John Stewart Bell and Twentieth-Century Physics

Vision and Integrity
Author: Andrew Whitaker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191060690
Category: Science
Page: 480
View: 1061

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John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

John Stewart Bell and Twentieth-century Physics

Vision and Integrity
Author: Andrew Whitaker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198742991
Category: Quantum theory
Page: 480
View: 1920

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John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

John Stewart Bell and Twentieth-Century Physics

Vision and Integrity
Author: Andrew Whitaker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191060704
Category: Science
Page: 480
View: 3747

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John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.

Einstein, Bohr and the Quantum Dilemma

From Quantum Theory to Quantum Information
Author: Andrew Whitaker
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521671027
Category: Science
Page: 461
View: 3052

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A fascinating account of the development of quantum theory and emergence of quantum information theory.

Niels Bohr and the Quantum Atom

The Bohr Model of Atomic Structure 1913-1925
Author: Helge Kragh
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191630462
Category: Science
Page: 416
View: 3271

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Niels Bohr and the Quantum Atom is the first book that focuses in detail on the birth and development of Bohr's atomic theory and gives a comprehensive picture of it. At the same time it offers new insight into Bohr's peculiar way of thinking, what Einstein once called his 'unique instinct and tact'. Contrary to most other accounts of the Bohr atom, the book presents it in a broader perspective which includes the reception among other scientists and the criticism launched against it by scientists of a more conservative inclination. Moreover, it discusses the theory as Bohr originally conceived it, namely, as an ambitious theory covering the structure of atoms as well as molecules. By discussing the theory in its entirety it becomes possible to understand why it developed as it did and thereby to use it as an example of the dynamics of scientific theories.

The New Quantum Age

From Bell's Theorem to Quantum Computation and Teleportation
Author: Andrew Whitaker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199589135
Category: Computers
Page: 394
View: 9766

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A clear account of what has been discovered in recent years about quantum theory, its counter-intuitive features - non-locality, indeterminism, intrinsic uncertainty - and what it tells us about the universe. The book also explains how these ideas have led to a new subject of limitless possibilities - quantum information theory.

Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics

Collected Papers on Quantum Philosophy
Author: J. S. Bell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521523387
Category: Science
Page: 248
View: 613

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John Bell, FRS was one of the leading expositors and interpreters of modern quantum theory. He is particularly famous for his discovery of the crucial difference between the predictions of conventional quantum mechanics and the implications of local causality, a concept insisted on by Einstein. John Bell's work played a major role in the development of our current understanding of the profound nature of quantum concepts and of the fundamental limitations they impose on the applicability of the classical ideas of space, time and locality. This book includes all of John Bell's published and unpublished papers on the conceptual and philosophical problems of quantum mechanics, including two papers that appeared after the first edition was published. The book includes a short Preface written by the author for the first edition, and also an introduction by Alain Aspect that puts into context John Bell's enormous contribution to the quantum philosophy debate.

Hidden Worlds in Quantum Physics


Author: Gerard Gouesbet
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486499669
Category: Science
Page: 533
View: 7370

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With its emphasis on the history and philosophical foundations of physics, this book will interest lay readers as well as students and professionals. The distinguished author discusses pioneers in the field, including Pauli, Einstein, Bohr, and de Broglie. Topics include hidden-variable and causal theories, pilot wave, and Schrödinger's equation. 2013 edition.

Now: The Physics of Time


Author: Richard A. Muller
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393285243
Category: Science
Page: 352
View: 9703

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From the celebrated author of the best-selling Physics for Future Presidents comes “a provocative, strongly argued book on the fundamental nature of time” (Lee Smolin). You are reading the word “now” right now. But what does that mean? What makes the ephemeral moment “now” so special? Its enigmatic character has bedeviled philosophers, priests, and modern-day physicists from Augustine to Einstein and beyond. Einstein showed that the flow of time is affected by both velocity and gravity, yet he despaired at his failure to explain the meaning of “now.” Equally puzzling: why does time flow? Some physicists have given up trying to understand, and call the flow of time an illusion, but the eminent experimentalist physicist Richard A. Muller protests. He says physics should explain reality, not deny it. In Now, Muller does more than poke holes in past ideas; he crafts his own revolutionary theory, one that makes testable predictions. He begins by laying out—with the refreshing clarity that made Physics for Future Presidents so successful—a firm and remarkably clear explanation of the physics building blocks of his theory: relativity, entropy, entanglement, antimatter, and the Big Bang. With the stage then set, he reveals a startling way forward. Muller’s monumental work will spark major debate about the most fundamental assumptions of our universe, and may crack one of physics’s longest-standing enigmas.

