In the Shadow of Violence

Politics, Economics, and the Problems of Development
Author: Douglass C. North,John Joseph Wallis,Steven B. Webb,Barry R. Weingast
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107014212
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 366
View: 2388

Continue Reading →

This book explains how political control of economic privileges is used to limit violence and coordinate coalitions of powerful organizations.

Gewalt und Gesellschaftsordnungen

eine Neudeutung der Staats- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte
Author: Douglass Cecil North,John Joseph Wallis,Barry R. Weingast
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161505904
Category: Political Science
Page: 326
View: 4844

Continue Reading →

English summary: This book integrates the problem of violence in societies in a larger historical and social science context, showing how economic and political behaviour are closely linked. Most societies limit violence by political manipulation of the economy to create privileged interests. Privileges limit the use of violence by powerful individuals, but hinder both economic and political development of such natural states . In contrast, modern societies are characterized by open access to economic and political organizations, thereby fostering political and economic competition (democracy and markets) and general development. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast provide a framework for understanding the two types of orders and show in which ways a number of countries have achieved the transition between them. German description: Alle Gesellschaften mussen sich mit der Moglichkeit wie der Realitat von Gewalt auseinandersetzen; sie tun das auf unterschiedliche Art. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis und Barry R. Weingast stellen das Problem der Gewalt in einen grosseren sozialwissenschaftlichen und historischen Zusammenhang und zeigen, wie eng wirtschaftliches und politisches Verhalten verbunden sind. Die meisten aus der Geschichte bekannten Gesellschaften, von den Autoren als naturliche Staaten bezeichnet, begrenzen Gewaltanwendung vorbeugend, indem sie durch politische Einflussnahme auf die Wirtschaftstatigkeit privilegierte Interessen schaffen. Diese Privilegien reduzieren den Einsatz von Gewalt von Seiten machtiger Einzelner; es wird auf diese Weise jedoch die wirtschaftliche ebenso wie die politische Entwicklung solcher Staaten behindert. Denn fur die grosse Mehrheit der Nicht-Privilegierten ist der Zugang zu Politik und Wirtschaft dadurch beschrankt.Im Unterschied hierzu schaffen moderne Gesellschaften Zugangsfreiheit zu wirtschaftlichen und politischen Organisationen (Unternehmen, Markten, Parlamenten, hoheitlichen Einrichtungen) und fordern damit den politischen wie den wirtschaftlichen Wettbewerb und somit die gesellschaftliche Entwicklung. Das Buch bietet ein gedankliches Gerust zum Verstandnis der zwei Typen von Gesellschaftsordnungen, die es an historischen Beispielen von der romischen Antike bis ins 19. Jahrhundert veranschaulicht. Anhand dieses Konzepts wird erklart, wieso Gesellschaften mit Zugangsfreiheit sowohl politisch wie wirtschaftlich hoher entwickelt sind und auf welche Weise seit dem 19. Jahrhundert rund 25 Lander den Ubergang vom einen Typus zum anderen geschafft haben.

The Long Process of Development


Author: Jerry F. Hough,Robin Grier
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107670411
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 460
View: 8143

Continue Reading →

This groundbreaking book examines the history of Spain, England, the United States, and Mexico to explain why development takes centuries.

Working with the Grain

Integrating Governance and Growth in Development Strategies
Author: Brian Levy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190206861
Category: Political Science
Page: 272
View: 477

Continue Reading →

The development discourse has long been dominated by best practices prescriptions for reform, but these are not a useful way of responding to the governance ambiguities of the early 21st century. Working with the Grain draws on both innovative scholarship and Brian Levy's quarter century of experience at the World Bank to lay out an alternative-a practical, analytically grounded, "with-the-grain" approach to reducing poverty and addressing weaknesses in governance. Best practice prescriptions confuse the goals of development with the journey of getting from here to there. A strong rule of law, capable and accountable governments, and a flexible, level playing field business environment are indeed desirable end points. But the ability to describe well-governed states does not conjure them into existence. If the only available actions are all or nothing, then efforts at change will almost certainly fall short, leading to disillusion and despair. By contrast, this book takes as its point of departure the realities of a country's economy, polity and society, and directs attention towards the challenges of initiating and sustaining forward development momentum. The book: -- distinguishes among four broad groups of countries, according to whether polities are dominant or competitive, and whether institutions are personalized or impersonal -- identifies alternative options for governance and policy reform-top down options which endeavor to strengthen formal institutions, and options supporting the emergence of "islands of effectiveness" -- explores how to identify entry points for change where there is a good fit between divergent country contexts and alternative options for reform. Sometimes the binding constraint to forward movement can be institutional, making governance reform the priority; at other times, the priority can better be on inclusive growth. Taking the decade-or-so time horizon of practitioners, the aim is to nudge things along-seeking gains that initially may seem quite modest but sometimes can give rise to a cascading sequence of change for the better.

Shadows of War

Violence, Power, and International Profiteering in the Twenty-first Century
Author: Carolyn Nordstrom
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520239777
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 293
View: 5574

Continue Reading →

Annotation This book captures the human face of the frontlines, revealing both the visible and the hidden realities of contemporary war, power, and international profiteering in the 21st century.

