The Romans and their World

A Short Introduction
Author: Brian Campbell
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 030017215X
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 1747

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This one-volume history of the Roman world begins with the early years of the republic and carries the story nearly a thousand years forward to 476, when Romulus Augustus, the last Western Roman emperor, was deposed. Brian Campbell, respected scholar and teacher, presents a fascinating and wide-ranging introduction to Rome, drawing on an array of ancient sources and covering topics of interest to readers with little prior background in Roman history as well as those already familiar with the great civilization. Campbell explores several themes, including the fall of the republic, the impact of colorful and diverse emperors on imperial politics, the administrative structure of empire, and the Roman army and how warfare affected the Roman world. He also surveys cultural and social life, including religion and the rise of Christianity. Generously enhanced with maps and illustrations, this book is a rich and inspiring account of a mighty civilization and the citizens who made it so.

Intelligence Activities in Ancient Rome

Trust in the Gods but Verify
Author: Rose Mary Sheldon
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135771073
Category: History
Page: 352
View: 318

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Professor Sheldon uses the modern concept of the intelligence cycle to trace intelligence activities in Rome whether they were done by private citizens, the government, or the military. Examining a broad range of activities the book looks at the many types of espionage tradecraft that have left their traces in the ancient sources: * intelligence and counterintelligence gathering * covert action * clandestine operations * the use of codes and ciphers Dispelling the myth that such activities are a modern invention, Professor Sheldon explores how these ancient spy stories have modern echoes as well. What is the role of an intelligence service in a free republic? When do the security needs of the state outweigh the rights of the citizen? If we cannot trust our own security services, how safe can we be? Although protected by the Praetorian Guard, seventy-five percent of Roman emperors died by assassination or under attack by pretenders to his throne. Who was guarding the guardians? For students of Rome, and modern social studies too - this will provide a fascinating read.

Arms and Armour of the Imperial Roman Soldier


Author: Graham Summer,Raffaele D'Amato
Publisher: Frontline Books
ISBN: 1783832576
Category: History
Page: 320
View: 6651

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From the Latin warriors on the Palatine Hill in the age of Romulus, to the last defenders of Constantinople in 1453 AD, the weaponry of the Roman Army was constantly evolving. Through glory and defeat, the Roman warrior adapted to the changing face of warfare. Due to the immense size of the Roman Empire, which reached from the British Isles to the Arabian Gulf, the equipment of the Roman soldier varied greatly from region to region.Through the use of materials such as leather, linen and felt, the army was able to adjust its equipment to these varied climates. Arms and Armour of the Imperial Roman Soldier sheds new light on the many different types of armour used by the Roman soldier, and combines written and artistic sources with the analysis of old and new archaeological finds. With a huge wealth of plates and illustrations, which include ancient paintings, mosaics, sculptures and coin depictions, this book gives the reader an unparalleled visual record of this fascinating period of military history. This book, the first of three volumes, examines the period from Marius to Commodus. Volume II covers the period from Commodus to Justinian, and Volume III will look at the period from Romulus to Marius.

Dying to Be Men

Gender and Language in Early Christian Martyr Texts
Author: L. Stephanie Cobb
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023151820X
Category: Religion
Page: 224
View: 7391

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At once brave and athletic, virtuous and modest, female martyrs in the second and third centuries were depicted as self-possessed gladiators who at the same time exhibited the quintessentially "womanly" qualities of modesty, fertility, and beauty. L. Stephanie Cobb explores the double embodiment of "male" and "female" gender ideals in these figures, connecting them to Greco-Roman virtues and the construction of Christian group identities. Both male and female martyrs conducted their battles in the amphitheater, a masculine environment that enabled the divine combatants to showcase their strength, virility, and volition. These Christian martyr accounts also illustrated masculinity through the language of justice, resistance to persuasion, and-more subtly but most effectively-the juxtaposition of "unmanly" individuals (usually slaves, the old, or the young) with those at the height of male maturity and accomplishment (such as the governor or the proconsul). Imbuing female martyrs with the same strengths as their male counterparts served a vital function in Christian communities. Faced with the possibility of persecution, Christians sought to inspire both men and women to be braver than pagan and Jewish men. Yet within the community itself, traditional gender roles had to be maintained, and despite the call to be manly, Christian women were expected to remain womanly in relation to the men of their faith. Complicating our understanding of the social freedoms enjoyed by early Christian women, Cobb's investigation reveals the dual function of gendered language in martyr texts and its importance in laying claim to social power.