John S. Bell on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics


Author: J. S. Bell,Mary Bell,Kurt Gottfried,Martinus Veltman
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810246884
Category: Science
Page: 239
View: 8475

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This book is the most complete collection of John S Bell's research papers, review articles and lecture notes on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Some of this material has hitherto been difficult to access. The book also appears in a paperback edition, aimed at students and young researchers.This volume will be very useful to researchers in the foundations and applications of quantum mechanics.

Introduction to Topological Quantum Matter & Quantum Computation


Author: Tudor D. Stanescu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482245949
Category: Science
Page: 394
View: 2495

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What is "topological" about topological quantum states? How many types of topological quantum phases are there? What is a zero-energy Majorana mode, how can it be realized in a solid state system, and how can it be used as a platform for topological quantum computation? What is quantum computation and what makes it different from classical computation? Addressing these and other related questions, Introduction to Topological Quantum Matter & Quantum Computation provides an introduction to and a synthesis of a fascinating and rapidly expanding research field emerging at the crossroads of condensed matter physics, mathematics, and computer science. Providing the big picture, this book is ideal for graduate students and researchers entering this field as it allows for the fruitful transfer of paradigms and ideas amongst different areas, and includes many specific examples to help the reader understand abstract and sometimes challenging concepts. It explores the topological quantum world beyond the well-known topological insulators and superconductors and emphasizes the deep connections with quantum computation. It addresses key principles behind the classification of topological quantum phases and relevant mathematical concepts and discusses models of interacting and noninteracting topological systems, such as the torric code and the p-wave superconductor. The book also covers the basic properties of anyons, and aspects concerning the realization of topological states in solid state structures and cold atom systems. Quantum computation is also presented using a broad perspective, which includes fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics, such as Bell's theorem, basic concepts in the theory of computation, such as computational models and computational complexity, examples of quantum algorithms, and elements of classical and quantum information theory.

Quantum Optics and Nanophotonics


Author: Claude Fabre,Vahid Sandoghdar,Nicolas Treps,Leticia F. Cugliandolo
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191081779
Category: Science
Page: 464
View: 7547

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Quantum Optics and Nanophotonics consists of the lecture notes of the Les Houches Summer School 101 held in August 2013. Some of the most eminent experts in this flourishing area of research have contributed chapters lying at the intersection of basic quantum science and advanced nanotechnology. The book is part of the renowned series of tutorial books that contain the lecture notes of all the Les Houches Summer Schools since the 1950's and cover the latest developments in physics and related fields.

Tales of the Quantum

Understanding Physics' Most Fundamental Theory
Author: Art Hobson,Professor Emeritus of Physics Art Hobson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190679638
Category:
Page: 304
View: 5253

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Everybody has heard that we live in a world made of atoms. But far more fundamentally, we live in a universe made of quanta. Many things are not made of atoms: light, radio waves, electric current, magnetic fields, Earth's gravitational field, not to mention exotica such a neutron stars, black holes, dark energy, and dark matter. But everything, including atoms, is made of highly unified or "coherent" bundles of energy called "quanta" that (like everything else) obey certain rules. In the case of the quantum, these rules are called "quantum physics." This is a book about quanta and their unexpected, some would say peculiar, behavior--tales, if you will, of the quantum. The quantum has developed the reputation of being capricious, bewildering, even impossible to understand. The peculiar habits of quanta are certainly not what we would have expected to find at the foundation of physical reality, but these habits are not necessarily bewildering and not at all impossible or paradoxical. This book explains those habits--the quantum rules--in everyday language, without mathematics or unnecessary technicalities. While most popular books about quantum physics follow the topic's scientific history from 1900 to today, this book follows the phenomena: wave-particle duality, fundamental randomness, quantum states, superpositions (being in two places at once), entanglement, non-locality, Schrodinger's cat, and quantum jumps, and presents the history and the scientists only to the extent that they illuminate the phenomena.

From Classical to Quantum Fields


Author: Laurent Baulieu,John Iliopoulos,Roland Sénéor
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191092630
Category: Science
Page: 1088
View: 7877

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Quantum Field Theory has become the universal language of most modern theoretical physics. This introductory textbook shows how this beautiful theory offers the correct mathematical framework to describe and understand the fundamental interactions of elementary particles. The book begins with a brief reminder of basic classical field theories, electrodynamics and general relativity, as well as their symmetry properties, and proceeds with the principles of quantisation following Feynman's path integral approach. Special care is used at every step to illustrate the correct mathematical formulation of the underlying assumptions. Gauge theories and the problems encountered in their quantisation are discussed in detail. The last chapters contain a full description of the Standard Model of particle physics and the attempts to go beyond it, such as grand unified theories and supersymmetry. Written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics and mathematics, the book could also serve as a reference for active researchers in the field.