The Middle East, 13th Edition


Author: Ellen Lust
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 145224149X
Category: History
Page: 1032
View: 4194

Continue Reading →

Lust and her outstanding contributors have fully revised the text to take into account the watershed events that have taken place in the Middle East since the 2011 uprisings. The book also adds important coverage with a new thematic chapter on religion, society, and politics in the region, which examines the role of both Islam and Judaism. New to this edition: - Every chapter has been thoroughly revised to cover all of the major changes in the region since the uprisings of 2011 - The Overview section now contains a chapter on religion, society, and politics in the Middle East that examines the role of both Islam and Judaism - Expanded coverage of the role of social movements and activism in the chapter, Actors and Public Opinion. - Country chapters have been revised to more explicitly address religion, society and politics - In light of user feedback, the thematic chapters have been reordered to fit more naturally with teaching progression preferred by most faculty

Liberalization in the Developing World

Institutional and Economic Changes in Latin America, Africa and Asia
Author: Alex E. Fernandez Jilberto,Andre Mommen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113482582X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 336
View: 5715

Continue Reading →

Liberalization in the Developing World compares the success of liberalization strategies in Asia, Africa and Latin America over the past decade. Three models emerge, corresponding to the three continents covered, which reflect the degree of state intervention in the economy and the success of the liberalization policies adopted. The conclusions drawn demonstrate that economic and political liberalization do not have to go hand in hand. On the contrary, the case studies presented in this volume show that the role of the state can be crucial in mobilizing both the human and capital investment needed to be able to compete in international economy.

State of the World 2005

Redefining Global Security
Author: The Worldwatch Institute
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610916344
Category: Nature
Page: 258
View: 3905

Continue Reading →

In State of the World 2005, Worldwatch researchers explore underlying sources of global insecurity including poverty, infectious disease, environmental degradation, and rising competition over oil and other resources. Find out why terrorism is just symptomatic of a far broader set of complex problems that require more than a military response.

Edinburgh Companion to the History of Democracy


Author: Benjamin Isakhan
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748653686
Category: History
Page: 384
View: 5332

Continue Reading →

Re-examines the long and complex history of democracy and broadens the traditional view of this history by complementing it with examples from unexplored or under-examined quarters.

After the Uprisings

Political Transition in Tunisia, Libya and Yemen
Author: Anthony Dworkin,William Lawrence,Stefan Wolff
Publisher: World Politics Review
ISBN: 1939907179
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 4862

Continue Reading →

Against the backdrop of the recent military coup in Egypt and the ongoing civil war in Syria, the initial euphoria of the Arab Spring has long since faded. But the political transitions in Tunisia, Libya and Yemen, though fragile, continue to offer hope for stable outcomes. Anthony Dworkin explains why Tunisia's transition has kept from derailing--so far. William Lawrence argues that our failure to recognize Libya's specificities has kept us from understanding its post-revolutionary trajectory. And Stefan Wolff examines what's at stake in Yemen's ongoing National Dialogue Conference.

A Companion to Moral Anthropology


Author: Didier Fassin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118290585
Category: Social Science
Page: 664
View: 2126

Continue Reading →

A Companion to Moral Anthropology is the first collective consideration of the anthropological dimensions of morals, morality, and ethics. Original essays by international experts explore the various currents, approaches, and issues in this important new discipline, examining topics such as the ethnography of moralities, the study of moral subjectivities, and the exploration of moral economies. Investigates the central legacies of moral anthropology, the formation of moral facts and values, the context of local moralities, and the frontiers between moralities, politics, humanitarianism Features contributions from pioneers in the field of moral anthropology, as well as international experts in related fields such as moral philosophy, moral psychology, evolutionary biology and neuroethics

Epistemologies of African Conflicts

Violence, Evolutionism, and the War in Sierra Leone
Author: Z. Wai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137280808
Category: Political Science
Page: 263
View: 1047

Continue Reading →

This book offers a bold, ground-breaking epistemological critique of the dominant discourses on African conflicts. Based on a painstaking study of the ways in which the Sierra Leone civil war has been interpreted, it considers how Africa is constructed as a site of knowledge and the implications that this has for the continent and its people.

Violence in Southern Africa


Author: William Gutteridge,J.E. Spence
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135244308
Category: Political Science
Page: 184
View: 3311

Continue Reading →

Violence in southern Africa has occurred in a variety of modes including ethnic confrontation, liberation struggles and cross-border aggression and crime. This volume examines the degree to which violence however defined has influenced political change across the region. The contributions include analyses of the ramifications of violent disorder in Angola and Mozambique, the impact on the political economy of both states and the prospects for lasting peace following the end of civil war.

