Issues in Evolutionary Epistemology


Author: Kai Hahlweg,C. A. Hooker
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 1438405391
Category: Philosophy
Page: 605
View: 9528

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This book provides the fullest philosophical examination of theories of evolutionary epistemology now available. Here for the first time are found major statements of new theories, new applications, and many new critical explorations. The book is divided into four parts: Part I introduces several new approaches to evolutionary epistemology; Part II attempts to widen the scope of evolutionary epistemology, either by tackling more traditional epistemological issues, or by applying evolutionary models to new areas of inquiry such as the evolution of culture or of intentionality; Part III critically discusses specific problems in evolutionary epistemology; and Part IV deals with the relationship of evolutionary epistemology to the philosophy of mind. Because of its intellectual depth and its breadth of coverage, Issues in Evolutionary Epistemology will be an important text in the field for many years to come.

The Nature of Selection

Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus
Author: Elliott Sober
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226767482
Category: Philosophy
Page: 383
View: 5439

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The Nature of Selection is a straightforward, self-contained introduction to philosophical and biological problems in evolutionary theory. It presents a powerful analysis of the evolutionary concepts of natural selection, fitness, and adaptation and clarifies controversial issues concerning altruism, group selection, and the idea that organisms are survival machines built for the good of the genes that inhabit them. "Sober's is the answering philosophical voice, the voice of a first-rate philosopher and a knowledgeable student of contemporary evolutionary theory. His book merits broad attention among both communities. It should also inspire others to continue the conversation."-Philip Kitcher, Nature "Elliott Sober has made extraordinarily important contributions to our understanding of biological problems in evolutionary biology and causality. The Nature of Selection is a major contribution to understanding epistemological problems in evolutionary theory. I predict that it will have a long lasting place in the literature."-Richard C. Lewontin

Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology


Author: Elliott Sober
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262691628
Category: Philosophy
Page: 506
View: 2310

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There has been considerable and lively debate in philosophy of biology over the decade since the first edition of this anthology appeared. Changes and additions in the new edition reflect the ways in which the subject has broadened and deepened on several fronts; more than half of the-chapters are new. In all, twenty-three selections take up fitness, function and teleology, adaptationism, units of selection, essentialism and population thinking, species, systematic philosophies, phylogenetic inference, reduction of Mendelian genetics to molecular biology, ethics and sociobiology, and cultural evolution and evolutionary epistemology. Elliott Sober is Hans Reichenbach Professor of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Reason, Regulation, and Realism

Towards a Regulatory Systems Theory of Reason and Evolutionary Epistemology
Author: C. A. Hooker
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791422625
Category: Philosophy
Page: 432
View: 9761

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This book develops a new naturalist theory of reason and scientific knowledge from a synthesis of philosophy and the new sciences of complex adaptive systems. In particular, the theory of partially self-organizing regulatory systems is now emerging as central to all the life and social sciences, and this book shows how these ideas can be used to illuminate and satisfyingly reconstruct our basic philosophical concepts and principles. Evolutionary epistemology provides a unifying subject for the book. It is taken as proposing some important commonality between cognitive biological and cognitive epistemic processes. Here, that commonality is found by embedding both in a common model of complex adaptive system dynamics .New reconstructions are offered on the theories of Jean Piaget, Karl Popper, and Nicholas Rescher which show how their ideas are more deeply illuminated from this perspective in contrast to the formal rationalist interpretations standard among philosophers and scientists.

Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge


Author: Gerard Radnitzky,Karl Raimund Popper
Publisher: Open Court Publishing
ISBN: 9780812690392
Category: Philosophy
Page: 475
View: 2279

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This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

Concepts and Approaches in Evolutionary Epistemology

Towards an Evolutionary Theory of Knowledge
Author: Franz M. Wuketits
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027715777
Category: Philosophy
Page: 320
View: 6702

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The present volume brings together current interdisciplinary research which adds up to an evolutionary theory of human knowledge, Le. evolutionary epistemology. It comprises ten papers, dealing with the basic concepts, approaches and data in evolutionary epistemology and discussing some of their most important consequences. Because I am convinced that criticism, if not confused with mere polemics, is apt to stimulate the maturation of a scientific or philosophical theory, I invited Reinhard Low to present his critical view of evolutionary epistemology and to indicate some limits of our evolutionary conceptions. The main purpose of this book is to meet the urgent need of both science and philosophy for a comprehensive up-to-date approach to the problem of knowledge, going beyond the traditional disciplinary boundaries of scientific and philosophical thought. Evolutionary epistemology has emerged as a naturalistic and science-oriented view of knowledge taking cognizance of, and compatible with, results of biological, psychological, anthropological and linguistic inquiries concerning the structure and development of man's cognitive apparatus. Thus, evolutionary epistemology serves as a frame work for many contemporary discussions of the age-old problem of human knowledge.

