International Organisations and Peace Enforcement

The Politics of International Legitimacy
Author: Katharina P. Coleman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139464507
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 1411

Continue Reading →

What distinguishes a peace enforcement operation from an invasion? This question has been asked with particular vehemence since the US intervention in Iraq, but it faces all military operations seeking to impose peace in countries torn by civil war. This book highlights the critical role of international organisations (IOs) as gatekeepers to international legitimacy for modern peace enforcement operations. The author analyses five operations launched through four IOs: the ECOWAS intervention in Liberia, the SADC operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Lesotho, the NATO Kosovo campaign and the UN intervention in East Timor. In all these campaigns, lead states sought IO mandates primarily to establish the international legitimacy of their interventions. The evidence suggests that international relations are structured by commonly accepted rules, that both democratic and authoritarian states care about the international legitimacy of their actions, and that IOs have a key function in world politics.

International Organisations and Peace Enforcement

The Politics of International Legitimacy
Author: Katharina Pichler Coleman
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780511289460
Category: Electronic books
Page: 360
View: 9251

Continue Reading →

Highlights the role of international organisations in providing international legitimacy for peace enforcement operations.

International Organisations and Peace Enforcement

The Politics of International Legitimacy
Author: Katharina P. Coleman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521690348
Category: Political Science
Page: 376
View: 585

Continue Reading →

What distinguishes a peace enforcement operation from an invasion? This question has been asked with particular vehemence since the US intervention in Iraq, but it faces all military operations seeking to impose peace in countries torn by civil war. This book highlights the critical role of international organisations (IOs) as gatekeepers to international legitimacy for modern peace enforcement operations. The author analyses five operations launched through four IOs: the ECOWAS intervention in Liberia, the SADC operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Lesotho, the NATO Kosovo campaign and the UN intervention in East Timor. In all these campaigns, lead states sought IO mandates primarily to establish the international legitimacy of their interventions. The evidence suggests that international relations are structured by commonly accepted rules, that both democratic and authoritarian states care about the international legitimacy of their actions, and that IOs have a key function in world politics.

The United Nations, Peace and Security

From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect
Author: Ramesh Thakur
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107176948
Category: Political Science
Page: 444
View: 6721

Continue Reading →

Explains the United Nations' key roles in underwriting international security, humanitarian protection and the international rule of law.

The UN at War

Peace Operations in a New Era
Author: John Karlsrud
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319628585
Category: Political Science
Page: 204
View: 9830

Continue Reading →

This book is a critical political and institutional reflection on UN peace operations. It provides constructive suggestions as to how the UN and the international system can evolve to remain relevant and tackle the peace and security challenges of the 21st century, without abandoning the principles that the UN was founded upon and on which the legitimacy of UN peace operations rests. The author analyses the evolving politics on UN peace operations of the five veto powers of the UN Security Council, as well as major troop-contributing countries and western powers. He investigates the move towards peace enforcement and counter-terrorism, and what consequences this development may have for the UN. Karlsrud issues a challenge to practitioners and politicians to make sure that the calls for reform are anchored in a desire to improve the lives of people suffering in conflicts on the ground—and not spurred by intra-organizational turf battles or solely the narrow self-interests of member states. Finally, he asks how the UN can adapt its practices to become more field- and people-centered, in line with its core, primary commitments of protecting and serving people in need.

Regional Maintenance of Peace and Security under International Law

The Distorted Mirrors
Author: Dace Winther
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113512048X
Category: Law
Page: 268
View: 3395

Continue Reading →

This book explores the scope and limits of what is appropriate for regional action in the maintenance of peace and security. It offers a comparative study of legal regulation of the use of force in the maintenance of peace and security of different security regions in the context of the UN system and general international law. The book examines the post-Cold War legal documents and practice of the regional organizations of six security regions of the world (Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Middle East, the Russian sphere of influence and the Euro-Atlantic region), and in doing so offers a unique international and comparative perspective towards regional characteristics that may influence the possibility for coherent action in a UN context. Dace Winther explores the controversial topics of regional humanitarian intervention and robust regional peacekeeping without a UN mandate, what is regarded as appropriate for regional action in different security regions of the world, and if the approaches of the regions differ, what factors could have an influence. The book is highly relevant in a global climate where regional mechanisms take an ever more active part in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the use of force. The book will be of great interest to students and academics of International Law, International Relations and Security Studies.

