Kuhn Vs Popper

The Struggle for the Soul of Science
Author: Steve Fuller
Publisher: Icon Books
ISBN: 1840465336
Category: Science
Page: 240
View: 3723

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In 1965 Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper met at the University of London to stage what became the most momentous philosphical debate of the century. At stake was the soul of science itself. Popper pinned the future of science on scientists having the freedom to test their theories to the point of being false. But this required an 'open society' that tolerate error, even in the established authorities. Kuhn, in contrast, reflected heads-down Cold War mentality that scientists should not question authority in their own fields or society at large - unless absolutely necessary. Those rare occasions count as proper 'scientific revolutions'. Kuhn painted as the young radical against Popper as the conservative, won the battle. His Structure of Scientific Revolutions sold a million copies. Steve Fuller argues forcefully, however, that these caricatures of Kuhn and Popper's positions are fundamentally flawed - and that the wrong man won. The first popular account of this landmark confrontation, Kuhn vs Popper retells the story of the clash, the background behind it, and its legacy to our understanding of science.

Between Two Worlds

Memoirs of a Philosopher-Scientist
Author: Mario Bunge
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331929251X
Category: Science
Page: 496
View: 5492

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To go through the pages of the Autobiography of Mario Bunge is to accompany him through dozens of countries and examine the intellectual, political, philosophical and scientific spheres of the last hundred years. It is an experience that oscillates between two different worlds: the different and the similar, the professional and the personal. It is an established fact that one of his great loves was, and still is, science. He has always been dedicated to scientific work, teaching, research, and training men and women in multiple disciplines. Life lessons fall like ripe fruit from this book, bringing us closer to a concept, a philosophical idea, a scientific digression, which had since been uncovered in numerous notes, articles or books. Bunge writes about the life experiences in this book with passion, naturalness and with a colloquial frankness, whether they be persecutions, banishment, imprisonment, successes, would-be losses, emotions, relationships, debates, impressions or opinions about people or things. In his pages we pass by the people with whom he shared a fruitful century of achievements and incredible depths of thought. Everything is remembered with sincerity and humor. This autobiography is, in truth, Bunge on Bunge, sharing everything that passes through the sieve of his memory, as he would say. Mario’s many grandchildren are a testament to his proud standing as a family man, and at the age of 96 he gives us a book for everyone: for those who value the memories that hold the trauma of his life as well as for those who share his passion for science and culture. Also, perhaps, for some with whom he has had disagreements or controversy, for he still deserves recognition for being a staunch defender of his convictions.

Veränderung der Wissenschaft. Die Argumente Thomas S. Kuhns und Karl Poppers im Vergleich


Author: N.A
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3668358788
Category: Philosophy
Page: 13
View: 2059

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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2016 im Fachbereich Philosophie - Philosophie des 20. Jahrhunderts / Gegenwart, Note: 2,7, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover (Philosophische Fakultät), Veranstaltung: Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolution, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: In dieser Hausarbeit werden die Texte von Thomas S. Kuhn („Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolution“) und von Sir Karl Popper („Die Normalwissenschaft und Ihre Gefahren“) miteinander verglichen. Beide Personen gehören zu den bekanntesten Wissenschaftsphilosophen des 20. Jahrhunderts. In meiner Hausarbeit werde zunächst damit beginnen, die Positionen und Argumentation in Bezug auf die Veränderung der Wissenschaft darzustellen und welche typischen Merkmale für beide eine wesentliche und ausschlaggebende Rolle in der Veränderung einnehmen. Anschließend werde ich mich mit der Position Beider in Bezug auf die Identifikation einer Wissenschaft und Nicht-Wissenschaft beschäftigen und dabei die Argumentation darstellen. Zum Schluss werde ich die gesamte Hausarbeit Revue passieren lassen, mich der Zusammenfassung der genannten Abschnitte widmen, sowie eine Darstellung in Pro und Contra der von aufgeführten Argumente geben und auf eine von dieser Basis aus kommendem Standpunkt kommen. Eine eigene Einschätzung und ein Fazit zu von beiden Personen angebrachten Punkten werden meine Hausarbeit beenden.

