Man, Play, and Games


Author: Roger Caillois,Meyer Barash
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 9780252070334
Category: Games
Page: 208
View: 4733

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Play is "an occasion of pure waste: waste of time, energy, ingenuity, skill, and often of money." It is also an essential element of human social and spiritual development. In this study, Roger Caillois defines play as a voluntary activity that occurs in a pure space, isolated and protected from the rest of life. Within limits set by rules that provide a level playing field, players move toward an unpredictable outcome by responding to their opponents' actions. Caillois qualifies types of games and ways of playing, from the improvisation characteristic of children's play to the disciplined pursuit of solutions to gratuitously difficult puzzles. He also examines the means by which games become part of daily life, ultimately giving cultures their most characteristic customs and institutions.

Man and the Sacred


Author: Roger Caillois,Meyer Barash
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 9780252070341
Category: Religion
Page: 190
View: 9014

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Throughout the world, people believe that much of what they do is accidental, ordinary, and inconsequential, while other acts can bring on divine retribution or earn eternal grace. In Man and the Sacred, Caillois demonstrates how humanity's ambiguous attitude toward the sacred influences behaviour and culture. Drawing on a diverse array of ethnographic contexts, including the sexual rituals of the Ba-Thong of South Africa and evidence drawn from aboriginal Australian, Eskimo, and traditional Chinese social systems, Caillois analyzes the role of the forbidden in the social cohesion of the group. He examines the character of the sacred in the light of specific instances of taboos and transgressions, exploring wide differences in attitudes toward diet and sex and extreme behaviours associated with the sacred, such as rapture and paroxysm. He also discusses the festival - an exuberant explosion following a period of strict repression - and compares its functions with those of modern war. A classic study of one of the most fundamental aspects of human social and spiritual life, Man and the Sacred - presented here in Meyer Barash's superb English translation - is a companion volume to Caillois's Man, Play and Games.

The Games of Gods and Man

Essays in Play and Performance
Author: Klaus Peter Köpping
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Social Science
Page: 290
View: 1842

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The problems of games and play, a basic ontological category of thought and action, have long occupied culture historians like Huizinga and Caillois as well as mainstream modern philosophers from Heidegger to Gadamer. The present volume traces the concept of the ludic in its generative as well as in its violent and destructive potential, and relates the traditional concepts developed in particular by Romantic aesthetics in drama and poetry to those developed in modern times in literary genres by Bakhtin with the emphasis on the tropes of the performing body. The great variety of theoretical frameworks is grounded in and connected to empirical data on ritual processes and mythic structures across a wide spectrum of ethnographic evidence. The collected essays connect notions of the ludic as framed performance (proposed by Bateson and Goffman) with the ludic as "free play" with the potential to possess the player, crossing disciplinary boundaries and discourses from theatre-studies to anthropology. Forms of ritual processes, of mythic games and of cultural reflexivity, together with intriguing and universal tropes of myth and literature such as the figures of the trickster and the fool, are treated in cross-cultural perspectives. These include Indian, Greek and Germanic mythologies, Indian ritual dance and prophetic theatre plays in Ancient Israel, Bushmen syncretic religious services, the diverse forms of self-reflexive play among Brazilian Kayapo Indians, and the plays and games among the inmates of concentration camps. The volume should appeal to students of anthropology, of theatre and cultural studies, as well as to culture historians and philosophers concerned with the interface between ritual and play, or player and audience, and the larger issue of the rules of games and the freedom of the hermeneutic interpretation of text through performances.

Rules of Play

Game Design Fundamentals
Author: Katie Salen,Eric Zimmerman
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262240451
Category: Computers
Page: 672
View: 7051

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An impassioned look at games and game design that offers the most ambitious framework for understanding them to date.

Scorecasting

The Hidden Influences Behind How Sports Are Played and Games Are Won
Author: Tobias Moskowitz,L. Jon Wertheim
Publisher: Three Rivers Press (CA)
ISBN: 0307591808
Category: Sports & Recreation
Page: 278
View: 3039

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A behavioral economist and a veteran Sports Illustrated writer analyze hidden influences and subtle biases that shape sports plays, covering such topics as performance pressures, the "home field advantage" and the overpayment of athletic talent. Reprint.