The Democratic Legitimacy of International Law


Author: Steven Wheatley
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847315860
Category: Law
Page: 424
View: 9690

Continue Reading →

The objective of this work is to restate the requirements of democratic legitimacy in terms of the deliberative ideal developed by JÃ1⁄4rgen Habermas, and apply the understanding to the systems of global governance. The idea of democracy requires that the people decide, through democratic procedures, all policy issues that are politically decidable. But the state is not a voluntary association of free and equal citizens; it is a construct of international law, and subject to international law norms. Political self-determination takes places within a framework established by domestic and international public law. A compensatory form of democratic legitimacy for inter-state norms can be established through deliberative forms of diplomacy and a requirement of consent to international law norms, but the decline of the Westphalian political settlement means that the two-track model of democratic self-determination is no longer sufficient to explain the legitimacy and authority of law. The emergence of non-state sites for the production of global norms that regulate social, economic and political life within the state requires an evaluation of the concept of (international) law and the (legitimate) authority of non-state actors. Given that states retain a monopoly on the coercive enforcement of law and the primary responsibility for the guarantee of the public and private autonomy of citizens, the legitimacy and authority of the laws that regulate the conditions of social life should be evaluated by each democratic state. The construction of a multiverse of democratic visions of global governance by democratic states will have the practical consequence of democratising the international law order, providing democratic legitimacy for international law.

Encyclopedia of International Relations and Global Politics


Author: Martin Griffiths
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135190801
Category: Political Science
Page: 936
View: 3653

Continue Reading →

The study of international relations has changed rapidly in recent years. Firstly as a consequence of major political and economic change – the end of the cold war and the fall of communism, the resurgence of nationalism, terrorism and forms of fundamentalism, globalization – and secondly, linked with these developments, because of the vitality of the discipline, with ongoing debates on the fundamental paradigms for the understanding of international relations and the emergence of the perspectives of feminism, postmodernism, constructivism and critical theory. The Routledge Encyclopedia of International Relations and Global Politics provides a unique reference source for students and academics covering all aspects of global international relations and the contemporary discipline across IR's major subject divisions of diplomacy, military affairs, international political economy, and theory. Written by a distinguished group of international scholars, the Encyclopedia is largely comprised of substantial entries of more than 1,000 words, with fifty major entries of 5,000 words on core contemporary topics. Each entry is fully cross-referenced and followed by a listing of complementary entries and a short bibliography for further reading. The whole is comprehensively indexed. There is no other resource of its kind and the Encyclopedia of International Relations and Global Politics will be an extremely valuable addition to all libraries supporting teaching and research in the social sciences.

Between Autonomy and Dependence

The EU Legal Order under the Influence of International Organisations
Author: Ramses A. Wessel,Steven Blockmans
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9067049034
Category: Law
Page: 340
View: 604

Continue Reading →

The European Union is traditionally seen as a new and partly separate legal order within the global legal system. At the same time, the EU is an important player in the global governance network. The strong and explicit link between the EU and a large number of other international organisations raises questions concerning the impact of decisions taken by those organisations and of international agreements concluded with those organisations (either by the EU itself or by its Member States) on the autonomy of the EU legal order. This book addresses the relationship between the EU and other international organisations by looking at the increasing influence of norms enacted by international organisations on the shaping of EU law.