The Epistemology of Development, Evolution, and Genetics


Author: Richard Burian
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521545280
Category: Medical
Page: 274
View: 3808

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These essays examine the developments in three fundamental biological disciplines--embryology, evolutionary biology, and genetics. These disciplines were in conflict for much of the 20th century and the essays in this collection examine key methodological problems within these disciplines and the difficulties faced in overcoming the conflicts between them. Burian skillfully weaves together historical appreciation of the settings within which scientists work, substantial knowledge of the biological problems at stake and the methodological and philosophical issues faced in integrating biological knowledge drawn from disparate sources.

From a Biological Point of View

Essays in Evolutionary Philosophy
Author: Elliott Sober
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521477536
Category: Philosophy
Page: 255
View: 9260

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This new collection of essays will appeal to a readership that extends well beyond the frontiers of the philosophy of science. Sober shows how ideas in evolutionary biology bear in significant ways on traditional problems in philosophy of mind and language, epistemology, and metaphysics. Among the topics addressed are psychological egoism, solipsism, and the interpretation of belief and utterance, empiricism, Ockham's razor, causality, essentialism, and scientific laws.

Popper, Objectivity and the Growth of Knowledge


Author: John H. Sceski
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1441144374
Category: Science
Page: 174
View: 7690

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John H. Sceski argues that Karl Popper's philosophy offers a radical treatment of objectivity that can reconcile freedom and progress in a manner that preserves the best elements of the Enlightenment tradition. His book traces the development of Popper's account of objectivity by examining his original contributions to key issues in the philosophy of science. Popper's early confrontation with logical positivism, his rarely discussed four-fold treatment of the problem of induction, and his theory of propensities and evolutionary epistemology are linked in a novel way to produce a coherent and philosophically relevant picture of objectivity. Sceski also explores and clarifies many central issues in the philosophy of science such as probabilistic support, verisimilitude, and the relationship between special relativity and indeterminism. He concludes that Popper's account of objectivity can best bridge the gap between Enlightenment aims for science and freedom and post-modern misgivings about 'truth', by developing a philosophy that is non-foundationalist yet able to account for the growth of knowledge.

Merged Evolution

Long-term Complications of Biotechnology and Informatin Technology
Author: Susantha Goonatilake
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113438985X
Category: Computers
Page: 282
View: 1553

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Merged Evolution charts the implications of two major forces of change, information technology and biotechnology, combined with a third force, that of 'artifactual' information, which is handed down dichronically from computing device to computing device. Through developments anticipated in the near future, Dr. Goonatilake describes the merging of these three systems, a convergence which will profoundly affect the biological, social, and technical fields much more than previous studies have implied. Together these changes yield an entirely different history - and a different future of the world for life, nature and civilization. This book addresses the broader issue arising from these important developments using the unifying perspective of general evolutionary theory to yield a fresh and profound insight.

Québec Studies in the Philosophy of Science

Part II: Biology, Psychology, Cognitive Science and Economics Essays in Honor of Hugues Leblanc
Author: Mathieu Marion,Robert S. Cohen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400901135
Category: Science
Page: 308
View: 9999

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By North-American standards, philosophy is not new in Quebec: the first men tion of philosophy lectures given by a Jesuit in the College de Quebec (founded 1635) dates from 1665, and the oldest logic manuscript dates from 1679. In English-speaking universities such as McGill (founded 1829), philosophy began to be taught later, during the second half of the 19th century. The major influence on English-speaking philosophers was, at least initially, that of Scottish Empiricism. On the other hand, the strong influence of the Catholic Church on French-Canadian society meant that the staff of the facultes of the French-speaking universities consisted, until recently, almost entirely of Thomist philosophers. There was accordingly little or no work in modern Formal Logic and Philosophy of Science and precious few contacts between the philosophical communities. In the late forties, Hugues Leblanc was a young student wanting to learn Formal Logic. He could not find anyone in Quebec to teach him and he went to study at Harvard University under the supervision of W. V. Quine. His best friend Maurice L' Abbe had left, a year earlier, for Princeton to study with Alonzo Church. After receiving his Ph. D from Harvard in 1948, Leblanc started his profes sional career at Bryn Mawr College, where he stayed until 1967. He then went to Temple University, where he taught until his retirement in 1992, serving as Chair of the Department of Philosophy from 1973 until 1979.

Evolution Challenges

Integrating Research and Practice in Teaching and Learning about Evolution
Author: Karl S. Rosengren
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 9780199730421
Category: Medical
Page: 464
View: 2849

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Evolution Challenges goes beyond the science versus religion debate to ask why evolution is so often rejected as a legitimate scientific fact, focusing on a wide range of cognitive, socio-cultural, and motivational factors that make concepts such as evolution difficult to grasp.

Biology and Political Science


Author: Robert Blank,Samuel M. Hines Jnr.
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134629052
Category: Political Science
Page: 192
View: 757

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This book demonstrates the increasing interest of some social scientists in the theories, research and findings of life sciences in building a more interdisciplinary approach to the study of politics. It discusses the development of biopolitics as an academic perspective within political science, reviews the growing literature in the field and presents a coherent view of biopolitics as a framework for structuring inquiry across the current subfields of political science.

Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien


Author: Pierre Duhem,Lothar Schäfer,E Mach
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 3787332146
Category: Philosophy
Page: 374
View: 9796

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Pierre Duhem (1861-1916) gehörte zu jenen Wissenschaftlern, die im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert an der Umbildung der Physik im großen Stil arbeiteten und damit an der Vorbereitung der wissenschaftlichen Revolution beteiligt waren, die durch Planck und Einstein herbeigeführt wurde. Duhems klassisches Werk der modernen Wissenschaftstheorie hat auf die Entwicklung des logischen Empirismus nachhaltigen Einfluß ausgeübt. Das von Duhem beigezogene reichhaltige Material und seine konzisen Fallstudien stellen eine Fundgrube für jeden dar, der sich ernsthaft mit Wissenschaftstheorie beschäftigt.

Das egoistische Gen

Mit einem Vorwort von Wolfgang Wickler
Author: Richard Dawkins
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642553915
Category: Science
Page: 489
View: 5960

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p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.

Epistemology and Science Education

Understanding the Evolution vs. Intelligent Design Controversy
Author: Roger S. Taylor,Michel Ferrari
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136885994
Category: Education
Page: 320
View: 1863

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How is epistemology related to the issue of teaching science and evolution in the schools? Addressing a flashpoint issue in our schools today, this book explores core epistemological differences between proponents of intelligent design and evolutionary scientists, as well as the critical role of epistemological beliefs in learning science. Preeminent scholars in these areas report empirical research and/or make a theoretical contribution, with a particular emphasis on the controversy over whether intelligent design deserves to be considered a science alongside Darwinian evolution. This pioneering book coordinates and provides a complete picture of the intersections in the study of evolution, epistemology, and science education, in order to allow a deeper understanding of the intelligent design vs. evolution controversy. This is a very timely book for teachers and policy makers who are wrestling with issues of how to teach biology and evolution within a cultural context in which intelligent design has been and is likely to remain a challenge for the foreseeable future.

Studying Human Origins

Disciplinary History and Epistemology
Author: Raymond Corbey,Wil Roebroeks
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
ISBN: 9789053564646
Category: Social Science
Page: 174
View: 2085

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This history of human origin studies covers a wide range of disciplines. This important new study analyses a number of key episodes from palaeolithic archaeology, palaeoanthropology, primatology and evolutionary theory in terms of various ideas on how one should go about such reconstructions and what, if any, the uses of such historiographical exercises can be for current research in these disciplines. Their carefully argued point is that studying the history of palaeoanthropological thinking about the past can enhance the quality of current research on human origins. The main issues in the present volume are the uses of disciplinary history in terms of present-day research concerns, the relative weight of cultural and other 'external' contexts, and continuity and change in theoretical perspectives. The book's overall approach is an epistemological one. It does not, in other words, primarily address anthropological data as such, but our ways of handling such data in terms of our most fundamental, but usually quite implicit theoretical presuppositions.

Darwinian Creativity and Memetics


Author: Maria Kronfeldner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317544919
Category: Philosophy
Page: 240
View: 5850

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Maria Kronfeldner examines how Darwinism has been used to explain novelty and change in culture through the Darwinian approach to creativity and the theory of memes. The first claims that creativity is based on a Darwinian process of blind variation and selection, while the latter claims that culture is based on and explained by units - memes - that are similar to genes. Both theories try to describe and explain mind and culture by applying Darwinism by way of analogies. Kronfeldner shows that the analogies involved in these theories lead to claims that give either wrong or at least no new descriptions or explanations of the phenomena at issue. Whereas the two approaches are usually defended or criticized on the basis that they are dangerous for our vision of ourselves, this book takes a different perspective: it questions the acuteness of these approaches. Darwinian theory is not like a dangerous wolf, hunting for our self image. Far from it, in the case of the two analogical applications addressed in this book, Darwinian theory is shown to behave more like a disoriented sheep in wolf's clothing.

Das unbeschriebene Blatt

Die moderne Leugnung der menschlichen Natur
Author: Steven Pinker
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 3104903905
Category: Social Science
Page: 768
View: 9150

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Mit einem aktuellen Vorwort zur Neuausgabe! Auf John Locke geht die Vorstellung zurück, der Mensch sei ein leeres Blatt, auf dem im Verlauf des Lebens die persönlichen Erfahrungen eingetragen werden. In seinem mittlerweile klassischen Buch »Das unbeschriebene Blatt. Die moderne Leugnung der menschlichen Natur« bezieht Bestseller-Autor Steven Pinker ganz die Gegenposition: Mit Witz, Brillanz und Gelehrsamkeit analysiert er die Geschichte dieser Idee und zeigt, wie falsch sie ist – mit allen kruden Auswirkungen auf Vorstellungen von Sexualität, Rasse, Kindererziehung, Intelligenz usw. Die Rolle der Gene wird systematisch unterschätzt; aber das bedeutet nicht, dass wir ihnen völlig ausgeliefert sind. Pinker zeigt nämlich auch, wie befreiend diese Sichtweise sein kann. Ein unterhaltsames und anschauliches Buch zur Natur des Menschen, ein echter Lesegenuss.