Mathematical Linguistics


Author: Andras Kornai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1846289866
Category: Mathematics
Page: 290
View: 7698

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Mathematical Linguistics introduces the mathematical foundations of linguistics to computer scientists, engineers, and mathematicians interested in natural language processing. The book presents linguistics as a cumulative body of knowledge from the ground up: no prior knowledge of linguistics is assumed. As the first textbook of its kind, this book is useful for those in information science and in natural language technologies.

Interpreted Languages and Compositionality


Author: Marcus Kracht
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400721081
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 214
View: 4361

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This book argues that languages are composed of sets of ‘signs’, rather than ‘strings’. This notion, first posited by de Saussure in the early 20th century, has for decades been neglected by linguists, particularly following Chomsky’s heavy critiques of the 1950s. Yet since the emergence of formal semantics in the 1970s, the issue of compositionality has gained traction in the theoretical debate, becoming a selling point for linguistic theories. Yet the concept of ‘compositionality’ itself remains ill-defined, an issue this book addresses. Positioning compositionality as a cornerstone in linguistic theory, it argues that, contrary to widely held beliefs, there exist non-compositional languages, which shows that the concept of compositionality has empirical content. The author asserts that the existence of syntactic structure can flow from the fact that a compositional grammar cannot be delivered without prior agreement on the syntactic structure of the constituents.

Information and Communication Technology

Second IFIP TC 5/8 International Conference, ICT-EurAsia 2014, Bali, Indonesia, April 14-17, 2014, Proceedings
Author: Linawati,Made Sudiana Mahendra,Erich J. Neuhold,A Min Tjoa,Ilsun You
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642550320
Category: Computers
Page: 699
View: 8175

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second IFIP TC 5/8 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology, ICT-Eur Asia 2014, with the collocation of Asia ARES 2014 as a special track on Availability, Reliability and Security, held in Bali, Indonesia, in April 2014. The 70 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers have been organized in the following topical sections: applied modeling and simulation; mobile computing; advanced urban-scale ICT applications; semantic web and knowledge management; cloud computing; image processing; software engineering; collaboration technologies and systems; e-learning; data warehousing and data mining; e-government and e-health; biometric and bioinformatics systems; network security; dependable systems and applications; privacy and trust management; cryptography; multimedia security and dependable systems and applications.

Secure Information Management Using Linguistic Threshold Approach


Author: Marek R. Ogiela,Urszula Ogiela
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447150163
Category: Computers
Page: 136
View: 2999

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In recent years, cryptographic techniques for protecting and hiding secret information have been included in directions of research on intelligent information management. Data can be managed securely due to the use of algorithms for ensuring the confidentiality of data, information splitting techniques as well as protocols for sharing information and methods of its reconstruction. This is why techniques of advanced splitting and reconstruction of information form the primary subject of Secure Information Management Using Linguistic Threshold Approach, whose main purpose is to discuss the so-called linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. An attempt is also made to describe the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution. Such information is specially protected, and its contents are used only if the authorised users are enabled to access it. This monograph attempts to define a model structure of information flow and for assigning information shares to particular groups of individuals concerned. The proposed information flow model can be integrated into practical solutions within any organisation or institution, improving the functionality of its legacy information systems. The use of strong mathematical cryptographic models to manage information constitutes a scientific innovation and a demonstration of the methods and opportunities of using advanced techniques for confidentially exchanging information in tasks supporting data flow within a commercial organisation. The interdisciplinary nature of the solutions proposed means that the subject of linguistic threshold schemes forming part of intelligent information management becomes a new challenge for the research and application work carried out. The authors of this monograph hope that it will guide readers on an interesting journey through the cutting edge solution in the field of secure information management.

Mathematical Methods in Linguistics


Author: Barbara B.H. Partee,A.G. ter Meulen,R. Wall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400922132
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 666
View: 9686

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Elementary set theory accustoms the students to mathematical abstraction, includes the standard constructions of relations, functions, and orderings, and leads to a discussion of the various orders of infinity. The material on logic covers not only the standard statement logic and first-order predicate logic but includes an introduction to formal systems, axiomatization, and model theory. The section on algebra is presented with an emphasis on lattices as well as Boolean and Heyting algebras. Background for recent research in natural language semantics includes sections on lambda-abstraction and generalized quantifiers. Chapters on automata theory and formal languages contain a discussion of languages between context-free and context-sensitive and form the background for much current work in syntactic theory and computational linguistics. The many exercises not only reinforce basic skills but offer an entry to linguistic applications of mathematical concepts. For upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students in theoretical linguistics, computer-science students with interests in computational linguistics, logic programming and artificial intelligence, mathematicians and logicians with interests in linguistics and the semantics of natural language.