The Correspondence of Marcus Cornelius Fronto with Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Lucius Verus, Antoninus Pius, and Various Friends


Author: Marcus Cornelius Fronto
Publisher: Loeb Classical Library
ISBN: 9780674991255
Category: History
Page: 384
View: 9365

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The literary remains of the rhetorician Marcus Cornelius Fronto first came to light in 1815, when Cardinal Mai, then prefect of the Ambrosian Library in Milan, discovered that beneath an account of the Acts of the first Council of Chelcedon in 451 had originally been written copy of the correspondence between Fronto and members of the imperial family, including no less than three who were to wear the purple. The letters possess an extraordinary fascination as giving an authentic record of the relationship between the foremost teacher of his time and his illustrious student Marcus Aurelius, his chief correspondent. Apart from small-talk (but even that is replete with interest) the principal subject is Latin prose style. Fronto practices to excess the cultivation of trendy mannerisms, but sees clearly enough the sterility of a slavish imitation of classical models. -- Jacket.

Sociology Faces Pessimism

A Study of European Sociological Thought Amidst a Fading Optimism
Author: Robert Benjamin Bailey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401508593
Category: Social Science
Page: 173
View: 3434

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My initial interest in sociology stemmed from the desire to see specific social change in certain areas of my native United States of America. My rather naive assumption at that time was that if the truth is known about social phenomena and presented to rational and educated persons, public opinion will bring about the desirable social change. That is, I assumed some automatic linkage between truth, rationality and social progress. Certainly some of the so-called "pioneers" of sociology also assumed this automatic linkage. Thus, the opportunity to study in Europe, on the soil of some of these "pioneers" heightened my interest and desire to learn more about the relationship between sociology and social progress. After living and studying several years in various parts of Western Europe - England, Germany, France, Holland - one finds that European sociology has remained very closely associ ated with social philosophy and history, has often been resisted by the universities, and is not as empirical as American sociology. The European sociologist, still quite conscious of the mistakes of the early fathers - Comte, Spencer, Marx, among others - is extremely cautious concerning problems of social progress and social action. He is aware that his science is still young and sus pect. He is also less sure than his predecessors about the exact role of sociology.

Emotion


Author: Annett Schirmer
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483322149
Category: Psychology
Page: 528
View: 2102

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Emotion, by Annett Schirmer, is a comprehensive text that integrates traditional psychological theories and cutting-edge neuroscience research to explain the nature and role of emotions in human functioning. Written in an engaging style, the book explores emotions at the behavioral, physiological, mental, and neurofunctional (i.e., chemical, metabolic, and structural) levels, and examines each in a broad context, touching on different theoretical perspectives, regulatory processes, development, and culture, among others. Providing greater insight and depth than existing texts, the book offers a holistic view of the field, giving students a broader understanding of the mechanisms underlying emotions and enabling them to appreciate the role emotions play in their lives. In dedicated chapters, the text covers past and current theories of emotion, individual emotions and their bodily representation, the role of emotions for behavior and cognition, as well as interindividual differences.

JULIAN

ROMAN. AUS D. AMERIKAN. V. PHILIPP WEILER
Author: Gore Vidal
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783442725083
Category:
Page: 606
View: 7960

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Matrona Docta

Educated Women in the Roman Elite from Cornelia to Julia Domna
Author: Emily A. Hemelrijk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134642857
Category: History
Page: 400
View: 5183

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Matrona Docta presents a unique study of the education of upper-class women in Roman society in the central period of Roman history, from the second century BC to AD 235. Emily A. Hemelrijk reconstructs women's opportunities to acquire an education, the impediments they faced, the level of education they could reach and the judgement on educated women in Roman society. She examines also the role of women as patronesses of literature, learning and Roman women's writing.

