Introduction to Information Retrieval


Author: Christopher D. Manning,Prabhakar Raghavan,Hinrich Schütze
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139472100
Category: Computers
Page: N.A
View: 9949

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Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in computer science. Based on feedback from extensive classroom experience, the book has been carefully structured in order to make teaching more natural and effective. Slides and additional exercises (with solutions for lecturers) are also available through the book's supporting website to help course instructors prepare their lectures.

Neuronale Netze selbst programmieren

Ein verständlicher Einstieg mit Python
Author: Tariq Rashid
Publisher: O'Reilly
ISBN: 3960101031
Category: Computers
Page: 232
View: 9190

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Neuronale Netze sind Schlüsselelemente des Deep Learning und der Künstlichen Intelligenz, die heute zu Erstaunlichem in der Lage sind. Sie sind Grundlage vieler Anwendungen im Alltag wie beispielsweise Spracherkennung, Gesichtserkennung auf Fotos oder die Umwandlung von Sprache in Text. Dennoch verstehen nur wenige, wie neuronale Netze tatsächlich funktionieren. Dieses Buch nimmt Sie mit auf eine unterhaltsame Reise, die mit ganz einfachen Ideen beginnt und Ihnen Schritt für Schritt zeigt, wie neuronale Netze arbeiten: - Zunächst lernen Sie die mathematischen Konzepte kennen, die den neuronalen Netzen zugrunde liegen. Dafür brauchen Sie keine tieferen Mathematikkenntnisse, denn alle mathematischen Ideen werden behutsam und mit vielen Illustrationen und Beispielen erläutert. Eine Kurzeinführung in die Analysis unterstützt Sie dabei. - Dann geht es in die Praxis: Nach einer Einführung in die populäre und leicht zu lernende Programmiersprache Python bauen Sie allmählich Ihr eigenes neuronales Netz mit Python auf. Sie bringen ihm bei, handgeschriebene Zahlen zu erkennen, bis es eine Performance wie ein professionell entwickeltes Netz erreicht. - Im nächsten Schritt tunen Sie die Leistung Ihres neuronalen Netzes so weit, dass es eine Zahlenerkennung von 98 % erreicht – nur mit einfachen Ideen und simplem Code. Sie testen das Netz mit Ihrer eigenen Handschrift und werfen noch einen Blick in das mysteriöse Innere eines neuronalen Netzes. - Zum Schluss lassen Sie das neuronale Netz auf einem Raspberry Pi Zero laufen. Tariq Rashid erklärt diese schwierige Materie außergewöhnlich klar und verständlich, dadurch werden neuronale Netze für jeden Interessierten zugänglich und praktisch nachvollziehbar.

An Introduction to Information Retrieval


Author: CTI Reviews
Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews
ISBN: 1467255467
Category: Education
Page: 44
View: 8297

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Facts101 is your complete guide to An Introduction to Information Retrieval. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

Introduction to Modern Information Retrieval


Author: Gobinda G. Chowdhury
Publisher: Facet Publishing
ISBN: 185604694X
Category: Information organization
Page: 508
View: 796

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An information retrieval (IR) system is designed to analyse, process and store sources of information and retrieve those that match a particular user's requirements. A bewildering range of techniques is now available to the information professional attempting to successfully retrieve information. It is recognized that today's information professionals need to concentrate their efforts on learning the techniques of computerized IR. However, it is this book's contention that it also benefits them to learn the theory, techniques and tools that constitute the traditional approaches to the organization and processing of information. In fact much of this knowledge may still be applicable in the storage and retrieval of electronic information in digital library environments. The fully revised third edition of this highly regarded textbook has been thoroughly updated to incorporate major changes in this rapidly expanding field since the second edition in 2004, and a complete new chapter on citation indexing has been added. Unique in its scope, the book covers the whole spectrum of information storage and retrieval, including: users of IR and IR options; database technology; bibliographic formats; cataloguing and metadata; subject analysis and representation; automatic indexing and file organization; vocabulary control; abstracts and indexing; searching and retrieval; user-centred models of IR and user interfaces; evaluation of IR systems and evaluation experiments; online and CD-ROM IR; multimedia IR; hypertext and mark-up languages; web IR; intelligent IR; natural language processing and its applications in IR; citation analysis and IR; IR in digital libraries; and trends in IR research. Illustrated with many examples and comprehensively referenced for an international audience, this is an indispensable textbook for students of library and information studies. It is also an invaluable aid for information practitioners wishing to brush up on their skills and keep up to date with the latest techniques.