International Organizations

Politics, Law, Practice
Author: Ian Hurd
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139788833
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 7425

Continue Reading →

International organizations are at the heart of many global issues today. This 2010 textbook looks at the leading international organizations and explains how they both shape and are shaped by international politics. The book examines three themes: the legal obligations that give international organizations their powers; the mechanisms that elicit compliance by their member states; and the practices of enforcement in the organizations. Each chapter shows how international organizations work in practice and the interactions between them and their member states. This text provides a comprehensive understanding of what international organizations do, how and why they do it, and the challenges they face.

Corruption and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding

Selling the Peace?
Author: Dominik Zaum,Christine Cheng
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136635912
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 7416

Continue Reading →

This edited volume explores and evaluates the roles of corruption in post-conflict peacebuilding. The problem of corruption has become increasingly important in war to peace transitions, eroding confidence in new democratic institutions, undermining economic development, diverting scarce public resources, and reducing the delivery of vital social services. Conflict-affected countries offer an ideal environment for pervasive corruption. Their weak administrative institutions and fragile legal and judicial systems mean that they lack the capacity to effectively investigate and punish corrupt behaviour. In addition, the sudden inflow of donor aid into post-conflict countries and the desire of peacebuilding actors (including the UN, the international financial institutions, aid agencies, and non-governmental organisations) to disburse these funds quickly, create incentives and opportunities for corruption. While corruption imposes costs and compromises on peacebuilding efforts, opportunities for exploiting public office can also be used to entice armed groups into signing peace agreements, thus stabilising post-war environments. This book explores the different functions of corruption both conceptually and through the lens of a wide range of case studies. It also examines the impact of key anti-corruption policies on peacebuilding environments. The dynamics that shape the relationship between corruption and the political and economic developments in post-conflict countries are complex. This analysis highlights that fighting corruption is only one of several important peacebuilding objectives, and that due consideration must be given to the specific social and political context in considering how a sustainable peace can be achieved. This book will be of great interest to students of peacekeeping and peacebuilding, criminology, political economy, war and conflict studies, international security and IR.

Race and Empire

Eugenics in Colonial Kenya
Author: Chloe Campbell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0719071615
Category: History
Page: 224
View: 1621

Continue Reading →

Race and Empire tells the story of a short-lived but vehement eugenics movement that emerged among a group of Europeans in Kenya in the 1930s, unleashing a set of writings on racial differences in intelligence more extreme than that emanating from any other British colony in the twentieth century. The Kenyan eugenics movement of the 1930s adapted British ideas to the colonial environment: in all its extremity, Kenyan eugenics was not simply a bizarre and embarrassing colonial mutation, as it was later dismissed, but a logical extension of British eugenics in a colonial context. By tracing the history of eugenic thought in Kenya, the books shows how the movement took on a distinctive colonial character, driven by settler political preoccupations and reacting to increasingly outspoken African demands for better, and more independent, education. The economic fragility of Kenya in the early 1930s made the eugenicists particularly dependent on British financial support. Ultimately, the suspicious response of the Colonial Office and the Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald, backed up by a growing expert concern about race in science, led to the failure of Kenyan eugenics to gain the necessary British backing. Despite this lack of concrete success, eugenic theories on race and intelligence were widely supported by the medical profession in Kenya, as well as powerful members of the official and non-official European settler population. The long-term failures of the eugenics movement should not blind us to its influence among the social and administrative elite of colonial Kenya. Through a close examination of attitudes towards race and intelligence in a British colony, Race and Empire reveals how eugenics was central to colonial racial theories before World War Two.