Classification and Modeling with Linguistic Information Granules

Advanced Approaches to Linguistic Data Mining
Author: Hisao Ishibuchi,Tomoharu Nakashima,Manabu Nii
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540268758
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 308
View: 8251

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Many approaches have already been proposed for classification and modeling in the literature. These approaches are usually based on mathematical mod els. Computer systems can easily handle mathematical models even when they are complicated and nonlinear (e.g., neural networks). On the other hand, it is not always easy for human users to intuitively understand mathe matical models even when they are simple and linear. This is because human information processing is based mainly on linguistic knowledge while com puter systems are designed to handle symbolic and numerical information. A large part of our daily communication is based on words. We learn from various media such as books, newspapers, magazines, TV, and the Inter net through words. We also communicate with others through words. While words play a central role in human information processing, linguistic models are not often used in the fields of classification and modeling. If there is no goal other than the maximization of accuracy in classification and model ing, mathematical models may always be preferred to linguistic models. On the other hand, linguistic models may be chosen if emphasis is placed on interpretability.

Partiality and Underspecification in Information, Languages, and Knowledge


Author: Henning Christiansen,M. Dolores Jiménez-López,Roussanka Loukanova
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1527500721
Category: Philosophy
Page: 360
View: 2605

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In recent years, there has been a proliferation of technological developments that incorporate processing of human language. Hardware and software can be specialized for designated subject areas, and computational devices are designed for a widening variety of applications. At the same time, new areas and applications are emerging by demanding intelligent technology enhanced by the processing of human language. These new applications often perform tasks which handle information, and they have a capacity to reason, using both formal and human language. Many sub-areas of Artificial Intelligence demand integration of Natural Language Processing, at least to some degree. Furthermore, technologies require coverage of known as well as unknown agents, and tasks with potential variations. All of this takes place in environments with unknown factors. The book covers theoretical work, advanced applications, approaches, and techniques for computational models of information, reasoning systems, and presentation in language. The book promotes work on intelligent natural language processing and related models of information, thought, reasoning, and other cognitive processes. The topics covered by the chapters prompt further research and developments of advanced systems in the areas of logic, computability, computational linguistics, cognitive science, neuroscience of language, robotics, and artificial intelligence, among others.

Language and the Brain


Author: Loraine K. Obler,K. Gjerlow
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521466417
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 206
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An introduction to neurolinguistics showing how language is organized in the brain.

Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining

Proceedings of the International IIS: IIPWM ́06 Conference held in Ustron, Poland, June 19-22, 2006
Author: Mieczyslaw A. Klopotek,Slawomir T. Wierzchon,Krzysztof Trojanowski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540335218
Category: Computers
Page: 542
View: 8418

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This volume contains selected papers, presented at the international conference on Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining Conference IIS:IIPWM'06, organized in Ustro (Poland), 2006. The submitted papers cover new computing paradigms, among others in biologically motivated methods, advanced data analysis, new machine learning paradigms, natural language processing, new optimization technologies, applied data mining using statistical and non-standard approaches.

Handbook of Logic and Language


Author: Johan F.A.K. van Benthem,Alice ter Meulen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444537270
Category: Mathematics
Page: 1168
View: 666

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The logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary, playing a role in fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. This new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised and updated - includes over 25% new material Discusses the interface between logic and language Many of the authors are creators or active developers of the theories

Fuzzy Models and Algorithms for Pattern Recognition and Image Processing


Author: James C. Bezdek,James Keller,Raghu Krisnapuram,Nikhil Pal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792385219
Category: Computers
Page: 776
View: 2835

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Fuzzy Models and Algorithms for Pattern Recognition and Image Processing presents a comprehensive introduction of the use of fuzzy models in pattern recognition and selected topics in image processing and computer vision. Unique to this volume in the Kluwer Handbooks of Fuzzy Sets Series is the fact that this book was written in its entirety by its four authors. A single notation, presentation style, and purpose are used throughout. The result is an extensive unified treatment of many fuzzy models for pattern recognition. The main topics are clustering and classifier design, with extensive material on feature analysis relational clustering, image processing and computer vision. Also included are numerous figures, images and numerical examples that illustrate the use of various models involving applications in medicine, character and word recognition, remote sensing, military image analysis, and industrial engineering.

