In the Shadow of Violence

Politics, Economics, and the Problems of Development
Author: Douglass C. North,John Joseph Wallis,Steven B. Webb,Barry R. Weingast
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107014212
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 366
View: 2681

Continue Reading →

This book explains how political control of economic privileges is used to limit violence and coordinate coalitions of powerful organizations.

Gewalt und Gesellschaftsordnungen

eine Neudeutung der Staats- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte
Author: Douglass Cecil North,John Joseph Wallis,Barry R. Weingast
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161505904
Category: Political Science
Page: 326
View: 5160

Continue Reading →

English summary: This book integrates the problem of violence in societies in a larger historical and social science context, showing how economic and political behaviour are closely linked. Most societies limit violence by political manipulation of the economy to create privileged interests. Privileges limit the use of violence by powerful individuals, but hinder both economic and political development of such natural states . In contrast, modern societies are characterized by open access to economic and political organizations, thereby fostering political and economic competition (democracy and markets) and general development. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast provide a framework for understanding the two types of orders and show in which ways a number of countries have achieved the transition between them. German description: Alle Gesellschaften mussen sich mit der Moglichkeit wie der Realitat von Gewalt auseinandersetzen; sie tun das auf unterschiedliche Art. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis und Barry R. Weingast stellen das Problem der Gewalt in einen grosseren sozialwissenschaftlichen und historischen Zusammenhang und zeigen, wie eng wirtschaftliches und politisches Verhalten verbunden sind. Die meisten aus der Geschichte bekannten Gesellschaften, von den Autoren als naturliche Staaten bezeichnet, begrenzen Gewaltanwendung vorbeugend, indem sie durch politische Einflussnahme auf die Wirtschaftstatigkeit privilegierte Interessen schaffen. Diese Privilegien reduzieren den Einsatz von Gewalt von Seiten machtiger Einzelner; es wird auf diese Weise jedoch die wirtschaftliche ebenso wie die politische Entwicklung solcher Staaten behindert. Denn fur die grosse Mehrheit der Nicht-Privilegierten ist der Zugang zu Politik und Wirtschaft dadurch beschrankt.Im Unterschied hierzu schaffen moderne Gesellschaften Zugangsfreiheit zu wirtschaftlichen und politischen Organisationen (Unternehmen, Markten, Parlamenten, hoheitlichen Einrichtungen) und fordern damit den politischen wie den wirtschaftlichen Wettbewerb und somit die gesellschaftliche Entwicklung. Das Buch bietet ein gedankliches Gerust zum Verstandnis der zwei Typen von Gesellschaftsordnungen, die es an historischen Beispielen von der romischen Antike bis ins 19. Jahrhundert veranschaulicht. Anhand dieses Konzepts wird erklart, wieso Gesellschaften mit Zugangsfreiheit sowohl politisch wie wirtschaftlich hoher entwickelt sind und auf welche Weise seit dem 19. Jahrhundert rund 25 Lander den Ubergang vom einen Typus zum anderen geschafft haben.

The Long Process of Development


Author: Jerry F. Hough,Robin Grier
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107670411
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 460
View: 1804

Continue Reading →

This groundbreaking book examines the history of Spain, England, the United States, and Mexico to explain why development takes centuries.

Working with the Grain

Integrating Governance and Growth in Development Strategies
Author: Brian Levy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190206861
Category: Political Science
Page: 272
View: 4154

Continue Reading →

The development discourse has long been dominated by best practices prescriptions for reform, but these are not a useful way of responding to the governance ambiguities of the early 21st century. Working with the Grain draws on both innovative scholarship and Brian Levy's quarter century of experience at the World Bank to lay out an alternative-a practical, analytically grounded, "with-the-grain" approach to reducing poverty and addressing weaknesses in governance. Best practice prescriptions confuse the goals of development with the journey of getting from here to there. A strong rule of law, capable and accountable governments, and a flexible, level playing field business environment are indeed desirable end points. But the ability to describe well-governed states does not conjure them into existence. If the only available actions are all or nothing, then efforts at change will almost certainly fall short, leading to disillusion and despair. By contrast, this book takes as its point of departure the realities of a country's economy, polity and society, and directs attention towards the challenges of initiating and sustaining forward development momentum. The book: -- distinguishes among four broad groups of countries, according to whether polities are dominant or competitive, and whether institutions are personalized or impersonal -- identifies alternative options for governance and policy reform-top down options which endeavor to strengthen formal institutions, and options supporting the emergence of "islands of effectiveness" -- explores how to identify entry points for change where there is a good fit between divergent country contexts and alternative options for reform. Sometimes the binding constraint to forward movement can be institutional, making governance reform the priority; at other times, the priority can better be on inclusive growth. Taking the decade-or-so time horizon of practitioners, the aim is to nudge things along-seeking gains that initially may seem quite modest but sometimes can give rise to a cascading sequence of change for the better.