The Globalization of Political Violence

Globalization's Shadow
Author: Richard Devetak,Christopher W. Hughes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134094965
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 710

Continue Reading →

The events of the 11th of September 2001 revealed most dramatically that globalization has a shadow. While large sections of the world’s population enjoy the perceived benefits of globalization, others seek to utilize globalization for their own politically violent purposes. If 9/11 demonstrated anything, it is that globalization can as readily facilitate violence and insecurity as it can produce stability, prosperity and political order. This edited volume offers important new methodological and multi-disciplinary insights into the study of globalization and political violence. It brings together studies from various disciplines in order to address the precise nature of the relationship between globalization and political violence as it seeks to offer new theoretical and empirical understandings of the types of actors involved in political violence, either as perpetrators or victims. Examples of the studies include the changing character of state militaries and state-to-state conflict under globalization, the emergence of ‘new wars’ fuelled by globalization, the role of state militaries in intervention, new forms of violence directed by states against refugees and anti-globalization protesters, the role of terrorist actors post-9/11, networks for the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the rise of private military firms amongst others. The Globalization of Political Violence will be of interest to students and researchers of politics, international relations, security studies and international political economy.

Corruption and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding

Selling the Peace?
Author: Dominik Zaum,Christine Cheng
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136635912
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 3863

Continue Reading →

This edited volume explores and evaluates the roles of corruption in post-conflict peacebuilding. The problem of corruption has become increasingly important in war to peace transitions, eroding confidence in new democratic institutions, undermining economic development, diverting scarce public resources, and reducing the delivery of vital social services. Conflict-affected countries offer an ideal environment for pervasive corruption. Their weak administrative institutions and fragile legal and judicial systems mean that they lack the capacity to effectively investigate and punish corrupt behaviour. In addition, the sudden inflow of donor aid into post-conflict countries and the desire of peacebuilding actors (including the UN, the international financial institutions, aid agencies, and non-governmental organisations) to disburse these funds quickly, create incentives and opportunities for corruption. While corruption imposes costs and compromises on peacebuilding efforts, opportunities for exploiting public office can also be used to entice armed groups into signing peace agreements, thus stabilising post-war environments. This book explores the different functions of corruption both conceptually and through the lens of a wide range of case studies. It also examines the impact of key anti-corruption policies on peacebuilding environments. The dynamics that shape the relationship between corruption and the political and economic developments in post-conflict countries are complex. This analysis highlights that fighting corruption is only one of several important peacebuilding objectives, and that due consideration must be given to the specific social and political context in considering how a sustainable peace can be achieved. This book will be of great interest to students of peacekeeping and peacebuilding, criminology, political economy, war and conflict studies, international security and IR.

Reconfiguring East Asia

Regional Institutions and Organizations After the Crisis
Author: Mark Beeson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136856145
Category: Social Science
Page: 288
View: 8934

Continue Reading →

Focuses both on specific regional organizations like ASEAN, The Asian Development Bank and APEC, as well as on key institutions such as East Asian legal systems, the media, organized labour, Asian business systems, and the developmental state.

Social Change, Gender and Violence

Post-communist and war affected societies
Author: V. Nikolic-Ristanovic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940159872X
Category: Social Science
Page: 196
View: 2333

Continue Reading →

Based on large research material collected in Hungary, Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria Social change, Gender and Violence is the book which explores the impact of transition from communism and war on everyday life of women and men, as well as the way how everyday life and gender related changes affect women's vulnerability to domestic violence and trafficking in women. The book also explores the impact of micro level changes on development of civil society, women's movement, and legal and policy changes regarding violence against women. This is a unique book, which tries to look at violence against women as connected to oppression of both women and men. It argues that violence against women in post-communist and war affected societies is significantly connected to the increase of social stratification, economic hardship, unemployment, instability, uncertainty and related social stresses, changes in gender identity and structural inequalities brought by new world order. Using largely accounts of more than hundred interviewed people, the author shows vividly how, in post-communist societies, the contradictions of capitalism are interlaced with the mostly negative relics of communism. Moreover, the book shows how contradictory processes in post-communist societies have led to a rather paradoxical result: political pluralism and a capitalist economic system generated both violence against women and a women's movement, albeit not the conditions for a reduction of violence.

Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect

From Words to Deeds
Author: Alex J. Bellamy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136868631
Category: History
Page: 256
View: 2006

Continue Reading →

This book provides an in-depth introduction to, and analysis of, the issues relating to the implementation of the recent Responsibility to Protect principle in international relations The Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) has come a long way in a short space of time. It was endorsed by the General Assembly of the UN in 2005, and unanimously reaffirmed by the Security Council in 2006 (Resolution 1674) and 2009 (Resolution 1894). UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has identified the challenge of implementing RtoP as one of the cornerstones of his Secretary-Generalship. The principle has also become part of the working language of international engagement with humanitarian crises and has been debated in relation to almost every recent international crisis – including Sudan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Georgia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Darfur and Somalia. Concentrating mainly on implementation challenges including the prevention of genocide and mass atrocities, strengthening the UN’s capacity to respond, and the role of regional organizations, this book introducing readers to contemporary debates on R2P and provides the first book-length analysis of the implementation agenda. The book will be of great interest to students of the responsibility to protect, humanitarian intervention, human rights, foreign policy, security studies and IR and politics in general.