The Physical World

An Inspirational Tour of Fundamental Physics
Author: Nicholas Manton,Nicholas Mee
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198795939
Category: Science
Page: 608
View: 1618

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"It is over half a century since The Feynman lectures on physics were published. A new authoritative account of fundamental physics covering all branches of the subject is now well overdue. The physical world has been written to satisfy this need."--Back cover.

The Wonderful World of Relativity

A Precise Guide for the General Reader
Author: Andrew Steane
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199694613
Category: Mathematics
Page: 240
View: 5008

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This book provides a lively and visual introduction to Einstein's theory of relativity. It brings to life the excitement of this fascinating subject, for an audience including young people at school (post-16) and the general public with an interest in modern physics. It is different from existing books in that is uses many diagrams and simple equations (the reader is carefully guided through them), and richly rewards the reader with beautiful mathematical and physical insights. It begins by introducing spacetime, in the familiar context of low velocities. It then shows how Einstein's theory forces us to understand time in a new way. Paradoxes and puzzles are introduced and resolved, and the book culminates in a thorough unfolding of the relation between mass and energy. The book draws on the author's many years of experience in writing articles and reviews for a non-expert readership, and presenting physics to school pupils.

Shattered Symmetry

Group Theory From the Eightfold Way to the Periodic Table
Author: Pieter Thyssen,Arnout Ceulemans
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019062017X
Category: Science
Page: 400
View: 3393

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The standard model of subatomic particles and the periodic table of the atoms have the common goal to bring order in the bewildering chaos of the constituents of matter. Their success relies on the presence of fundamental symmetries in their core. The purpose of the book is to share the admiration for the power and the beauty of these symmetries. The reader is taken on a journey from the basic geometric symmetry group of a circle to the sublime dynamic symmetries that govern the motions of the particles. The trail follows the lines of parentage linking groups upstream to the unitary symmetry of the eightfold way of quarks, and to the four-dimensional symmetry of the hydrogen atom. Along the way the theory of symmetry groups is gradually introduced with special emphasis on graphical representations. The final challenge is to open up the structure of Mendeleev's table which goes beyond the symmetry of the hydrogen atom. Breaking this symmetry to accommodate the multi-electron atoms requires to leave the common ground of linear algebras and explore the potential of non-linearity.

The Lazy Universe

An Introduction to the Principle of Least Action
Author: Jennifer Coopersmith
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191060720
Category: Science
Page: 272
View: 8296

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This is a rare book on a rare topic: it is about 'action' and the Principle of Least Action. A surprisingly well-kept secret, these ideas are at the heart of physical science and engineering. Physics is well known as being concerned with grand conservatory principles (e.g. the conservation of energy) but equally important is the optimization principle (such as getting somewhere in the shortest time or with the least resistance). The book explains: why an optimization principle underlies physics, what action is, what `the Hamiltonian' is, and how new insights into energy, space, and time arise. It assumes some background in the physical sciences, at the level of undergraduate science, but it is not a textbook. The requisite derivations and worked examples are given but may be skim-read if desired. The author draws from Cornelius Lanczos's book "The Variational Principles of Mechanics" (1949 and 1970). Lanczos was a brilliant mathematician and educator, but his book was for a postgraduate audience. The present book is no mere copy with the difficult bits left out - it is original, and a popularization. It aims to explain ideas rather than achieve technical competence, and to show how Least Action leads into the whole of physics.

Practical Bayesian Inference

A Primer for Physical Scientists
Author: Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108127673
Category: Mathematics
Page: N.A
View: 594

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Science is fundamentally about learning from data, and doing so in the presence of uncertainty. This volume is an introduction to the major concepts of probability and statistics, and the computational tools for analysing and interpreting data. It describes the Bayesian approach, and explains how this can be used to fit and compare models in a range of problems. Topics covered include regression, parameter estimation, model assessment, and Monte Carlo methods, as well as widely used classical methods such as regularization and hypothesis testing. The emphasis throughout is on the principles, the unifying probabilistic approach, and showing how the methods can be implemented in practice. R code (with explanations) is included and is available online, so readers can reproduce the plots and results for themselves. Aimed primarily at undergraduate and graduate students, these techniques can be applied to a wide range of data analysis problems beyond the scope of this work.