Shadows of War

Violence, Power, and International Profiteering in the Twenty-First Century
Author: Carolyn Nordstrom
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520938120
Category: Social Science
Page: 306
View: 5014

Continue Reading →

In this provocative and compelling examination of the deep politics of war, Carolyn Nordstrom takes us from the immediacy of war-zone survival, through the offices of power brokers, to vast extra-legal networks that fuel war and international profiteering. She captures the human face of the front lines, revealing both the visible and the hidden realities of war in the twenty-first century. Shadows of War is grounded in ethnographic research carried out at the epicenters of political violence on several continents. Its pages are populated not only with the perpetrators and victims of war but also with the scoundrels, silent heroes, and average families who live their lives in the midst of explosive violence. War reconfigures our most basic notions of humanity, Nordstrom demonstrates. This book, of crucial importance at the present moment, shows that war is enmeshed in struggles over the very foundations of the sovereign state, the crafting of economic empires both legal and illegal, and innovative searches for peace. Nordstrom describes the multi-trillion-dollar international financial networks that support warfare. She traces the entangled routes by which illegal drugs, precious gems, weapons, basic food supplies, and pharmaceuticals are moved by an international cast of businesspeople, profiteers, and black-market operators. Shadows of War demonstrates how the experiences of both the architects of war and of ordinary people are deleted from media accounts and replaced with stories about soldiers, weapons, and territory. For the first time, this book retrieves from the shadows the faces of those whose stories seldom reach the light of international recognition.

Russian Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century and the Shadow of the Past


Author: Robert Legvold
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231512176
Category: Political Science
Page: 544
View: 7946

Continue Reading →

Because the turbulent trajectory of Russia's foreign policy since the collapse of the Soviet Union echoes previous moments of social and political transformation, history offers a special vantage point from which to judge the current course of events. In this book, a mix of leading historians and political scientists examines the foreign policy of contemporary Russia over four centuries of history. The authors explain the impact of empire and its loss, the interweaving of domestic and foreign impulses, long-standing approaches to national security, and the effect of globalization over time. Contributors focus on the underlying patterns that have marked Russian foreign policy and that persist today. These patterns are driven by the country's political makeup, geographical circumstances, economic strivings, unsettled position in the larger international setting, and, above all, its tortured effort to resolve issues of national identity. The argument here is not that the Russia of Putin and his successors must remain trapped by these historical patterns but that history allows for an assessment of how much or how little has changed in Russia's approach to the outside world and creates a foundation for identifying what must change if Russia is to evolve. A truly unique collection, this volume utilizes history to shed crucial light on Russia's complex, occasionally inscrutable relationship with the world. In so doing, it raises the broader issue of the relationship of history to the study of contemporary foreign policy and how these two enterprises might be better joined.

After the Uprisings

Political Transition in Tunisia, Libya and Yemen
Author: Anthony Dworkin,William Lawrence,Stefan Wolff
Publisher: World Politics Review
ISBN: 1939907179
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 2072

Continue Reading →

Against the backdrop of the recent military coup in Egypt and the ongoing civil war in Syria, the initial euphoria of the Arab Spring has long since faded. But the political transitions in Tunisia, Libya and Yemen, though fragile, continue to offer hope for stable outcomes. Anthony Dworkin explains why Tunisia's transition has kept from derailing--so far. William Lawrence argues that our failure to recognize Libya's specificities has kept us from understanding its post-revolutionary trajectory. And Stefan Wolff examines what's at stake in Yemen's ongoing National Dialogue Conference.

The End of the Old Regime in Europe, 1776-1789, Part I

The Great States of the West
Author: Franco Venturi
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140086190X
Category: History
Page: 476
View: 5820

Continue Reading →

Franco Venturi, premier European interpreter of the Enlightenment, is still completing his acclaimed multivolume work Settecento Riformatore, a grand synthesis of Western history before the French Revolution as seen through the perceptive eyes of Italian observers. Princeton University Press has already published R. Burr Litchfield's English translation of the third volume of Settecento Riformatore, The End of the Old Regime in Europe, 1768-1776: The First Crisis. Now the story continues with The End of the Old Regime in Europe, 1776-1789, translated from Volume IV of Venturi's work. The earlier volume dealt with European and Italian public opinion through the important decade that ended with the American Declaration of Independence. Part I of this new double volume traces the development of politics and opinion in the final crisis of the Old Regime in the great states of Western Europe--Great Britain, Spain, France, and Portugal. The second part extends the narrative to Eastern Europe. It discusses the growing movement of republican patriotism and the attempt to reform the Hapsburg, Russian, and Ottoman Empires. As previously, this historical drama is viewed through Italian publishing and journalism that observed a cosmopolitan world from Turin, Venice, Milan, Florence, Rome, and Naples and that intelligently interpreted it. Originally published in 1991. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Violence in Southern Africa