Organising knowledge

an introduction to information retrieval
Author: J. E. Rowley
Publisher: Gower Publishing Company, Limited
ISBN: N.A
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Page: 454
View: 9877

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Introduction to Information Retrieval and Quantum Mechanics


Author: Massimo Melucci
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662483130
Category: Computers
Page: 232
View: 4228

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This book introduces the quantum mechanical framework to information retrieval scientists seeking a new perspective on foundational problems. As such, it concentrates on the main notions of the quantum mechanical framework and describes an innovative range of concepts and tools for modeling information representation and retrieval processes. The book is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 illustrates the main modeling concepts for information retrieval (including Boolean logic, vector spaces, probabilistic models, and machine-learning based approaches), which will be examined further in subsequent chapters. Next, chapter 2 briefly explains the main concepts of the quantum mechanical framework, focusing on approaches linked to information retrieval such as interference, superposition and entanglement. Chapter 3 then reviews the research conducted at the intersection between information retrieval and the quantum mechanical framework. The chapter is subdivided into a number of topics, and each description ends with a section suggesting the most important reference resources. Lastly, chapter 4 offers suggestions for future research, briefly outlining the most essential and promising research directions to fully leverage the quantum mechanical framework for effective and efficient information retrieval systems. This book is especially intended for researchers working in information retrieval, database systems and machine learning who want to acquire a clear picture of the potential offered by the quantum mechanical framework in their own research area. Above all, the book offers clear guidance on whether, why and when to effectively use the mathematical formalism and the concepts of the quantum mechanical framework to address various foundational issues in information retrieval.

Text Data Management and Analysis

A Practical Introduction to Information Retrieval and Text Mining
Author: ChengXiang Zhai,Sean Massung
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool
ISBN: 1970001178
Category: Computers
Page: 530
View: 4926

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Recent years have seen a dramatic growth of natural language text data, including web pages, news articles, scientific literature, emails, enterprise documents, and social media such as blog articles, forum posts, product reviews, and tweets. This has led to an increasing demand for powerful software tools to help people analyze and manage vast amounts of text data effectively and efficiently. Unlike data generated by a computer system or sensors, text data are usually generated directly by humans, and are accompanied by semantically rich content. As such, text data are especially valuable for discovering knowledge about human opinions and preferences, in addition to many other kinds of knowledge that we encode in text. In contrast to structured data, which conform to well-defined schemas (thus are relatively easy for computers to handle), text has less explicit structure, requiring computer processing toward understanding of the content encoded in text. The current technology of natural language processing has not yet reached a point to enable a computer to precisely understand natural language text, but a wide range of statistical and heuristic approaches to analysis and management of text data have been developed over the past few decades. They are usually very robust and can be applied to analyze and manage text data in any natural language, and about any topic. This book provides a systematic introduction to all these approaches, with an emphasis on covering the most useful knowledge and skills required to build a variety of practically useful text information systems. The focus is on text mining applications that can help users analyze patterns in text data to extract and reveal useful knowledge. Information retrieval systems, including search engines and recommender systems, are also covered as supporting technology for text mining applications. The book covers the major concepts, techniques, and ideas in text data mining and information retrieval from a practical viewpoint, and includes many hands-on exercises designed with a companion software toolkit (i.e., MeTA) to help readers learn how to apply techniques of text mining and information retrieval to real-world text data and how to experiment with and improve some of the algorithms for interesting application tasks. The book can be used as a textbook for a computer science undergraduate course or a reference book for practitioners working on relevant problems in analyzing and managing text data.

Strafgesetzbuch - StGB 2016


Author: Deutschland
Publisher: "Издательство ""Проспект"""
ISBN: 5392033458
Category: Law
Page: 164
View: 5646

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Ausfertigungsdatum: 15.05.1871 Vollzitat: "Strafgesetzbuch in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 13. November 1998 (BGBl. I S. 3322), das durch Artikel 1 des Gesetzes vom 24. September 2013 (BGBl. I S. 3671) geändert worden ist" Stand: Neugefasst durch Bek. v. 13.11.1998 I 3322; Zuletzt geändert durch Art. 23 G v. 20.11.2015 I 2010 Hinweis: Änderung durch Art. 1 G v. 20.11.2015 I 2025 (Nr. 46) noch nicht berücksichtigt!