Liberal Peacebuilding and the Locus of Legitimacy


Author: David Roberts
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317625781
Category: History
Page: 110
View: 8804

Continue Reading →

Liberal peacebuilding too often builds neither peace nor Liberalism. In a growing number of cases, people aren’t rejecting and relegating democracy because it’s bad; they’re challenging it because it isn’t relevant to their priorities and needs. The peacebuilding ‘moment’ – when consent for intervention is present and the opportunity to build a sustainable social contract between peacebuilders and people is most fruitful – is being squandered. This relationship, between governed and governance, relies on mutual needs realization, but there is no formal or informal requirement and mechanism for ascertaining what the ‘subjects’ of peacebuilding might prioritize. Instead, peacebuilders give the ‘subjects’ of peacebuilding what they think they should have. This legitimacy gap – between what peacebuilders give and what subjects want - is the subject of this book. Through a range of empirical case studies conducted by country specialists, the book reveals that, when asked, people often prioritize roads, electricity, jobs, housing, schooling and pertinent justice (amongst other things) in the immediate aftermath of war. We find that mapping this locus of legitimacy may help develop the kind of relationship upon which the sustainability of any social contract between governed and governance rests. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding.

Legitimacy and Legality in International Law

An Interactional Account
Author: Jutta Brunnée,Stephen J. Toope
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139491474
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 9132

Continue Reading →

It has never been more important to understand how international law enables and constrains international politics. By drawing together the legal theory of Lon Fuller and the insights of constructivist international relations scholars, this book articulates a pragmatic view of how international obligation is created and maintained. First, legal norms can only arise in the context of social norms based on shared understandings. Second, internal features of law, or 'criteria of legality', are crucial to law's ability to promote adherence, to inspire 'fidelity'. Third, legal norms are built, maintained or destroyed through a continuing practice of legality. Through case studies of the climate change regime, the anti-torture norm, and the prohibition on the use of force, it is shown that these three elements produce a distinctive legal legitimacy and a sense of commitment among those to whom law is addressed.

The Opening Up of International Organizations

Transnational Access in Global Governance
Author: Jonas Tallberg,Thomas Sommerer,Theresa Squatrito,Christer Jönsson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107435773
Category: Political Science
Page: 352
View: 8675

Continue Reading →

Once the exclusive preserve of member states, international organizations have become increasingly open in recent decades. Now virtually all international organizations at some level involve NGOs, business actors and scientific experts in policy-making. This book offers the first systematic and comprehensive analysis of this development. Combining statistical analysis and in-depth case studies, it maps and explains the openness of international organizations across issue areas, policy functions and world regions from 1950 to 2010. Addressing the question of where, how and why international organizations offer transnational actors access to global policy-making, this book has implications for critical issues in world politics. When do states share authority with private actors? What drives the design of international organizations? How do activists and businesses influence global politics? Is civil society involvement a solution to democratic deficits in global governance?

Legitimacy, Peace Operations and Global-Regional Security

The African Union-United Nations Partnership in Darfur
Author: Linnéa Gelot
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136285784
Category: Political Science
Page: 200
View: 7521

Continue Reading →

At the turn of the century the regional-global security partnership became a key element of peace and security policy-making. This book investigates the impact of the joint effort made by the African Union (AU) and the United Nations (UN) to keep the peace and protect civilians in Darfur. This book focuses on the collaboration that takes place in the field of conflict management between the global centre and the African regional level. It moves beyond the dominant framework on regional-global security partnerships, which mainly considers one-sided legal and political factors. Instead, new perspectives on the relationships are presented through the lens of international legitimacy. The book argues that the AU and the UN Security Council fight for legitimacy to ensure their positions of authority and to improve the chances of success of their activities. It demonstrates in regard to the case of Darfur why and how legitimacy matters for states, international organisations, and also for global actors and local populations. Legitimacy, Peace Operations and Global-Regional Security will be of interest to students and scholars of International Relations, African Security and Global Governance.

The International Responsibility of International Organisations

Cooperation in Peacekeeping Operations
Author: Moritz P. Moelle
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108210635
Category: Law
Page: N.A
View: 5952

Continue Reading →

The International Responsibility of International Organisations addresses the joint responsibility of organisations for violations of international law committed during the deployment of peacekeeping operations. More specifically, it inquires if and under which circumstances - in terms of the notion of control - international organisations can be jointly responsible. The author analyses the practice of international organisations (the United Nations, NATO, the European Union, the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States) on an inter-institutional level, as well as in the field in the form of five case studies. The likelihood and distribution of responsibility between international organisations engaged in peacekeeping operations is affected by the different layers of applicable primary norms (Security Council mandates, internal law of the organisations, international humanitarian and human rights law). Although external pressure may contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of holding international organisations jointly responsible, any substantial measures and mechanisms can only be implemented with the participation of states and international organisations.

Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect

From Words to Deeds
Author: Alex J. Bellamy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136868631
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 9984

Continue Reading →

This book provides an in-depth introduction to, and analysis of, the issues relating to the implementation of the recent Responsibility to Protect principle in international relations The Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) has come a long way in a short space of time. It was endorsed by the General Assembly of the UN in 2005, and unanimously reaffirmed by the Security Council in 2006 (Resolution 1674) and 2009 (Resolution 1894). UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has identified the challenge of implementing RtoP as one of the cornerstones of his Secretary-Generalship. The principle has also become part of the working language of international engagement with humanitarian crises and has been debated in relation to almost every recent international crisis – including Sudan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Georgia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Darfur and Somalia. Concentrating mainly on implementation challenges including the prevention of genocide and mass atrocities, strengthening the UN’s capacity to respond, and the role of regional organizations, this book introducing readers to contemporary debates on R2P and provides the first book-length analysis of the implementation agenda. The book will be of great interest to students of the responsibility to protect, humanitarian intervention, human rights, foreign policy, security studies and IR and politics in general.

An Introduction to Contemporary International Law

A Policy-Oriented Perspective
Author: Lung-chu Chen
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190227990
Category: Law
Page: 641
View: 4214

Continue Reading →

An Introduction to Contemporary International Law: A Policy-Oriented Perspective introduces the reader to all major aspects of contemporary international law. It applies the highly acclaimed approach developed by the New Haven School of International Law, holding international law as an ongoing process of authoritative decision-making through which the members of the world community identify, clarify, and secure their common interests. Unlike conventional works in international law, this book is organized and structured in terms of the process of decision making in the international arena, and references both classic historical examples and contemporary events to illustrate international legal processes and principles. Using contemporary examples, this Third Edition builds on the previous editions by contextualizing and dramatizing recent events with reference to seven features that characterize the New Haven School approach to international law: participants, perspectives, arenas of decision, bases of power, strategies, outcomes, and effects. This new edition highlights cutting-edge ideas in international law, including the right to self-determination, the evolution of Taiwan statehood, the expanding scope of international concern and the duty of states to protect human rights, the trend towards greater accountability for states and individual decision-makers under international law, and the vital role individual responsibility plays in the emerging field of international criminal law. It offers a new generation the intellectual tools needed to act as responsible citizens in a world community seeking human dignity and human security for all people.

The Politics of International Law


Author: Martti Koskenniemi
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847317766
Category: Law
Page: 388
View: 5772

Continue Reading →

Today international law is everywhere. Wars are fought and opposed in its name. It is invoked to claim rights and to challenge them, to indict or support political leaders, to distribute resources and to expand or limit the powers of domestic and international institutions. International law is part of the way political (and economic) power is used, critiqued, and sometimes limited. Despite its claim for neutrality and impartiality, it is implicit in what is just, as well as what is unjust in the world. To understand its operation requires shedding its ideological spell and examining it with a cold eye. Who are its winners, and who are its losers? How - if at all - can it be used to make a better or a less unjust world? In this collection of essays Professor Martti Koskenniemi, a well-known practitioner and a leading theorist and historian of international law, examines the recent debates on humanitarian intervention, collective security, protection of human rights and the 'fight against impunity' and reflects on the use of the professional techniques of international law to intervene politically. The essays both illustrate and expand his influential theory of the role of international law in international politics. The book is prefaced with an introduction by Professor Emmanuelle Jouannet (Sorbonne Law School), which locates the texts in the overall thought and work of Martti Koskenniemi.