Author: William Gutteridge,J.E. Spence
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135244308
Category: Political Science
Page: 184
View: 3678

Continue Reading →

Violence in southern Africa has occurred in a variety of modes including ethnic confrontation, liberation struggles and cross-border aggression and crime. This volume examines the degree to which violence however defined has influenced political change across the region. The contributions include analyses of the ramifications of violent disorder in Angola and Mozambique, the impact on the political economy of both states and the prospects for lasting peace following the end of civil war.

The Globalization of Political Violence

Globalization's Shadow
Author: Richard Devetak,Christopher W. Hughes
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134094965
Category: Political Science
Page: 312
View: 9629

Continue Reading →

The events of the 11th of September 2001 revealed most dramatically that globalization has a shadow. While large sections of the world’s population enjoy the perceived benefits of globalization, others seek to utilize globalization for their own politically violent purposes. If 9/11 demonstrated anything, it is that globalization can as readily facilitate violence and insecurity as it can produce stability, prosperity and political order. This edited volume offers important new methodological and multi-disciplinary insights into the study of globalization and political violence. It brings together studies from various disciplines in order to address the precise nature of the relationship between globalization and political violence as it seeks to offer new theoretical and empirical understandings of the types of actors involved in political violence, either as perpetrators or victims. Examples of the studies include the changing character of state militaries and state-to-state conflict under globalization, the emergence of ‘new wars’ fuelled by globalization, the role of state militaries in intervention, new forms of violence directed by states against refugees and anti-globalization protesters, the role of terrorist actors post-9/11, networks for the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the rise of private military firms amongst others. The Globalization of Political Violence will be of interest to students and researchers of politics, international relations, security studies and international political economy.

Corruption and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding

Selling the Peace?
Author: Dominik Zaum,Christine Cheng
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136635912
Category: Political Science
Page: 302
View: 1038

Continue Reading →

This edited volume explores and evaluates the roles of corruption in post-conflict peacebuilding. The problem of corruption has become increasingly important in war to peace transitions, eroding confidence in new democratic institutions, undermining economic development, diverting scarce public resources, and reducing the delivery of vital social services. Conflict-affected countries offer an ideal environment for pervasive corruption. Their weak administrative institutions and fragile legal and judicial systems mean that they lack the capacity to effectively investigate and punish corrupt behaviour. In addition, the sudden inflow of donor aid into post-conflict countries and the desire of peacebuilding actors (including the UN, the international financial institutions, aid agencies, and non-governmental organisations) to disburse these funds quickly, create incentives and opportunities for corruption. While corruption imposes costs and compromises on peacebuilding efforts, opportunities for exploiting public office can also be used to entice armed groups into signing peace agreements, thus stabilising post-war environments. This book explores the different functions of corruption both conceptually and through the lens of a wide range of case studies. It also examines the impact of key anti-corruption policies on peacebuilding environments. The dynamics that shape the relationship between corruption and the political and economic developments in post-conflict countries are complex. This analysis highlights that fighting corruption is only one of several important peacebuilding objectives, and that due consideration must be given to the specific social and political context in considering how a sustainable peace can be achieved. This book will be of great interest to students of peacekeeping and peacebuilding, criminology, political economy, war and conflict studies, international security and IR.

The Social Evolution of Indonesia

The Asiatic Mode of Production and Its Legacy
Author: F. Tichelman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400988966
Category: History
Page: 314
View: 2060

Continue Reading →

At a fairly early stage of socialism's penetration into the Afro-Asian world, a handful of European social democrats established an Indian Social-Democratic Association (lSDV). They did so in a country, Indonesia, that was economically little developed and far away from any of the centres of European socialism and Asiatic radical-national ism. The ISDV was soon able to bring its influence to bear on sec tions of the urban proletariat and to build up an Indonesian revol utionary movement. This occurred in sharp competition with a nascent nationalist leadership, and then without the usual inter mediary role played by radicalizing groups of native intelligentsia. In this way, Dutch social democrats laid the foundations for one of the first communist parties in Asia and Africa, a party which was des tined to become one of the few communist mass parties of the Third World. However, in contrast to the major communist movements of China-Vietnam, this Indonesian party was to demonstrate a basic weakness: successive and catastrophic defeats. ! If we leave out Japan, the only non-Western country where a capi talist industrial revolution occurred, we see that foreign and particu larly Western minorities frequently did playa dominant role in the initial and formative phases of the socialist and workers' movements of the Afro-Asiatic world.

