Justice in Asia and the Pacific Region, 1945–1952

Allied War Crimes Prosecutions
Author: Yuma Totani
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316300064
Category: History
Page: N.A
View: 1536

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This book explores a cross-section of war crimes trials that the Allied powers held against the Japanese in the aftermath of World War II. More than 2,240 trials against some 5,700 suspected war criminals were carried out at 51 separate locations across the Asia Pacific region. This book analyzes fourteen high-profile American, Australian, British, and Philippine trials, including the two subsequent proceedings at Tokyo and the Yamashita trial. By delving into a large body of hitherto underutilized oral and documentary history of the war as contained in the trial records, Yuma Totani illuminates diverse firsthand accounts of the war that were offered by former Japanese and Allied combatants, prisoners of war, and the civilian population. Furthermore, the author makes a systematic inquiry into select trials to shed light on a highly complex - and at times contradictory - legal and jurisprudential legacy of Allied war crimes prosecutions.

War Crimes Trials in the Wake of Decolonization and Cold War in Asia, 1945-1956

Justice in Time of Turmoil
Author: Kerstin von Lingen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319429876
Category: History
Page: 290
View: 4871

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This book investigates the political context and intentions behind the trialling of Japanese war criminals in the wake of World War Two. After the Second World War in Asia, the victorious Allies placed around 5,700 Japanese on trial for war crimes. Ostensibly crafted to bring perpetrators to justice, the trials intersected in complex ways with the great issues of the day. They were meant to finish off the business of World War Two and to consolidate United States hegemony over Japan in the Pacific, but they lost impetus as Japan morphed into an ally of the West in the Cold War. Embattled colonial powers used the trials to bolster their authority against nationalist revolutionaries, but they found the principles of international humanitarian law were sharply at odds with the inequalities embodied in colonialism. Within nationalist movements, local enmities often overshadowed the reckoning with Japan. And hovering over the trials was the critical question: just what was justice for the Japanese in a world where all sides had committed atrocities?

The Dismantling of Japan's Empire in East Asia

Deimperialization, Postwar Legitimation and Imperial Afterlife
Author: Barak Kushner,Sherzod Muminov
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317284801
Category: Social Science
Page: 334
View: 1337

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The end of Japan’s empire appeared to happen very suddenly and cleanly – but, as this book shows, it was in fact very messy, with a long period of establishing or re-establishing the postwar order. Moreover, as the authors argue, empires have afterlives, which, in the case of Japan’s empire, is not much studied. This book considers the details of deimperialization, including the repatriation of Japanese personnel, the redrawing of boundaries, issues to do with prisoners of war and war criminals and new arrangements for democratic political institutions, for media and for the regulation of trade. It also discusses the continuing impact of empire on the countries ruled or occupied by Japan, where, as a result of Japanese management and administration, both formal and informal, patterns of behavior and attitudes were established that continued subsequently. This was true in Japan itself, where returning imperial personnel had to be absorbed and adjustments made to imperial thinking, and in present-day East Asia, where the shadow of Japan’s empire still lingers. This legacy of unresolved issues concerning the correct relationship of Japan, an important, energetic, outgoing nation and a potential regional "hub," with the rest of the region not comfortably settled in this era, remains a fulcrum of regional dispute.

The Tokyo war crimes trial

the pursuit of justice in the wake of World War II
Author: Yuma Totani
Publisher: Harvard Univ Council on East Asian
ISBN: 9780674033399
Category: History
Page: 335
View: 4473

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Yuma Totani assesses the historical significance of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) - commonly called the Tokyo trial - established as the eastern counterpart of the Nuremberg trial in the immediate aftermath of World War II.

Genocide on Trial

War Crimes Trials and the Formation of Holocaust History and Memory
Author: Donald Bloxham
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198208723
Category: History
Page: 273
View: 5659

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When the Allies tried German war criminals at the end of WWII they were trying not only to punish the guilty but also to set down a history of Nazism and of what had happened in Europe. Bloxham shows the reality was that these proceeedings failed.