Karl Popper: Logik der Forschung


Author: Herbert Keuth
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3050063785
Category: Philosophy
Page: 280
View: 7495

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Karl Raimund Poppers (1902-1994) Hauptwerk, die Logik der Forschung (1934), gilt als Grundlagenwerk des kritischen Rationalismus. Der kritische Rationalismus zeigt, warum unser Wissen fehlbar ist und versteht den Erkenntnisfortschritt als Resultat von Hypothesenbildung und -widerlegung. Der Sammelband orientiert sich an der Gliederung der Logik der Forschung. Seine Beiträge kommentieren die jeweiligen Themen nach aktueller Forschungslage.

Sozialutopien der Neuzeit

bibliographisches Handbuch. Bibliographie der Quellenn des utopischen Diskurses von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart
Author: Andreas Heyer
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 3825819973
Category: Utopias
Page: 713
View: 8944

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Die Methodologie der wissenschaftlichen Forschungsprogramme


Author: Imre Lakatos
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 366308082X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 255
View: 4815

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Royal Society, betrachtet die Hexentheorie als das Musterbeispiel empirischen Denkens. Wir müssen das empirische Denken definieren, ehe wir mit Hume anfangen, Bücher zu verbren nen. Das wissenschaftliche Denken konfrontiert die Theorien mit den Tatsachen; und eine der Hauptbedingungen dabei ist, daß die Theorien von den Tatsachen gestützt sein müs sen. Wie ist das nun des genaueren möglich? Darauf sind mehrere verschiedene Antworten vorgeschlagen worden. Newton selbst glaubte, seine Gesetze aufgrundder Tatsachen bewiesen zu haben. Er war stolz darauf, keine bloßen Hypothesen anzubieten; er veröffentlichte nur Theorien, die aufgrundder Tatsa chen bewiesen waren. Und zwar behauptete er, seine Gesetze aus den Keplerschen 'Erschei nungen' abgeleitet zu haben. Doch das war Unsinn, denn nach Kepler bewegten sich die Plane ten in Ellipsen, nach Newton aber wäre das nur richtig, wenn die Planeten nicht gegenseitig ihre Bewegung stören würden, und eben dies tun sie. Daher mußte Newton eine Störungstheo rie entwickeln, nach der sich kein Planet auf einer Ellipse bewegt. Heute kann man leicht zeigen, daß sich kein Naturgesetz aus endlich vielen Tatsa chen schlüssig ableiten läßt; doch man liest immer noch, wissenschaftliche Theorien würden aufgrundder Tatsachen bewiesen. Woher kommt diese hartnäckige Sperre gegen die elemen tare Logik? Das läßt sich sehr einleuchtend erklären. Die Wissenschaftler möchten ihren Theorien Achtung verschaffen, sie sollen die Bezeichnung 'Wissenschaft' verdienen, also echte Erkenntnis sein. Nun bezog sich im 17. Jahrhundert, als die Wissenschaft entstand, die wichtigste Erkenntnis auf Gott und den Teufel, auf Himmel und Hölle.

Science Studies during the Cold War and Beyond

Paradigms Defected
Author: Elena Aronova,Simone Turchetti
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137559438
Category: Science
Page: 328
View: 4945

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This book examines the ways in which studies of science intertwined with Cold War politics, in both familiar and less familiar “battlefields” of the Cold War. Taken together, the essays highlight two primary roles for science studies as a new field of expertise institutionalized during the Cold War in different political regimes. Firstly, science studies played a political role in cultural Cold War in sustaining as well as destabilizing political ideologies in different political and national contexts. Secondly, it was an instrument of science policies in the early Cold War: the studies of science were promoted as the underpinning for the national policies framed with regard to both global geopolitics and local national priorities. As this book demonstrates, however, the wider we cast our net, extending our histories beyond the more researched developments in the Anglophone West, the more complex and ambivalent both the “science studies” and “the Cold War” become outside these more familiar spaces. The national stories collected in this book may appear incommensurable with what we know as science studies today, but these stories present a vantage point from which to pluralize some of the visions that were constitutive to the construction of “Cold War” as a juxtaposition of the liberal democracies in the “West” and the communist “East.”