Digitale Bildverarbeitung

Eine Einführung mit Java und ImageJ
Author: Wilhelm Burger,Mark James Burge
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 354027653X
Category: Computers
Page: 532
View: 5414

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Die Autoren geben eine fundierte Einführung in die wichtigsten Methoden der digitalen Bildverarbeitung. Dabei steht die praktische Anwendbarkeit im Vordergrund, formale und mathematische Aspekte sind auf das Wesentliche reduziert, ohne dabei auf eine präzise und konsistente Vorgehensweise zu verzichten. Der Text eignet sich für technisch orientierte Studiengänge ab dem 3.Semester und basiert auf der mehrjährigen Lehrerfahrung der Autoren zu diesem Thema. Der Einsatz in der Lehre wird durch zahlreiche praktische Übungsaufgaben unterstützt. Das Buch eignet sich auch als detaillierte Referenz für Praktiker und Anwender gängiger Verfahren der digitalen Bildverarbeitung, z.B. in der Medizin, der Materialprüfung, der Robotik oder der Medientechnik. Softwareseitig basiert das Buch auf der in Java implementierten und frei verfügbaren Bildverarbeitungsumgebung ImageJ.

Information Retrieval

Algorithms and Heuristics
Author: David A. Grossman,Ophir Frieder
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792382713
Category: Computers
Page: 254
View: 5058

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Information Retrieval: Algorithms and Heuristics is a comprehensive introduction to the study of information retrieval covering both effectiveness and run-time performance. The focus of the presentation is on algorithms and heuristics used to find documents relevant to the user request and to find them fast. Through multiple examples, the most commonly used algorithms and heuristics needed are tackled. To facilitate understanding and applications, introductions to and discussions of computational linguistics, natural language processing, probability theory and library and computer science are provided. While this text focuses on algorithms and not on commercial product per se, the basic strategies used by many commercial products are described. Techniques that can be used to find information on the Web, as well as in other large information collections, are included. This volume is an invaluable resource for researchers, practitioners, and students working in information retrieval and databases. For instructors, a set of Powerpoint slides, including speaker notes, are available online from the authors.

Learning to Rank for Information Retrieval


Author: Tie-Yan Liu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642142673
Category: Computers
Page: 285
View: 4506

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Due to the fast growth of the Web and the difficulties in finding desired information, efficient and effective information retrieval systems have become more important than ever, and the search engine has become an essential tool for many people. The ranker, a central component in every search engine, is responsible for the matching between processed queries and indexed documents. Because of its central role, great attention has been paid to the research and development of ranking technologies. In addition, ranking is also pivotal for many other information retrieval applications, such as collaborative filtering, definition ranking, question answering, multimedia retrieval, text summarization, and online advertisement. Leveraging machine learning technologies in the ranking process has led to innovative and more effective ranking models, and eventually to a completely new research area called “learning to rank”. Liu first gives a comprehensive review of the major approaches to learning to rank. For each approach he presents the basic framework, with example algorithms, and he discusses its advantages and disadvantages. He continues with some recent advances in learning to rank that cannot be simply categorized into the three major approaches – these include relational ranking, query-dependent ranking, transfer ranking, and semisupervised ranking. His presentation is completed by several examples that apply these technologies to solve real information retrieval problems, and by theoretical discussions on guarantees for ranking performance. This book is written for researchers and graduate students in both information retrieval and machine learning. They will find here the only comprehensive description of the state of the art in a field that has driven the recent advances in search engine development.

Understanding Information Retrieval Systems

Management, Types, and Standards
Author: Marcia J. Bates
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466551356
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 752
View: 4523