Japanese War Criminals

The Politics of Justice After the Second World War
Author: Sandra Wilson,Robert Cribb,Beatrice Trefalt,Dean Aszkielowicz
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231542682
Category: History
Page: 432
View: 4552

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Beginning in late 1945, the United States, Britain, China, Australia, France, the Netherlands, and later the Philippines, the Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China convened national courts to prosecute Japanese military personnel for war crimes. The defendants included ethnic Koreans and Taiwanese who had served with the armed forces as Japanese subjects. In Tokyo, the International Military Tribunal for the Far East tried Japanese leaders. While the fairness of these trials has been a focus for decades, Japanese War Criminals instead argues that the most important issues arose outside the courtroom. What was the legal basis for identifying and detaining subjects, determining who should be prosecuted, collecting evidence, and granting clemency after conviction? The answers to these questions helped set the norms for transitional justice in the postwar era and today contribute to strategies for addressing problematic areas of international law. Examining the complex moral, ethical, legal, and political issues surrounding the Allied prosecution project, from the first investigations during the war to the final release of prisoners in 1958, Japanese War Criminals shows how a simple effort to punish the guilty evolved into a multidimensional struggle that muddied the assignment of criminal responsibility for war crimes. Over time, indignation in Japan over Allied military actions, particularly the deployment of the atomic bombs, eclipsed anger over Japanese atrocities, and, among the Western powers, new Cold War imperatives took hold. This book makes a unique contribution to our understanding of the construction of the postwar international order in Asia and to our comprehension of the difficulties of implementing transitional justice.

Embracing Defeat

Japan in the Wake of World War II
Author: John W. Dower
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393320275
Category: History
Page: 676
View: 2043

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Chronicles the events that took place in Japan at the end of World War II and explores the effects they have had on the development and shaping of the Japanese society, from immediately after the war to the present day. Reprint. 40,000 first printing.

Pacific Currents

The Responses of U.S. Allies and Security Partners in East Asia to China's Rise
Author: Evan S. Medeiros
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833044648
Category: Political Science
Page: 279
View: 7003

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China1s importance in the Asia-Pacific has been on the rise, raising concerns about competition the United States. The authors examined the reactions of six U.S. allies and partners to China1s rise. All six see China as an economic opportunity. They want it to be engaged productively in regional affairs, but without becoming dominant. They want the United States to remain deeply engaged in the region.

P.O.W. in the Pacific

Memoirs of an American Doctor in World War II
Author: William N. Donovan,Josephine Donovan,Ann Devigne Donovan
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780842027250
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Page: 182
View: 9732

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This is the story of William N. Donovan, a U.S. Army medical officer in the Philippines who, as a prisoner of war, faced unspeakable conditions and abuse in Japanese camps during World War II. Through his own words we learn of the brutality, starvation, and disease that he and other men endured at the hands of their captors. And we learn of the courage and determination that Donovan was able to summon in order to survive. P.O.W. in the Pacific: Memoirs of an American Doctor in World War II describes the last weeks before Donovan's capture and his struggles after being taken prisoner at the surrender of Corregidor to the Japanese on May 6, 1942. He remained a P.O.W. until his release on August 14, 1945, V-J Day. Shocking, moving, and yet tinged with Donovan's dry sense of humor, P.O.W. in the Pacific offers a new perspective-that of a medical doctor-on the experience of captivity in Japanese prison camps as well as on the war in the Pacific. The book is edited by Donovan's daughter Josephine, with the assistance of her sister, Ann Devigne Donovan. Readers will be inspired by this true story of one American's heroism.

The Second World War


Author: Antony Beevor
Publisher: Back Bay Books
ISBN: 0316084077
Category: History
Page: 880
View: 4031

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A masterful and comprehensive chronicle of World War II, by internationally bestselling historian Antony Beevor. Over the past two decades, Antony Beevor has established himself as one of the world's premier historians of WWII. His multi-award winning books have included Stalingrad and The Fall of Berlin 1945. Now, in his newest and most ambitious book, he turns his focus to one of the bloodiest and most tragic events of the twentieth century, the Second World War. In this searing narrative that takes us from Hitler's invasion of Poland on September 1st, 1939 to V-J day on August 14th, 1945 and the war's aftermath, Beevor describes the conflict and its global reach--one that included every major power. The result is a dramatic and breathtaking single-volume history that provides a remarkably intimate account of the war that, more than any other, still commands attention and an audience. Thrillingly written and brilliantly researched, Beevor's grand and provocative account is destined to become the definitive work on this complex, tragic, and endlessly fascinating period in world history, and confirms once more that he is a military historian of the first rank.

