquette
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1405149949
Category: Philosophy
Page: 832
View: 4761

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This collection of newly comissioned essays by international contributors offers a representative overview of the most important developments in contemporary philosophical logic. Presents controversies in philosophical implications and applications of formal symbolic logic. Surveys major trends and offers original insights.

Artificial Intelligence, Evolutionary Computing and Metaheuristics

In the Footsteps of Alan Turing
Author: Xin-She Yang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642296947
Category: Computers
Page: 796
View: 311

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Alan Turing pioneered many research areas such as artificial intelligence, computability, heuristics and pattern formation. Nowadays at the information age, it is hard to imagine how the world would be without computers and the Internet. Without Turing's work, especially the core concept of Turing Machine at the heart of every computer, mobile phone and microchip today, so many things on which we are so dependent would be impossible. 2012 is the Alan Turing year -- a centenary celebration of the life and work of Alan Turing. To celebrate Turing's legacy and follow the footsteps of this brilliant mind, we take this golden opportunity to review the latest developments in areas of artificial intelligence, evolutionary computation and metaheuristics, and all these areas can be traced back to Turing's pioneer work. Topics include Turing test, Turing machine, artificial intelligence, cryptography, software testing, image processing, neural networks, nature-inspired algorithms such as bat algorithm and cuckoo search, and multiobjective optimization and many applications. These reviews and chapters not only provide a timely snapshot of the state-of-art developments, but also provide inspiration for young researchers to carry out potentially ground-breaking research in the active, diverse research areas in artificial intelligence, cryptography, machine learning, evolutionary computation, and nature-inspired metaheuristics. This edited book can serve as a timely reference for graduates, researchers and engineers in artificial intelligence, computer sciences, computational intelligence, soft computing, optimization, and applied sciences.

The Turing Test

The Elusive Standard of Artificial Intelligence
Author: James Moor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402012044
Category: Computers
Page: 273
View: 9752

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This text provides a comprehensive, in-depth and contemporary assessment of the Turing test. It offers new insights into Turing's own interpretation and traces the history of the debate about the merits of the Turing test in detail.

Pure Mathematics


Author: Alan Mathison Turing,Irving John Good
Publisher: North Holland
ISBN: N.A
Category: Computers
Page: 287
View: 1879

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The collected works of Turing, including a substantial amount of unpublished material, will comprise four volumes: Mechanical Intelligence, Pure Mathematics, Morphogenesis and Mathematical Logic. Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954) was a brilliant man who made major contributions in several areas of science. Today his name is mentioned frequently in philosophical discussions about the nature of Artificial Intelligence. Actually, he was a pioneer researcher in computer architecture and software engineering; his work in pure mathematics and mathematical logic extended considerably further and his last work, on morphogenesis in plants, is also acknowledged as being of the greatest originality and of permanent importance. He was one of the leading figures in Twentieth-century science, a fact which would have been known to the general public sooner but for the British Official Secrets Act, which prevented discussion of his wartime work. What is maybe surprising about these papers is that although they were written decades ago, they address major issues which concern researchers today.

Alan Turing, Enigma


Author: Andrew Hodges
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783709158326
Category: Computers
Page: 662
View: 310

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Alan Turing, Enigma ist die Biographie des legendären britischen Mathematikers, Logikers, Kryptoanalytikers und Computerkonstrukteurs Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954). Turing war einer der bedeutendsten Mathematiker dieses Jahrhunderts und eine höchst exzentrische Persönlichkeit. Er gilt seit seiner 1937 erschienenen Arbeit "On Computable Numbers", in der er das Prinzip des abstrakten Universalrechners entwickelte, als der Erfinder des Computers. Er legte auch die Grundlagen für das heute "Künstliche Intelligenz" genannte Forschungsgebiet. Turings zentrale Frage "Kann eine Maschine denken?" war das Motiv seiner Arbeit und wird die Schlüsselfrage des Umgangs mit dem Computer werden. Die bis 1975 geheimgehaltene Tätigkeit Turings für den britischen Geheimdienst, die zur Entschlüsselung des deutschen Funkverkehrs führte, trug entscheidend zum Verlauf und Ausgang des Zweiten Weltkriegs bei.