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In order to be effective for their users, information retrieval (IR) systems should be adapted to the specific needs of particular environments. The huge and growing array of types of information retrieval systems in use today is on display in Understanding Information Retrieval Systems: Management, Types, and Standards, which addresses over 20 types of IR systems. These various system types, in turn, present both technical and management challenges, which are also addressed in this volume. In order to be interoperable in a networked environment, IR systems must be able to use various types of technical standards, a number of which are described in this book—often by their original developers. The book covers the full context of operational IR systems, addressing not only the systems themselves but also human user search behaviors, user-centered design, and management and policy issues. In addition to theory and practice of IR system design, the book covers Web standards and protocols, the Semantic Web, XML information retrieval, Web social mining, search engine optimization, specialized museum and library online access, records compliance and risk management, information storage technology, geographic information systems, and data transmission protocols. Emphasis is given to information systems that operate on relatively unstructured data, such as text, images, and music. The book is organized into four parts: Part I supplies a broad-level introduction to information systems and information retrieval systems Part II examines key management issues and elaborates on the decision process around likely information system solutions Part III illustrates the range of information retrieval systems in use today discussing the technical, operational, and administrative issues for each type Part IV discusses the most important organizational and technical standards needed for successful information retrieval This volume brings together authoritative articles on the different types of information systems and how to manage real-world demands such as digital asset management, network management, digital content licensing, data quality, and information system failures. It explains how to design systems to address human characteristics and considers key policy and ethical issues such as piracy and preservation. Focusing on web–based systems, the chapters in this book provide an excellent starting point for developing and managing your own IR systems.

Information Retrieval Systems

Theory and Implementation
Author: Gerald J. Kowalski
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 058532090X
Category: Computers
Page: 282
View: 3117

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The growth of the Internet and the availability of enormous volumes of data in digital form have necessitated intense interest in techniques to assist the user in locating data of interest. The Internet has over 350 million pages of data and is expected to reach over one billion pages by the year 2000. Buried on the Internet are both valuable nuggets to answer questions as well as a large quantity of information the average person does not care about. The Digital Library effort is also progressing, with the goal of migrating from the traditional book environment to a digital library environment. The challenge to both authors of new publications that will reside on this information domain and developers of systems to locate information is to provide the information and capabilities to sort out the non-relevant items from those desired by the consumer. In effect, as we proceed down this path, it will be the computer that determines what we see versus the human being. The days of going to a library and browsing the new book shelf are being replaced by electronic searching the Internet or the library catalogs. Whatever the search engines return will constrain our knowledge of what information is available. An understanding of Information Retrieval Systems puts this new environment into perspective for both the creator of documents and the consumer trying to locate information.

Teaching and Learning in Information Retrieval


Author: Efthimis Efthimiadis,Juan M. Fernández-Luna,Juan F. Huete,Andrew MacFarlane
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642225116
Category: Computers
Page: 213
View: 4072

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Information Retrieval has become a very active research field in the 21st century. Many from academia and industry present their innovations in the field in a wide variety of conferences and journals. Companies transfer this new knowledge directly to the general public via services such as web search engines in order to improve their information seeking experience. In parallel, teaching IR is turning into an important aspect of IR generally, not only because it is necessary to impart effective search techniques to make the most of the IR tools available, but also because we must provide a good foundation for those students who will become the driving force of future IR technologies. There are very few resources for teaching and learning in IR, the major problem which this book is designed to solve. The objective is to provide ideas and practical experience of teaching and learning IR, for those whose job requires them to teach in one form or another, and where delivering IR courses is a major part of their working lives. In this context of providing a higher profile for teaching and learning as applied to IR, the co-editor of this book, Efthimis Efthimiathis, had maintained a leading role in teaching and learning within the domain of IR for a number of years. This book represents a posthumous example of his efforts in the area, as he passed away in April 2011. This book, his book, is dedicated to his memory.

Bridging Between Information Retrieval and Databases

PROMISE Winter School 2013, Bressanone, Italy, February 4-8, 2013. Revised Tutorial Lectures
Author: Nicola Ferro
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642547982
Category: Computers
Page: 237
View: 7961

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The research domains of information retrieval and databases have traditionally adopted different approaches to information management. However, in recent years, there has been an increasing cross-fertilization among the two fields and now many research challenges are transversal to them. With this in mind, a winter school was organized in Bressanone, Italy, in February 2013, within the context of the EU-funded research project PROMISE (Participative Research Laboratory for Multimedia and Multilingual Information Systems Evaluation). PROMISE aimed at advancing the experimental evaluation of complex multimedia and multilingual information systems in order to support individuals, commercial entities and communities, who design, develop, employ and improve such complex systems. The overall goal of PROMISE was to deliver a unified environment collecting data, knowledge, tools and methodologies and to help the user community involved in experimental evaluation. This book constitutes the outcome of the PROMISE Winter School 2013 and contains 9 invited lectures from the research domains of information retrieval and databases plus short papers of the best student poster awards. A large variety of topics are covered, including databases, information retrieval, experimental evaluation, metrics and statistics, semantic search, keyword search in databases, semi-structured search, evaluation both in information retrieval and databases, crowdsourcing and social media.