Mathematical Linguistics


Author: Andras Kornai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1846289866
Category: Mathematics
Page: 290
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Mathematical Linguistics introduces the mathematical foundations of linguistics to computer scientists, engineers, and mathematicians interested in natural language processing. The book presents linguistics as a cumulative body of knowledge from the ground up: no prior knowledge of linguistics is assumed. As the first textbook of its kind, this book is useful for those in information science and in natural language technologies.

Interpreted Languages and Compositionality


Author: Marcus Kracht
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400721081
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 214
View: 8725

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This book argues that languages are composed of sets of ‘signs’, rather than ‘strings’. This notion, first posited by de Saussure in the early 20th century, has for decades been neglected by linguists, particularly following Chomsky’s heavy critiques of the 1950s. Yet since the emergence of formal semantics in the 1970s, the issue of compositionality has gained traction in the theoretical debate, becoming a selling point for linguistic theories. Yet the concept of ‘compositionality’ itself remains ill-defined, an issue this book addresses. Positioning compositionality as a cornerstone in linguistic theory, it argues that, contrary to widely held beliefs, there exist non-compositional languages, which shows that the concept of compositionality has empirical content. The author asserts that the existence of syntactic structure can flow from the fact that a compositional grammar cannot be delivered without prior agreement on the syntactic structure of the constituents.

Information and Communication Technology

Second IFIP TC 5/8 International Conference, ICT-EurAsia 2014, Bali, Indonesia, April 14-17, 2014, Proceedings
Author: Linawati,Made Sudiana Mahendra,Erich J. Neuhold,A Min Tjoa,Ilsun You
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642550320
Category: Computers
Page: 699
View: 915

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second IFIP TC 5/8 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology, ICT-Eur Asia 2014, with the collocation of Asia ARES 2014 as a special track on Availability, Reliability and Security, held in Bali, Indonesia, in April 2014. The 70 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers have been organized in the following topical sections: applied modeling and simulation; mobile computing; advanced urban-scale ICT applications; semantic web and knowledge management; cloud computing; image processing; software engineering; collaboration technologies and systems; e-learning; data warehousing and data mining; e-government and e-health; biometric and bioinformatics systems; network security; dependable systems and applications; privacy and trust management; cryptography; multimedia security and dependable systems and applications.

Secure Information Management Using Linguistic Threshold Approach


Author: Marek R. Ogiela,Urszula Ogiela
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447150163
Category: Computers
Page: 136
View: 2284

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In recent years, cryptographic techniques for protecting and hiding secret information have been included in directions of research on intelligent information management. Data can be managed securely due to the use of algorithms for ensuring the confidentiality of data, information splitting techniques as well as protocols for sharing information and methods of its reconstruction. This is why techniques of advanced splitting and reconstruction of information form the primary subject of Secure Information Management Using Linguistic Threshold Approach, whose main purpose is to discuss the so-called linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. An attempt is also made to describe the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution. Such information is specially protected, and its contents are used only if the authorised users are enabled to access it. This monograph attempts to define a model structure of information flow and for assigning information shares to particular groups of individuals concerned. The proposed information flow model can be integrated into practical solutions within any organisation or institution, improving the functionality of its legacy information systems. The use of strong mathematical cryptographic models to manage information constitutes a scientific innovation and a demonstration of the methods and opportunities of using advanced techniques for confidentially exchanging information in tasks supporting data flow within a commercial organisation. The interdisciplinary nature of the solutions proposed means that the subject of linguistic threshold schemes forming part of intelligent information management becomes a new challenge for the research and application work carried out. The authors of this monograph hope that it will guide readers on an interesting journey through the cutting edge solution in the field of secure information management.

Classification and Modeling with Linguistic Information Granules

Advanced Approaches to Linguistic Data Mining
Author: Hisao Ishibuchi,Tomoharu Nakashima,Manabu Nii
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540268758
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 308
View: 6517

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Many approaches have already been proposed for classification and modeling in the literature. These approaches are usually based on mathematical mod els. Computer systems can easily handle mathematical models even when they are complicated and nonlinear (e.g., neural networks). On the other hand, it is not always easy for human users to intuitively understand mathe matical models even when they are simple and linear. This is because human information processing is based mainly on linguistic knowledge while com puter systems are designed to handle symbolic and numerical information. A large part of our daily communication is based on words. We learn from various media such as books, newspapers, magazines, TV, and the Inter net through words. We also communicate with others through words. While words play a central role in human information processing, linguistic models are not often used in the fields of classification and modeling. If there is no goal other than the maximization of accuracy in classification and model ing, mathematical models may always be preferred to linguistic models. On the other hand, linguistic models may be chosen if emphasis is placed on interpretability.