Dionysus Reborn

Play and the Aesthetic Dimension in Modern Philosophical and Scientific Discourse
Author: Mihai Spariosu
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801423277
Category: Literary Criticism
Page: 317
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Homo Ludens


Author: Johan Huizinga
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9780415175944
Category: Social Science
Page: 220
View: 8106

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First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Games People Play

The Psychology of Human Relationships
Author: Eric Berne
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780241257470
Category: Family & Relationships
Page: 164
View: 8055

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"The book that has helped millions of people understand the dynamics of relationships We all play games. In the workplace, in the bedroom, even when we are not aware of it. Every personal encounter is a mental contest, an opportunity to assert our will. Eric Berne's classic Games People Playis the most accessible and insightful book ever written about the psychology of relationships and the patterns of behaviour that reveal our hidden feelings and emotions. Wise and witty, it shows the underlying motivations behind our relationships and explores the roles that we try, and are forced, to play. Games People Playgives you the keys to unlock the minds of others - and yourself. You'll become more honest, more effective and a true team player."

The Philosophy of Play


Author: Emily Ryall,Wendy Russell,Malcolm MacLean
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136269916
Category: Education
Page: 216
View: 9227

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Play is a vital component of the social life and well-being of both children and adults. This book examines the concept of play and considers a variety of the related philosophical issues. It also includes meta-analyses from a range of philosophers and theorists, as well as an exploration of some key applied ethical considerations. The main objective of The Philosophy of Play is to provide a richer understanding of the concept and nature of play and its relation to human life and values, and to build disciplinary and paradigmatic bridges between scholars of philosophy and scholars of play. Including specific chapters dedicated to children and play, and exploring the work of key thinkers such as Plato, Sartre, Wittgenstein, Gadamer, Deleuze and Nietzsche, this book is invaluable reading for any advanced student, researcher or practitioner with an interest in education, playwork, leisure studies, applied ethics or the philosophy of sport.

The Edge of Surrealism

A Roger Caillois Reader
Author: Roger Caillois,Claudine Frank,Camille Naish
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822330684
Category: Social Science
Page: 423
View: 5916

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The Edge of Surrealism is an essential introduction To The writing of French social theorist Roger Caillois (1913-1978). Though his subjects were diverse, Caillois focused on issues crucial to modern intellectual life, and his essays offer a unique perspective on many of twentieth-century France's most significant intellectual movements and figures. Including a masterful introductory essay by Claudine Frank situating his work in relation to his life and intellectual milieu, this anthology is the first comprehensive introduction to Caillois's work to appear in any language. A part of the Surrealist avant garde, In the 1930s Caillois founded the College of Sociology with Georges Bataille and Michel Leiris. Caillois spent the remainder of his life exploring issues raised by this famous group. During World War II he lived in Buenos Aires and edited the journal Les Lettres Françaises. In the postwar period, he resisted dominant intellectual trends including existentialism and Marxism, and pursued his own interests, writing on a variety of topics, including politics, poetics, sociology, games, The "fantastic," and, ultimately, designs in nature and on stones. He sought to compete with Bataille's journal Critique through the "renewed humanism" of his own journal, Diogène, and to challenge structuralist theory through his concept of "diagonal science." in 1972, Caillois was inducted into the Academie Française. Arranged chronologically, these thirty-two essays with commentaries strike a balance between Caillois's political and theoretical writings and between his better known works, such as the popular essays on the praying mantis, myth, and mimicry and his lesser known pieces. Presenting several new documents and drawing on interviews and unpublished correspondence, this book reveals Caillois's consistent effort to reconcile intellectual rigor and imaginative adventure. Perhaps most importantly, The Edge of Surrealism provides an overdue look at how Caillois's intellectual project intersected with the work of Georges Bataille and others including Breton, Bachelard, Benjamin, Lacan, and Levi-Strauss.