Old World Empires

Cultures of Power and Governance in Eurasia
Author: Ilhan Niaz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317913795
Category: History
Page: 448
View: 8911

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This book is a sweeping historical survey of the origins, development and nature of state power. It demonstrates that Eurasia is home to a dominant tradition of arbitrary rule mediated through military, civil and ecclesiastical servants and a marginal tradition of representative and responsible government through autonomous institutions. The former tradition finds expression in hierarchically organized and ideologically legitimated continental bureaucratic states while the latter manifests itself in the state of laws. In recent times, the marginal tradition has gained in popularity and has led to continental bureaucratic states attempting to introduce democratic and constitutional reforms. These attempts have rarely altered the actual manner in which power is exercised by the state and its elites given the deeper and historically rooted experience of arbitrary rule. Far from being remote, the arbitrary culture of power that emerged in many parts of the world continues to shape the fortunes of states. To ignore this culture of power and the historical circumstances that have shaped it comes at a high price, as indicated by the ongoing democratic recession and erosion of liberal norms within states that are democracies.

The Evolving Terrorist Threat to Southeast Asia

A Net Assessment
Author: Peter Chalk,Angel Rabasa,William Rosenau,Leanne Piggott
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833047590
Category: Political Science
Page: 238
View: 886

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Building on prior RAND research analyzing the motives, drivers, and capabilities of the principal extremist groups operating in the Philippines, southern Thailand, and Indonesia, this study examined the historical roots of militancy in these countries, the development and perpetuation of extremist ideological frameworks, and national and international government response efforts.

Slaughter at Sea

The Story of Japan's Naval War Crimes
Author: Mark Felton
Publisher: Pen & Sword Military
ISBN: N.A
Category: War crimes
Page: 213
View: 8277

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Simultaneously published: Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword Military, 2007.

Apartheid's Reluctant Uncle

The United States and Southern Africa in the Early Cold War
Author: Thomas Borstelmann
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195079426
Category: History
Page: 298
View: 2236

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Despite the unsavory racism of Malan's government - Borstelmann shows that Pretoria fomented violence among black groups in the late 1940s, just as it has done recently between the ANC and Inkatha - the U.S. saw South Africa as a dependable and important ally. In addition, America was almost completely dependent on southern Africa for its uranium supply, and was willing to go to great lengths to secure the critical fuel for its nuclear arsenal. Borstelmann also notes that race relations in the segregated U.S. played a role in Washington's policies, with few white Americans greatly disturbed by the establishment of apartheid. As South Africa finally nears an end to almost fifty years of formal apartheid (and as Truman nears canonization, following the recent presidential election), Borstelmann's account comes as a startling reminder of America's early links to Pretoria's racist system

A People's History of the United States

1492-Present
Author: Howard Zinn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317325303
Category: History
Page: 744
View: 8286

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This is a new edition of the radical social history of America from Columbus to the present. This powerful and controversial study turns orthodox American history upside down to portray the social turmoil behind the "march of progress". Known for its lively, clear prose as well as its scholarly research, A People's History is the only volume to tell America's story from the point of view of - and in the words of - America's women, factory workers, African-Americans, Native Americans, the working poor, and immigrant laborers. As historian Howard Zinn shows, many of America's greatest battles - the fights for fair wage, an eight-hour workday, child-labor laws, health and safety standards, universal suffrage, women's rights, racial equality - were carried out at the grassroots level, against bloody resistance. Covering Christopher Columbus's arrival through the Clinton years A People's History of the United States, which was nominated for the American Book Award in 1981, is an insightful analysis of the most important events in US history.

Strategy and Command

The First Two Years
Author: Louis Morton
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: World War, 1939-1945
Page: 761
View: 4832

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An analysis of organization and logistics as well as strategy and command, covering the coming of the war, Japanese policy and American strategy before Pearl Harbor, Japanese victories in the first six months of the war, first efforts in New Guinea and the Solomons to stem the Japanese tide, and the limited offensive in the summer of 1943.

Inventing the Way of the Samurai

Nationalism, Internationalism, and Bushido in Modern Japan
Author: Oleg Benesch
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198706626
Category: History
Page: 284
View: 9557

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Inventing the Way of the Samurai examines the development of the 'way of the samurai' - bushid=o - in modern Japan. Bushid=o is often viewed as a defining element of the Japanese national character and even the 'soul of Japan'. This volume demonstrates that bushid=o was not a continuation of ancient traditions, but rather developed from a search for identity during Japan's modernization in the late nineteenth century. This bookconsiders the events and writings that drove the dramatic growth of bushid=o, which tended to emphasize martial virtues and absolute loyalty to the emperor, and became a key ideology before and during the Second World War. Unlike otherwartime ideologies, bushid=o was revived soon after 1945, and is a popular and influential concept in Japan and other countries today. This book further examines the characteristics of bushid=o that have allowed it to recover and again be popularly perceived as a pivotal element of Japanese culture.