The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences


Author: Robert Andrew Wilson,Frank C. Keil
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262731447
Category: Psychology
Page: 964
View: 1162

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A landmark, comprehensive reference work that represents the methodological and theoretical diversity of this changing field.

Morphogenesis


Author: P.T. Saunders
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080934056
Category: Computers
Page: 131
View: 3379

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The collected works of Turing, including a substantial amount of unpublished material, will comprise four volumes: Mechanical Intelligence, Pure Mathematics, Morphogenesis and Mathematical Logic. Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954) was a brilliant man who made major contributions in several areas of science. Today his name is mentioned frequently in philosophical discussions about the nature of Artificial Intelligence. Actually, he was a pioneer researcher in computer architecture and software engineering; his work in pure mathematics and mathematical logic extended considerably further and his last work, on morphogenesis in plants, is also acknowledged as being of the greatest originality and of permanent importance. He was one of the leading figures in Twentieth-century science, a fact which would have been known to the general public sooner but for the British Official Secrets Act, which prevented discussion of his wartime work. What is maybe surprising about these papers is that although they were written decades ago, they address major issues which concern researchers today.

It Began with Babbage

The Genesis of Computer Science
Author: Subrata Dasgupta
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199309434
Category: Computers
Page: 304
View: 1812

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As a field, computer science occupies a unique scientific space, in that its subject matter can exist in both physical and abstract realms. An artifact such as software is both tangible and not, and must be classified as something in between, or "liminal." The study and production of liminal artifacts allows for creative possibilities that are, and have been, possible only in computer science. In It Began with Babbage, computer scientist and writer Subrata Dasgupta examines the distinct history of computer science in terms of its creative innovations, reaching back to Charles Babbage in 1819. Since all artifacts of computer science are conceived with a use in mind, the computer scientist is not concerned with the natural laws that govern disciplines like physics or chemistry; instead, the field is more concerned with the concept of purpose. This requirement lends itself to a type of creative thinking that, as Dasgupta shows us, has exhibited itself throughout the history of computer science. More than any other, computer science is the science of the artificial, and has a unique history to accompany its unique focus. The book traces a path from Babbage's Difference Engine in the early 19th century to the end of the 1960s by when a new academic discipline named "computer science" had come into being. Along the way we meet characters like Babbage and Ada Lovelace, Turing and von Neumann, Shannon and Chomsky, and a host of other people from a variety of backgrounds who collectively created this new science of the artificial. And in the end, we see how and why computer science acquired a nature and history all of its own.

Media of Reason

A Theory of Rationality
Author: Matthias Vogel
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231527756
Category: Philosophy
Page: 400
View: 6481

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Matthias Vogel challenges the belief, dominant in contemporary philosophy, that reason is determined solely by our discursive, linguistic abilities as communicative beings. In his view, the medium of language is not the only force of reason. Music, art, and other nonlinguistic forms of communication and understanding are also significant. Introducing an expansive theory of mind that accounts for highly sophisticated, penetrative media, Vogel advances a novel conception of rationality while freeing philosophy from its exclusive attachment to linguistics. Vogel's media of reason treats all kinds of understanding and thought, propositional and nonpropositional, as important to the processes and production of knowledge and thinking. By developing an account of rationality grounded in a new conception of media, he raises the profile of the prelinguistic and nonlinguistic dimensions of rationality and advances the Enlightenment project, buffering it against the postmodern critique that the movement fails to appreciate aesthetic experience. Guided by the work of Jürgen Habermas, Donald Davidson, and a range of media theorists, including Marshall McLuhan, Vogel rebuilds, if he does not remake, the relationship among various forms of media—books, movies, newspapers, the Internet, and television—while offering an original and exciting contribution to media theory.

Der Turing Omnibus

Eine Reise durch die Informatik mit 66 Stationen
Author: A.K. Dewdney
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642788726
Category: Computers
Page: 496
View: 5523

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Der Turing Omnibus macht in 66 exzellent geschriebenen Beiträgen Station bei den interessantesten Themen aus der Informatik, der Computertechnologie und ihren Anwendungen.