Zeitverschwendung


Author: Paul Feyerabend
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783518392225
Category:
Page: 249
View: 2034

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Der Philosoph (1924-94) erzählt heiter und gelassen aus seinem bewegten und von Schicksalsschlägen gezeichneten Leben.

Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy


Author: D. C. Phillips
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483364755
Category: Education
Page: 952
View: 4960

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Education is a field sometimes beset by theories-of-the-day and with easy panaceas that overpromise the degree to which they can alleviate pressing educational problems. The two-volume Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy introduces readers to theories that have stood the test of time and those that have provided the historical foundation for the best of contemporary educational theory and practice. Drawing together a team of international scholars, this invaluable reference examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them and presents them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, this work offers essays on cutting-edge research and concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Features: Over 300 signed entries by trusted experts in the field are organized into two volumes and overseen by a distinguished General Editor and an international Editorial Board. Entries are followed by cross references and further reading suggestions. A Chronology of Theory within the field of education highlights developments over the centuries; a Reader’s Guide groups entries thematically, and a master Bibliography facilitates further study. The Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references combine for strong search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic version. Available in a choice of print or electronic formats, Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy is an ideal reference for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary educational theory.

Social Inquiry After Wittgenstein and Kuhn

Leaving Everything as It Is
Author: John G. Gunnell
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231538340
Category: Philosophy
Page: 288
View: 4069

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A distinctive feature of Ludwig Wittgenstein's work after 1930 was his turn to a conception of philosophy as a form of social inquiry, John G. Gunnell argues, and Thomas Kuhn's approach to the philosophy of science exemplified this conception. In this book, Gunnell shows how these philosophers address foundational issues in the social and human sciences, particularly the vision of social inquiry as an interpretive endeavor and the distinctive cognitive and practical relationship between social inquiry and its subject matter. Gunnell speaks directly to philosophers and practitioners of the social and human sciences. He tackles the demarcation between natural and social science; the nature of social phenomena; the concept and method of interpretation; the relationship between language and thought; the problem of knowledge of other minds; and the character of descriptive and normative judgments about practices that are the object of inquiry. Though Wittgenstein and Kuhn are often criticized as initiating a modern descent into relativism, this book shows that the true effect of their work was to undermine the basic assumptions of contemporary social and human science practice. It also problematized the authority of philosophy and other forms of social inquiry to specify the criteria for judging such matters as truth and justice. When Wittgenstein stated that "philosophy leaves everything as it is," he did not mean that philosophy would be left as it was or that philosophy would have no impact on what it studied, but rather that the activity of inquiry did not, simply by virtue of its performance, transform the object of inquiry.

Preparing for Life in Humanity 2.0


Author: S. Fuller
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137277076
Category: Social Science
Page: 117
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Developing directly from Fuller's recent book Humanity 2.0 , this is the first book to seriously consider what a 'post-' or 'trans'-' human state of being might mean for who we think we are, how we live, what we believe and what we aim to be.

Handbook of the Psychology of Science


Author: Gregory J. Feist, PhD,Michael E. Gorman, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 0826106242
Category: Psychology
Page: 544
View: 3885

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"Highly recommended."--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries This handbook is the definitive resource for scholars and students interested in how research and theory within each of the major domains of psychologyódevelopmental, cognitive, personality, and socialóhave been applied to understand the nature of scientific thought and behavior. Edited by two esteemed pioneers in the emerging discipline of the psychology of science, it is the first empirically based compendium of its time. The handbook provides a comprehensive examination of how scientific thinking is learned and evolves from infancy to adolescence and adulthood, and combines developmental and cognitive approaches to show the categorical similarities and differences in thinking between children, adolescents, adults, and scientists. Chapters highlight the breadth and depth of psychological perspectives in the studies of science, from creativity and genius, gender, and conflict and cooperation, to postmodernism and psychobiography. A section on applications offers findings and ideas that can be put to use by educators, policymakers, and science administrators. Contributors examine the importance of mental models in solving difficult technical problems, and the significance of leadership and organizational structure in successful innovation. The final section of the book is devoted to the future of this new field, focusing on how to continue to develop a healthy psychology of science. Key Features: Presents the only empirically based compendium of current knowledge about the psychology of scientific thought and behavior Edited by two pioneers in the discipline of psychology of science Describes how scientific thinking is learned and changes throughout the life span Addresses creativity and genius, gender, conflict and cooperation, postmodernism, and psychobiography Covers applications of the psychology of science that can be used by educators, policymakers, and science administrators