Cascades of Violence

War, Crime and Peace-building Across South Asia
Author: John Braithwaite,Bina D'Costa
Publisher: ANU Press
ISBN: 1760461903
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 978

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As in the cascading of water, violence and nonviolence can cascade down from commanding heights of power (as in waterfalls), up from powerless peripheries, and can undulate to spread horizontally (flowing from one space to another). As with containing water, conflict cannot be contained without asking crucial questions about which variables might cause it to cascade from the top-down, bottom up and from the middle-out. The book shows how violence cascades from state to state. Empirical research has shown that nations with a neighbor at war are more likely to have a civil war themselves (Sambanis 2001). More importantly in the analysis of this book, war cascades from hot spot to hot spot within and between states (Autesserre 2010, 2014). The key to understanding cascades of hot spots is in the interaction between local and macro cleavages and alliances (Kalyvas 2006). The analysis exposes the folly of asking single-level policy questions like do the benefits and costs of a regime change in Iraq justify an invasion? We must also ask what other violence might cascade from an invasion of Iraq? The cascades concept is widespread in the physical and biological sciences with cascades in geology, particle physics and the globalization of contagion. The past two decades has seen prominent and powerful applications of the cascades idea to the social sciences (Sunstein 1997; Gladwell 2000; Sikkink 2011). In his discussion of ethnic violence, James Rosenau (1990) stressed that the image of turbulence developed by mathematicians and physicists could provide an important basis for understanding the idea of bifurcation and related ideas of complexity, chaos, and turbulence in complex systems. He classified the bifurcated systems in contemporary world politics as the multicentric system and the statecentric system. Each of these affects the others in multiple ways, at multiple levels, and in ways that make events enormously hard to predict (Rosenau 1990, 2006). He replaced the idea of events with cascades to describe the event structures that 'gather momentum, stall, reverse course, and resume anew as their repercussions spread among whole systems and subsystems' (1990: 299). Through a detailed analysis of case studies in South Asia, that built on John Braithwaite's twenty-five year project Peacebuilding Compared, and coding of conflicts in different parts of the globe, we expand Rosenau's concept of global turbulence and images of cascades. In the cascades of violence in South Asia, we demonstrate how micro-events such as localized riots, land-grabbing, pervasive militarization and attempts to assassinate political leaders are linked to large scale macro-events of global politics. We argue in order to prevent future conflicts there is a need to understand the relationships between history, structures and agency; interest, values and politics; global and local factors and alliances.

The History Problem

The Politics of War Commemoration in East Asia
Author: Hiro Saito
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780824856748
Category: East Asia
Page: 264
View: 1736

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Seventy years have passed since the end of the Asia-Pacific War, yet Japan remains embroiled in controversy with its neighbors over the war s commemoration. Among the many points of contention between Japan, China, and South Korea are interpretations of the Tokyo War Crimes Trial, apologies and compensation for foreign victims of Japanese aggression, prime ministerial visits to the Yasukuni Shrine, and the war s portrayal in textbooks. Collectively, these controversies have come to be called the history problem. But why has the problem become so intractable? Can it ever be resolved, and if so, how? To answer these questions author Hiro Saito mobilizes the sociology of collective memory and social movements, political theories of apology and reconciliation, psychological research on intergroup conflict, and philosophical reflections on memory and history. The history problem, he argues, is essentially a relational phenomenon caused when nations publicly showcase self-serving versions of the past at key ceremonies and events: Japan, South Korea, and China all focus on what happened to their own citizens with little regard for foreign others. Saito goes on to explore the emergence of a cosmopolitan form of commemoration taking humanity, rather than nationality, as its primary frame of reference, an approach increasingly used by a transnational network of advocacy NGOs, victims of Japan s past wrongdoings, historians, and educators. When cosmopolitan commemoration is practiced as a collective endeavor by both perpetrators and victims, Saito argues, a resolution of the history problem and eventual reconciliation will finally become possible. The History Problem examines a vast corpus of historical material in both English and Japanese, offering provocative findings that challenge orthodox explanations. Written in clear and accessible prose, this uniquely interdisciplinary book will appeal to sociologists, political scientists, and historians researching collective memory, nationalism and cosmopolitanism, and international relations and to anyone interested in the commemoration of historical wrongs.

The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials


Author: Kevin Heller,Gerry Simpson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199671141
Category: Law
Page: 463
View: 6663

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Several war crimes trials are well-known to scholars, but others have received far less attention. This book assesses a number of these little-studied trials to recognise institutional innovations, clarify doctrinal debates, and identify their general relevance to the development of international criminal law.