Partiality and Underspecification in Information, Languages, and Knowledge


Author: Henning Christiansen,M. Dolores Jiménez-López,Roussanka Loukanova
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1527500721
Category: Philosophy
Page: 360
View: 4742

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In recent years, there has been a proliferation of technological developments that incorporate processing of human language. Hardware and software can be specialized for designated subject areas, and computational devices are designed for a widening variety of applications. At the same time, new areas and applications are emerging by demanding intelligent technology enhanced by the processing of human language. These new applications often perform tasks which handle information, and they have a capacity to reason, using both formal and human language. Many sub-areas of Artificial Intelligence demand integration of Natural Language Processing, at least to some degree. Furthermore, technologies require coverage of known as well as unknown agents, and tasks with potential variations. All of this takes place in environments with unknown factors. The book covers theoretical work, advanced applications, approaches, and techniques for computational models of information, reasoning systems, and presentation in language. The book promotes work on intelligent natural language processing and related models of information, thought, reasoning, and other cognitive processes. The topics covered by the chapters prompt further research and developments of advanced systems in the areas of logic, computability, computational linguistics, cognitive science, neuroscience of language, robotics, and artificial intelligence, among others.

Fuzzy Models and Algorithms for Pattern Recognition and Image Processing


Author: James C. Bezdek,James Keller,Raghu Krisnapuram,Nikhil Pal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792385219
Category: Computers
Page: 776
View: 8879

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Fuzzy Models and Algorithms for Pattern Recognition and Image Processing presents a comprehensive introduction of the use of fuzzy models in pattern recognition and selected topics in image processing and computer vision. Unique to this volume in the Kluwer Handbooks of Fuzzy Sets Series is the fact that this book was written in its entirety by its four authors. A single notation, presentation style, and purpose are used throughout. The result is an extensive unified treatment of many fuzzy models for pattern recognition. The main topics are clustering and classifier design, with extensive material on feature analysis relational clustering, image processing and computer vision. Also included are numerous figures, images and numerical examples that illustrate the use of various models involving applications in medicine, character and word recognition, remote sensing, military image analysis, and industrial engineering.

Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining

Proceedings of the International IIS: IIPWM ́06 Conference held in Ustron, Poland, June 19-22, 2006
Author: Mieczyslaw A. Klopotek,Slawomir T. Wierzchon,Krzysztof Trojanowski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540335218
Category: Computers
Page: 542
View: 5234

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This volume contains selected papers, presented at the international conference on Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining Conference IIS:IIPWM'06, organized in Ustro (Poland), 2006. The submitted papers cover new computing paradigms, among others in biologically motivated methods, advanced data analysis, new machine learning paradigms, natural language processing, new optimization technologies, applied data mining using statistical and non-standard approaches.

Militarized Conflict Modeling Using Computational Intelligence


Author: Tshilidzi Marwala,Monica Lagazio
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780857297907
Category: Computers
Page: 254
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Militarized Conflict Modeling Using Computational Intelligence examines the application of computational intelligence methods to model conflict. Traditionally, conflict has been modeled using game theory. The inherent limitation of game theory when dealing with more than three players in a game is the main motivation for the application of computational intelligence in modeling conflict. Militarized interstate disputes (MIDs) are defined as a set of interactions between, or among, states that can result in the display, threat or actual use of military force in an explicit way. These interactions can result in either peace or conflict. This book models the relationship between key variables and the risk of conflict between two countries. The variables include Allies which measures the presence or absence of military alliance, Contiguity which measures whether the countries share a common boundary or not and Major Power which measures whether either or both states are a major power. Militarized Conflict Modeling Using Computational Intelligence implements various multi-layer perception neural networks, Bayesian networks, support vector machines, neuro-fuzzy models, rough sets models, neuro-rough sets models and optimized rough sets models to create models that estimate the risk of conflict given the variables. Secondly, these models are used to study the sensitivity of each variable to conflict. Furthermore, a framework on how these models can be used to control the possibility of peace is proposed. Finally, new and emerging topics on modelling conflict are identified and further work is proposed.

Representation and Management of Narrative Information

Theoretical Principles and Implementation
Author: Gian Piero Zarri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781848000780
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 302
View: 9725

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A big amount of important, ‘economically relevant’ information, is buried within the huge mass of multimedia documents that correspond to some form of ‘narrative’ description. Due to the ubiquity of these ‘narrative’ resources, being able to represent in a general, accurate, and effective way their semantic content – i.e., their key ‘meaning’ – is then both conceptually relevant and economically important. In this book, we present the main properties of NKRL (‘Narrative Knowledge Representation Language’), a language expressly designed for representing, in a standardised way, the ‘meaning’ of complex multimedia narrative documents. NKRL is a fully implemented language/environment. The software exists in two versions, an ORACLE-supported version and a file-oriented one. Written from a multidisciplinary perspective, this exhaustive description of NKRL and of the associated knowledge representation principles will be an invaluable source of reference for practitioners, researchers, and graduates.