Die Rechenmaschine und das Gehirn


Author: John von Neumann
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3486819666
Category: Computers
Page: 77
View: 7989

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"The Computer and the Brain" war der Titel von John von Neumanns letzter hinterlassener Arbeit, in der er den wechselseitigen Beziehungen zwischen der Rechenmaschine und dem menschlichen Denk- und Nervensystem nachgeht. Diese Arbeit gibt ein zusammengefaßtes Zeugnis seiner eindringlichen und unorthodoxen Denkweise. John von Neumann gilt heute als einer der Pioniere der modernen Rechentechnik.

Evolutionary Algorithms and Intelligent Tools in Engineering Optimization


Author: William Annicchiarico
Publisher: Wit Pr/Computational Mechanics
ISBN: 9781845640385
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 345
View: 6832

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Evolutionary Algorithms are very powerful techniques used to find solutions to real-world search and optimization problems. They are artificial intelligence techniques which mimic nature according to Darwin's principal of the "survival of the fittest" in order to explore and explode large search space and find near-global optima. In this book, a large spectrum of innovative evolutionary and intelligence methods are presented and used for solving various application problems, name and among others: Genetic Algorithms, Evolutions Strategies or Constrained Optimization, Genetic Programming, Sampling Methods in Evolutionary Computation, Tabu Methods, Metamodelassisted Evolutionary Algorithms, Multi Objective Robust Design, Hierarchical Asynchronous Parallel Evolutionary Algorithms, Micro Distributed Genetic Algorithms and Hybrid Optimization. The reader will easily access the comprehensive methods described in the fourteen chapters that work impressively well on practical problems representative of real engineering situations in the areas of Control, Electronics, Civil Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Turbomachinery and Medical Engineering and Energy. This collective book, written by internationally recognized experts in the fields of evolutionary design optimization, will therefore be of significant interest and value to computer scientists, researchers and post graduate students, and practicing senior or young engineers involved in complex design Optimization problems.

Der Gödelsche Beweis


Author: Ernest Nagel,James R. Newman
Publisher: de Gruyter Oldenbourg
ISBN: 9783486597264
Category:
Page: 110
View: 8364

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Spätestens seit Douglas R. Hofstadters "Gödel, Escher, Bach" ist der Name Gödel auch bei Nichtmathematikern bekannt geworden. 1931 hatte Kurt Gödel unter dem Titel "Über formal unterscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme" seinen Unvollständigkeitssatz publiziert. Nagel und Newman haben das Wesentliche an Gödels Ergebnissen für Nichtfachleute dargestellt. Die vorliegende 9. Auflage ist ein unveränderter Nachdruck der längst klassisch gewordenen Ausgabe von 1958.

Alan Turing: His Work and Impact


Author: S. Barry Cooper,J. van Leeuwen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0123870127
Category: Mathematics
Page: 944
View: 6589

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In this 2013 winner of the prestigious R.R. Hawkins Award from the Association of American Publishers, as well as the 2013 PROSE Awards for Mathematics and Best in Physical Sciences & Mathematics, also from the AAP, readers will find many of the most significant contributions from the four-volume set of the Collected Works of A. M. Turing. These contributions, together with commentaries from current experts in a wide spectrum of fields and backgrounds, provide insight on the significance and contemporary impact of Alan Turing's work. Offering a more modern perspective than anything currently available, Alan Turing: His Work and Impact gives wide coverage of the many ways in which Turing's scientific endeavors have impacted current research and understanding of the world. His pivotal writings on subjects including computing, artificial intelligence, cryptography, morphogenesis, and more display continued relevance and insight into today's scientific and technological landscape. This collection provides a great service to researchers, but is also an approachable entry point for readers with limited training in the science, but an urge to learn more about the details of Turing's work. 2013 winner of the prestigious R.R. Hawkins Award from the Association of American Publishers, as well as the 2013 PROSE Awards for Mathematics and Best in Physical Sciences & Mathematics, also from the AAP Named a 2013 Notable Computer Book in Computing Milieux by Computing Reviews Affordable, key collection of the most significant papers by A.M. Turing Commentary explaining the significance of each seminal paper by preeminent leaders in the field Additional resources available online