Speech and Language Processing


Author: Daniel Jurafsky,James H Martin,Peter Norvig,Stuart Russell
Publisher: Pearson
ISBN: 0133252930
Category: Computers
Page: 1024
View: 9022

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This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book. For undergraduate or advanced undergraduate courses in Classical Natural Language Processing, Statistical Natural Language Processing, Speech Recognition, Computational Linguistics, and Human Language Processing. An explosion of Web-based language techniques, merging of distinct fields, availability of phone-based dialogue systems, and much more make this an exciting time in speech and language processing. The first of its kind to thoroughly cover language technology – at all levels and with all modern technologies – this text takes an empirical approach to the subject, based on applying statistical and other machine-learning algorithms to large corporations. The authors cover areas that traditionally are taught in different courses, to describe a unified vision of speech and language processing. Emphasis is on practical applications and scientific evaluation. An accompanying Website contains teaching materials for instructors, with pointers to language processing resources on the Web. The Second Edition offers a significant amount of new and extended material. Supplements: Click on the "Resources" tab to View Downloadable Files: Solutions Power Point Lecture Slides - Chapters 1-5, 8-10, 12-13 and 24 Now Available! For additional resourcse visit the author website: http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~martin/slp.html

Militarized Conflict Modeling Using Computational Intelligence


Author: Tshilidzi Marwala,Monica Lagazio
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780857297907
Category: Computers
Page: 254
View: 9582

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Militarized Conflict Modeling Using Computational Intelligence examines the application of computational intelligence methods to model conflict. Traditionally, conflict has been modeled using game theory. The inherent limitation of game theory when dealing with more than three players in a game is the main motivation for the application of computational intelligence in modeling conflict. Militarized interstate disputes (MIDs) are defined as a set of interactions between, or among, states that can result in the display, threat or actual use of military force in an explicit way. These interactions can result in either peace or conflict. This book models the relationship between key variables and the risk of conflict between two countries. The variables include Allies which measures the presence or absence of military alliance, Contiguity which measures whether the countries share a common boundary or not and Major Power which measures whether either or both states are a major power. Militarized Conflict Modeling Using Computational Intelligence implements various multi-layer perception neural networks, Bayesian networks, support vector machines, neuro-fuzzy models, rough sets models, neuro-rough sets models and optimized rough sets models to create models that estimate the risk of conflict given the variables. Secondly, these models are used to study the sensitivity of each variable to conflict. Furthermore, a framework on how these models can be used to control the possibility of peace is proposed. Finally, new and emerging topics on modelling conflict are identified and further work is proposed.

Representation and Management of Narrative Information

Theoretical Principles and Implementation
Author: Gian Piero Zarri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781848000780
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 302
View: 2771

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A big amount of important, ‘economically relevant’ information, is buried within the huge mass of multimedia documents that correspond to some form of ‘narrative’ description. Due to the ubiquity of these ‘narrative’ resources, being able to represent in a general, accurate, and effective way their semantic content – i.e., their key ‘meaning’ – is then both conceptually relevant and economically important. In this book, we present the main properties of NKRL (‘Narrative Knowledge Representation Language’), a language expressly designed for representing, in a standardised way, the ‘meaning’ of complex multimedia narrative documents. NKRL is a fully implemented language/environment. The software exists in two versions, an ORACLE-supported version and a file-oriented one. Written from a multidisciplinary perspective, this exhaustive description of NKRL and of the associated knowledge representation principles will be an invaluable source of reference for practitioners, researchers, and graduates.

Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing

Second International Conference, CICLing 2001, Mexico-City, Mexico, February 18-24, 2001. Proceedings
Author: Alexander Gelbukh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540416870
Category: Computers
Page: 528
View: 7273

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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics, CICLing 2001, held in Mexico City, Mexico in February 2001. The 38 revised full papers and 12 short papers presented together with three invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 72 submissions. The books is divided in topical sections on computational linguistic theories, semantics, anaphora and reference, disambiguation, translation, text generation, dictionaries and corpora, morphology, parsing techniques, text categorization, information retrieval, and structure identification and text mining.

Knowledge into Action: Research and Evaluation in Library and Information Science

Research and Evaluation in Library and Information Science
Author: Danny P. Wallace,Connie J Van Fleet
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1610692667
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 388
View: 4261

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The only book currently available that comprehensively integrates research and evaluation for evidence-based library and information science practice.