Computational Intelligence Systems and Applications

Neuro-Fuzzy and Fuzzy Neural Synergisms
Author: Marian B. Gorzalczany
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783790814392
Category: Computers
Page: 364
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Traditional Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems adopted symbolic processing as their main paradigm. Symbolic AI systems have proved effective in handling problems characterized by exact and complete knowledge representation. Unfortunately, these systems have very little power in dealing with imprecise, uncertain and incomplete data and information which significantly contribute to the description of many real world problems, both physical systems and processes as well as mechanisms of decision making. Moreover, there are many situations where the expert domain knowledge (the basis for many symbolic AI systems) is not sufficient for the design of intelligent systems, due to incompleteness of the existing knowledge, problems caused by different biases of human experts, difficulties in forming rules, etc. In general, problem knowledge for solving a given problem can consist of an explicit knowledge (e.g., heuristic rules provided by a domain an implicit, hidden knowledge "buried" in past-experience expert) and numerical data. A study of huge amounts of these data (collected in databases) and the synthesizing of the knowledge "encoded" in them (also referred to as knowledge discovery in data or data mining), can significantly improve the performance of the intelligent systems designed.

Terrorism Informatics

Knowledge Management and Data Mining for Homeland Security
Author: Hsinchun Chen,Edna Reid,Joshua Sinai,Andrew Silke,Boaz Ganor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387716130
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 558
View: 6703

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This book is nothing less than a complete and comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art of terrorism informatics. It covers the application of advanced methodologies and information fusion and analysis. It also lays out techniques to acquire, integrate, process, analyze, and manage the diversity of terrorism-related information for international and homeland security-related applications. The book details three major areas of terrorism research: prevention, detection, and established governmental responses to terrorism. It systematically examines the current and ongoing research, including recent case studies and application of terrorism informatics techniques. The coverage then presents the critical and relevant social/technical areas to terrorism research including social, privacy, data confidentiality, and legal challenges.

Knowledge into Action: Research and Evaluation in Library and Information Science

Research and Evaluation in Library and Information Science
Author: Danny P. Wallace,Connie J Van Fleet
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1610692667
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 388
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The only book currently available that comprehensively integrates research and evaluation for evidence-based library and information science practice.

Speech Synthesis and Recognition


Author: Wendy Holmes
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780748408566
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 320
View: 948

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With the growing impact of information technology on daily life, speech is becoming increasingly important for providing a natural means of communication between humans and machines. This extensively reworked and updated new edition of Speech Synthesis and Recognition is an easy-to-read introduction to current speech technology. Aimed at advanced undergraduates and graduates in electronic engineering, computer science and information technology, the book is also relevant to professional engineers who need to understand enough about speech technology to be able to apply it successfully and to work effectively with speech experts. No advanced mathematical ability is required and no specialist prior knowledge of phonetics or of the properties of speech signals is assumed.

Computational Linguistics

An Introduction
Author: Ralph Grishman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521310383
Category: Computers
Page: 193
View: 3988

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This book provides an integrated introduction and valuable survey to the field of computer analysis of language.

The Use of Databases in Cross-linguistic Studies


Author: Martin Everaert,Simon Musgrave,Alexis Dimitriadis
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: N.A
Category: Computers
Page: 409
View: 9700

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This book promotes the development of linguistic databases by describing a number of successful database projects, focusing especially on cross-linguistic and typological research. It has become increasingly clear that ready access to knowledge about cross-linguistic variation is of great value to many types of linguistic research. Such a systematic body of data is essential in order to gain a proper understanding of what is truly universal in language and what is determined by specific cultural settings. Moreover, it is increasingly needed as a tool to systematically evaluate contrasting theoretical claims. The book includes a chapter on general problems of using databases to handle language data and chapters on a number of individual projects.

Intelligent Information Systems 2002

Proceedings of the IIS' 2002 Symposium, Sopot, Poland, June 3 - 6, 2002 ; with 64 Tables
Author: Slawomir Wierzchon,Maciej Michalewicz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783790815092
Category: Computers
Page: 468
View: 2097

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Presents a collection of papers from the IIS 2002 Symposium on theoretical and applied intelligent information systems.