Ökologie des Geistes

anthropologische, psychologische, biologische und epistemologische Perspektiven
Author: Gregory Bateson
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783518281710
Category: Aufsatzsammlung - Anthropologie
Page: 675
View: 9340

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Junk Science

How Politicians, Corporations, and Other Hucksters Betray Us
Author: Dan Agin, Ph.D.
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 1466838531
Category: Science
Page: 336
View: 479

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An overdue indictment of government, industry, and faith groups that twist science for their own gain. During the next thirty years, the American public will suffer from a rampage against reason by special interests in government, commerce, and the faith industry, and the rampage has already begun. In Junk Science, Dan Agin offers a response—a stinging condemnation of the egregious and constant warping of science for ideological gain. In this provocative, wide-ranging, and hard-hitting book, Agin argues from the center that we will pay a heavy price for the follies of people who consciously twist the public's understanding of the real world. In an entertaining but frank tone, Agin separates fact from conveniently "scientific" fiction and exposes the data faking, reality ignoring, fear mongering, and outright lying that contribute to intentionally manufactured public ignorance. Many factions twist scientific data to maintain riches and power, and Agin outs them all in sections like these: --"Buyer Beware" (genetically modified foods, aging, and tobacco companies) --"Medical Follies" (chiropractics, health care, talk therapy) --"Poison and Bombs in the Greenhouse" (pollution, warfare, global warming) --"Religion, Embryos, and Cloning" --"Genes, Behavior, and Race" We already pay a heavy price for many groups' conscious manipulation of the public's understanding of science, and Junk Science arms us with understanding, cutting through the fabric of lies and setting the record straight.

Foundations for New Economic Thinking

A Collection of Essays
Author: S. Dow
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137000724
Category: Political Science
Page: 263
View: 8064

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New economic thinking is in demand in the light of the recent economic crisis. This book equips the reader with a better understanding of current ways of thinking as well as an awareness of other possibilities, providing the foundations for debate in theory and methodology alongside practical implications for policy.

Dissent Over Descent

Intelligent Design's Challenge to Darwinism
Author: Steve Fuller
Publisher: Icon Books
ISBN: N.A
Category: Evolution (Biology)
Page: 272
View: 4075

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If you think Intelligent Design Theory (IDT) is merely the respectable face of Christian fundamentalism, and Evolution the only sensible scientific world-view, think again...IDT has driven science for 500 years. It was responsible for the 17th century's Scientific Revolution and helped build modern histories of physics, mathematics, genetics and social science. IDT's proponents take literally the Biblical idea that humans have been created in God's image. This confident, even arrogant, view of humanity enabled the West to triumph in the modern era. Evolution, on the other hand, derives from more ancient, even pagan, ideas about our rootedness in nature and the transience of all life forms. It has been always more popular outside the West, and until Darwin few evolutionists were scientists. What happened to reverse these two movements' fortunes? Steve Fuller's brilliant revisionist history is essential reading for anyone who wants a deeper understanding of science's most vociferous debate.

Compromising the Ideals of Science


Author: R. Sassower
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137519428
Category: Social Science
Page: 107
View: 4697

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This books examines the conditions under which scientists compromised the ideals of science, and elucidates these with reference to the challenges of profit motives and national security concerns. The book also offers suggestions for changing the political and economic conditions under which the integrity of science and its ethos can be practiced.