Finite and Infinite Games


Author: James Carse
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1451657293
Category: Philosophy
Page: 256
View: 6242

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“There are at least two kinds of games,” states James Carse as he begins this extraordinary book. “One could be called finite; the other infinite.” Finite games are the familiar contests of everyday life; they are played in order to be won, which is when they end. But infinite games are more mysterious. Their object is not winning, but ensuring the continuation of play. The rules may change, the boundaries may change, even the participants may change—as long as the game is never allowed to come to an end. What are infinite games? How do they affect the ways we play our finite games? What are we doing when we play—finitely or infinitely? And how can infinite games affect the ways in which we live our lives? Carse explores these questions with stunning elegance, teasing out of his distinctions a universe of observation and insight, noting where and why and how we play, finitely and infinitely. He surveys our world—from the finite games of the playing field and playing board to the infinite games found in culture and religion—leaving all we think we know illuminated and transformed. Along the way, Carse finds new ways of understanding everything from how an actress portrays a role, to how we engage in sex, from the nature of evil, to the nature of science. Finite games, he shows, may offer wealth and status, power and glory. But infinite games offer something far more subtle and far grander. Carse has written a book rich in insight and aphorism. Already an international literary event, Finite and Infinite Games is certain to be argued about and celebrated for years to come. Reading it is the first step in learning to play the infinite game.

The Aesthetic of Play


Author: Brian Upton
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262324210
Category: Games
Page: 336
View: 4726

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The impulse toward play is very ancient, not only pre-cultural but pre-human; zoologists have identified play behaviors in turtles and in chimpanzees. Games have existed since antiquity; 5,000-year-old board games have been recovered from Egyptian tombs. And yet we still lack a critical language for thinking about play. Game designers are better at answering small questions ("Why is this battle boring?") than big ones ("What does this game mean?"). In this book, the game designer Brian Upton analyzes the experience of play -- how playful activities unfold from moment to moment and how the rules we adopt constrain that unfolding. Drawing on games that range from Monopoly to Dungeons & Dragons to Guitar Hero, Upton develops a framework for understanding play, introducing a set of critical tools that can help us analyze games and game designs and identify ways in which they succeed or fail.Upton also examines the broader epistemological implications of such a framework, exploring the role of play in the construction of meaning and what the existence of play says about the relationship between our thoughts and external reality. He considers the making of meaning in play and in every aspect of human culture, and he draws on findings in pragmatic epistemology, neuroscience, and semiotics to describe how meaning emerges from playful engagement. Upton argues that play can also explain particular aspects of narrative; a play-based interpretive stance, he proposes, can help us understand the structure of books, of music, of theater, of art, and even of the process of critical engagement itself.

Gaming

Essays on Algorithmic Culture
Author: Alexander R. Galloway
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 1452908680
Category: Social Science
Page: 143
View: 1347

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Video games have been a central feature of the cultural landscape for over twenty years and now rival older media like movies, television, and music in popularity and cultural influence. Yet there have been relatively few attempts to understand the video game as an independent medium. Most such efforts focus on the earliest generation of text-based adventures (Zork, for example) and have little to say about such visually and conceptually sophisticated games as Final Fantasy X, Shenmue, Grand Theft Auto, Halo, and The Sims, in which players inhabit elaborately detailed worlds and manipulate digital avatars with a vast—and in some cases, almost unlimited—array of actions and choices. In Gaming, Alexander Galloway instead considers the video game as a distinct cultural form that demands a new and unique interpretive framework. Drawing on a wide range of disciplines, particularly critical theory and media studies, he analyzes video games as something to be played rather than as texts to be read, and traces in five concise chapters how the “algorithmic culture” created by video games intersects with theories of visuality, realism, allegory, and the avant-garde. If photographs are images and films are moving images, then, Galloway asserts, video games are best defined as actions. Using examples from more than fifty video games, Galloway constructs a classification system of action in video games, incorporating standard elements of gameplay as well as software crashes, network lags, and the use of cheats and game hacks. In subsequent chapters, he explores the overlap between the conventions of film and video games, the political and cultural implications of gaming practices, the visual environment of video games, and the status of games as an emerging cultural form. Together, these essays offer a new conception of gaming and, more broadly, of electronic culture as a whole, one that celebrates and does not lament the qualities of the digital age. Alexander R. Galloway is assistant professor of culture and communication at New York University and author of Protocol: How Control Exists after Decentralization.