Marcus Aurelius


Author: Marco Aurelio (Emperador de Roma.)
Publisher: Loeb Classical Library
ISBN: N.A
Category: History
Page: 415
View: 4596

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Marcus Aurelius (121Â-180 CE), Roman emperor and Stoic philosopher, born at Rome, received training under his guardian and uncle emperor Antoninus Pius (reigned 138Â-161), who adopted him. He was converted to Stoicism and henceforward studied and practised philosophy and law. A gentle man, he lived in agreement and collaboration with Antoninus Pius. He married Pius's daughter and succeeded him as emperor in March 161, sharing some of the burdens with Lucius Verus. Marcus's reign soon saw fearful national disasters from flood, earthquakes, epidemics, threatened revolt (in Britain), a Parthian war, and pressure of barbarians north of the Alps. From 169 onwards he had to struggle hard against the German Quadi, Marcomani, Vandals, and others until success came in 174. In 175 (when Faustina died) he pacified affairs in Asia after a revolt by Avidius. War with Germans was renewed during which he caught some disease and died by the Danube in March 180. The famous Meditations of Marcus Aurelius (not his title; he simply calls them 'The matters addressed to himself') represents reflections written in periods of solitude during the emperor's military campaigns. Originally intended for his private guidance and self-admonition, the Meditations has endured as a potent expression of Stoic belief. It is a central text for students of Stoicism as well as a unique personal guide to the moral life.

Asklepios

Studies on Ancient Medicine
Author: Louise Cilliers
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Medicine, Ancient
Page: 159
View: 5245

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The meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus


Author: Marcus Aurelius (Emperor of Rome),Francis Hutcheson
Publisher: Liberty Fund Inc.
ISBN: N.A
Category: Law
Page: 213
View: 7779

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This 1742 translation is a collaborative work by Frances Hutcheson and a colleague at Glasgow University, the classicist James Moor. Although Hutcheson was secretive about the extent of his work on the book, he was clearly the leading spirit of the project. This influential classical work offered a vision of a universe governed by a natural law that obliges us to love mankind and to govern our lives in accordance with the natural order of things. In their account of the life of the emperor, prefaced to their translation from the Greek, Hutcheson and Moor celebrated the Stoic ideal of an orderly universe governed by a benevolent God. They contrasted the serenity recommended and practiced by Marcus Aurelius with the divisive sectarianism then exhibited by their fellow Presbyterians in Scotland and elsewhere. They urged their readers and fellow citizens to set aside their narrow prejudices.

Die Frau aus Andros


Author: Thornton Wilder
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 3104034532
Category: Fiction
Page: 120
View: 2387

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Thornton Wilders Roman ›Die Frau aus Andros‹ erzählt von einer beeindruckenden Frau in der Spätzeit der griechischen Antike Eingebunden in Hinweise auf das »Land, das bald das Heilige genannt werden sollte«, spielt dieser Roman Thornton Wilders in der Spätzeit der griechischen Antike. Chrysis, die Nichtgriechin von der Kykladeninsel Andros, hat zur Zeit um Christi Geburt auf der ägäischen Insel Brynos zum Ärger der auf Handel eingeschworenen Bewohner den alten Brauch des Hetärenmahls mit Rezitation, Musik und Diskussion über philosophische Probleme wiederaufgenommen. Von den wohlhabenden Bürgern verachtet, versammeln sie und ihre Schwester Glykerion die sozial Schwachen, aber auch, sehr zum Leid ihrer Eltern, die jungen Männer. »Mit diesem Werk erreichte Wilder einen vorläufigen Höhepunkt seiner künstlerischen Entwicklung.« Hermann Stresau