Epistemologies of African Conflicts

Violence, Evolutionism, and the War in Sierra Leone
Author: Z. Wai
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137280808
Category: Political Science
Page: 263
View: 1524

Continue Reading →

This book offers a bold, ground-breaking epistemological critique of the dominant discourses on African conflicts. Based on a painstaking study of the ways in which the Sierra Leone civil war has been interpreted, it considers how Africa is constructed as a site of knowledge and the implications that this has for the continent and its people.

Social Change, Gender and Violence

Post-communist and war affected societies
Author: V. Nikolic-Ristanovic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940159872X
Category: Social Science
Page: 196
View: 1046

Continue Reading →

Based on large research material collected in Hungary, Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria Social change, Gender and Violence is the book which explores the impact of transition from communism and war on everyday life of women and men, as well as the way how everyday life and gender related changes affect women's vulnerability to domestic violence and trafficking in women. The book also explores the impact of micro level changes on development of civil society, women's movement, and legal and policy changes regarding violence against women. This is a unique book, which tries to look at violence against women as connected to oppression of both women and men. It argues that violence against women in post-communist and war affected societies is significantly connected to the increase of social stratification, economic hardship, unemployment, instability, uncertainty and related social stresses, changes in gender identity and structural inequalities brought by new world order. Using largely accounts of more than hundred interviewed people, the author shows vividly how, in post-communist societies, the contradictions of capitalism are interlaced with the mostly negative relics of communism. Moreover, the book shows how contradictory processes in post-communist societies have led to a rather paradoxical result: political pluralism and a capitalist economic system generated both violence against women and a women's movement, albeit not the conditions for a reduction of violence.

The Democratisation of China


Author: Baogang He
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134754566
Category: Political Science
Page: 310
View: 3641

Continue Reading →

The events of 1989, culminating in Tiananmen Square, highlighted the extent to which democratic ideals had taken root in China. Baogang He traces and evaluates the political discourse of democracy in contemporary China, identifying the three main competing models of democratization that dominate current Chinese intellectual trends. Analyzing the political implications of these models the author considers how the theories may be put into practice in order to develop an appropriately Chinese conception of democracy.

Wie Demokratien sterben

Und was wir dagegen tun können
Author: Steven Levitsky,Daniel Ziblatt
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 3641222915
Category: Political Science
Page: 320
View: 1251

Continue Reading →

Ausgezeichnet mit dem NDR Kultur Sachbuchpreis 2018 als bestes Sachbuch des Jahres Demokratien sterben mit einem Knall oder mit einem Wimmern. Der Knall, also das oft gewaltsame Ende einer Demokratie durch einen Putsch, einen Krieg oder eine Revolution, ist spektakulärer. Doch das Dahinsiechen einer Demokratie, das Sterben mit einem Wimmern, ist alltäglicher – und gefährlicher, weil die Bürger meist erst aufwachen, wenn es zu spät ist. Mit Blick auf die USA, Lateinamerika und Europa zeigen die beiden Politologen Steven Levitsky und Daniel Ziblatt, woran wir erkennen, dass demokratische Institutionen und Prozesse ausgehöhlt werden. Und sie sagen, an welchen Punkten wir eingreifen können, um diese Entwicklung zu stoppen. Denn mit gezielter Gegenwehr lässt sich die Demokratie retten – auch vom Sterbebett.

Marxist Criticism of the Hebrew Bible: Second Edition


Author: Roland Boer
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 0567497852
Category: Religion
Page: 320
View: 8098

Continue Reading →

The only large-scale critical introduction to Western Marxism for biblical criticism. Roland Boer introduces the core concepts of major figures in the tradition, specifically Althusser, Gramsci, Deleuze and Guattari, Eagleton, Lefebvre, Lukács, Adorno, Bloch, Negri, Jameson, and Jameson. Throughout, Boer shows how Marxist criticism is relevant to biblical criticism, in terms of approaches to the Bible and in the use of those approaches in the interpretation of specific texts. In this second edition, Boer has added chapters on Deleuze and Guattari, and Negri. Each chapter has been carefully revised to make the book more useful on courses, while maintaining challenges and insights for postgraduate students and scholars. Theoretical material has been updated and sharpened in light of subsequent research and a revised conclusion considers the economies of the ancient world in relation to biblical societies.