Plough, Sword, and Book

The Structure of Human History
Author: Ernest Gellner
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226287027
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 8472

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Elucidates and argues for the author's concept of human history from the past to the present

From Diversion to Subversion

Games, Play, and Twentieth-century Art
Author: David Getsy
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 9780271037035
Category: Art
Page: 215
View: 5142

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"Examines the wide-ranging influence of games and play on the development of modern art in the twentieth century"--Provided by publisher.

Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Commemorative Edition)


Author: John von Neumann,Oskar Morgenstern
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691130612
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 739
View: 1103

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First published in 1944, this book, co-written by an economist & a mathematician, conceived a groundbreaking theory of economic & social organisation based on a theory of games of strategy. The result was a revolution in economics & game theory has since emerged as a major tool of analysis in many other fields.

The Well-Played Game

A Player's Philosophy
Author: Bernard De Koven
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262316811
Category: Games
Page: 176
View: 1724

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In The Well-Played Game, games guru Bernard De Koven explores the interaction of play and games, offering players -- as well as game designers, educators, and scholars -- a guide to how games work. De Koven's classic treatise on how human beings play together, first published in 1978, investigates many issues newly resonant in the era of video and computer games, including social gameplay and player modification. The digital game industry, now moving beyond its emphasis on graphic techniques to focus on player interaction, has much to learn from The Well-Played Game.De Koven explains that when players congratulate each other on a "well-played" game, they are expressing a unique and profound synthesis that combines the concepts of play (with its associations of playfulness and fun) and game (with its associations of rule-following). This, he tells us, yields a larger concept: the experience and expression of excellence. De Koven -- affectionately and appreciatively hailed by Eric Zimmerman as "our shaman of play" -- explores the experience of a well-played game, how we share it, and how we can experience it again; issues of cheating, fairness, keeping score, changing old games (why not change the rules in pursuit of new ways to play?), and making up new games; playing for keeps; and winning. His book belongs on the bookshelves of players who want to find a game in which they can play well, who are looking for others with whom they can play well, and who have discovered the relationship between the well-played game and the well-lived life.

Game Design Theory

A New Philosophy for Understanding Games
Author: Keith Burgun
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466554215
Category: Computers
Page: 188
View: 3858

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Despite the proliferation of video games in the twenty-first century, the theory of game design is largely underdeveloped, leaving designers on their own to understand what games really are. Helping you produce better games, Game Design Theory: A New Philosophy for Understanding Games presents a bold new path for analyzing and designing games. The author offers a radical yet reasoned way of thinking about games and provides a holistic solution to understanding the difference between games and other types of interactive systems. He clearly details the definitions, concepts, and methods that form the fundamentals of this philosophy. He also uses the philosophy to analyze the history of games and modern trends as well as to design games. Providing a robust, useful philosophy for game design, this book gives you real answers about what games are and how they work. Through this paradigm, you will be better equipped to create fun games.

The Role-Playing Society

Essays on the Cultural Influence of RPGs
Author: Andrew Byers,Francesco Crocco
Publisher: McFarland
ISBN: 1476623481
Category: Games & Activities
Page: 320
View: 2360

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Since the release of Dungeons & Dragons in 1974, role-playing games (RPGs) have spawned a vibrant industry and subculture whose characteristics and player experiences have been well explored. Yet little attention has been devoted to the ways RPGs have shaped society at large over the last four decades. Role-playing games influenced video game design, have been widely represented in film, television and other media, and have made their mark on education, social media, corporate training and the military. This collection of new essays illustrates the broad appeal and impact of RPGs. Topics range from a critical reexamination of the Satanic Panic of the 1980s, to the growing significance of RPGs in education, to the potential for “serious” RPGs to provoke awareness and social change. The contributors discuss the myriad subtle (and not-so-subtle) ways in which the values, concepts and mechanics of RPGs have infiltrated popular culture.