Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones

A Manual
Author: April M. Beisaw
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 1623490820
Category: Social Science
Page: 192
View: 8060

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Offering a field-tested analytic method for identifying faunal remains, along with helpful references, images, and examples of the most commonly encountered North American species, Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones: A Manual provides an important new reference for students, avocational archaeologists, and even naturalists and wildlife enthusiasts. Using the basic principles outlined here, the bones of any vertebrate animal, including humans, can be identified and their relevance to common research questions can be better understood. Because the interpretation of archaeological sites depends heavily on the analysis of surrounding materials—soils, artifacts, and floral and faunal remains—it is important that non-human remains be correctly distinguished from human bones, that distinctions between domesticated and wild or feral animals be made correctly, and that evidence of the reasons for faunal remains in the site be recognized. But the ability to identify and analyze animal bones is a skill that is not easy to learn from a traditional textbook. In Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones, veteran archaeologist and educator April Beisaw guides readers through the stages of identification and analysis with sample images and data, also illustrating how specialists make analytical decisions that allow for the identification of the smallest fragments of bone. Extensive additional illustrative material, from the author’s own collected assemblages and from those in the Archaeological Analytical Research Facility at Binghamton University in New York, are also available in the book’s online supplement. There, readers can view and interact with images to further understanding of the principles explained in the text.

The Archaeology of Animal Bones


Author: Terence Patrick O'Connor,Terry O'Connor
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781603440844
Category: Social Science
Page: 206
View: 3862

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Animal ecologists can observe the present and reconstruct the last one or two centuries from historical sources, but the study of animal bones adds valuable insight into the peoples and landscapes of the past while telling much about the evolution of human-animal relationships. In this standard work, now available in paperback, O’Connor offers a detailed overview of the study of animal bones. He analyzes bone composition and structure and the archaeological evidence left by the processes of life, death, and decomposition. He goes on to look at how bone is excavated, examined, described, identified, measured, and reassembled into skeletons. The bulk of the book is devoted to the interpretation of bone fragments, which tell much about the animals themselves—their health, growth, diet, injuries, and age at death.

Zooarchaeology


Author: Elizabeth J. Reitz,Elizabeth S. Wing
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139467743
Category: Social Science
Page: 558
View: 3686

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This is an introductory text for students interested in identification and analysis of animal remains from archaeological sites. The emphasis is on animals whose remains inform us about the relationship between humans and their natural and social environments, especially site formation processes, subsistence strategies, the processes of domestication, and paleoenvironments. Examining examples from all over the world, from the Pleistocene period up to the present, this volume is organized in a way that is parallel to faunal study, beginning with background information, bias in a faunal assemblage, and basic zooarchaeological methods. This revised edition reflects developments in zooarchaeology during the past decade. It includes sections on enamel ultrastructure and incremental analysis, stable isotyopes and trace elements, ancient genetics and enzymes, environmental reconstruction, people as agents of environmental change, applications of zooarchaeology in animal conservation and heritage management, and a discussion of issues pertaining to the curation of archaeofaunal materials.

Animal bones in Australian archaeology

A field guide to common native and introduced species
Author: Melanie Fillios,Natalie Blake
Publisher: Sydney University Press
ISBN: 1743324332
Category: Social Science
Page: 189
View: 488

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Zooarchaeology has emerged as a powerful way of reconstructing the lives of past societies. Through the analysis of animal bones found on a site, zooarchaeologists can uncover important information on the economy, trade, industry, diet, and other fascinating facts about the people who lived there. Animal bones in Australian archaeology is an introductory bone identification manual written for archaeologists working in Australia. This field guide includes 16 species commonly encountered in both Indigenous and historical sites. Using diagrams and flow charts, it walks the reader step-by-step through the bone identification process. Combining practical and academic knowledge, the manual also provides an introductory insight into zooarchaeological methodology and the importance of zooarchaeological research in understanding human behaviour through time.

Bone Collection: Animals


Author: Rob Scott Colson
Publisher: Scholastic
ISBN: 0545585317
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 96
View: 9169

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See what lies beneath an animal's skin! BONE COLLECTION: ANIMALS will feature a wide selection of animal skeletons and informative facts so kids can learn about the anatomy of their favorite animals. Featuring full-color photos and illustrations throughout, it will be just creepy enough to appeal to kids without being scary. From tiny animals like bats to large animals like lions, kids will discover what lies beneath their favorite animal's skin.

The Archaeology of Institutional Life


Author: April M. Beisaw,James G. Gibb
Publisher: University of Alabama Press
ISBN: 0817355162
Category: Social Science
Page: 249
View: 5131

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Institutions pervade social life. They express community goals and values by defining the limits of socially acceptable behavior. Institutions are often vested with the resources, authority, and power to enforce the orthodoxy of their time. But institutions are also arenas in which both orthodoxies and authority can be contested. Between power and opposition lies the individual experience of the institutionalized. Whether in a boarding school, hospital, prison, almshouse, commune, or asylum, their experiences can reflect the positive impact of an institution or its greatest failings. This interplay of orthodoxy, authority, opposition, and individual experience are all expressed in the materiality of institutions and are eminently subject to archaeological investigation. A few archaeological and historical publications, in widely scattered venues, have examined individual institutional sites. Each work focused on the development of a specific establishment within its narrowly defined historical context; e.g., a fort and its role in a particular war, a schoolhouse viewed in terms of the educational history of its region, an asylum or prison seen as an expression of the prevailing attitudes toward the mentally ill and sociopaths. In contrast, this volume brings together twelve contributors whose research on a broad range of social institutions taken in tandem now illuminates the experience of these institutions. Rather than a culmination of research on institutions, it is a landmark work that will instigate vigorous and wide-ranging discussions on institutions in Western life, and the power of material culture to both enforce and negate cultural norms.

Shells


Author: Cheryl Claassen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521578523
Category: Science
Page: 266
View: 3276

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This book contains everything students and professional archaeologists could possibly want to know about the practicalities of shell analysis in archaeology, as well as the biology of freshwater and marine molluscs. The author also, however, discusses the potential of this class of evidence to tell us surprising things about seasonal patterns of life, the woods around a long-forgotten burial mound and the swirling patterns of life which circled around the humblest of creatures; the snail.

Quantitative Paleozoology


Author: R. Lee Lyman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139471120
Category: Social Science
Page: N.A
View: 6799

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Quantitative Paleozoology describes and illustrates how the remains of long-dead animals recovered from archaeological and paleontological excavations can be studied and analyzed. The methods range from determining how many animals of each species are represented to determining whether one collection consists of more broken and more burned bones than another. All methods are described and illustrated with data from real collections, while numerous graphs illustrate various quantitative properties.

Race?

Debunking a Scientific Myth
Author: Ian Tattersall,Rob DeSalle
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781603444774
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 7275

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Race has provided the rationale and excuse for some of the worst atrocities in human history. Yet, according to many biologists, physical anthropologists, and geneticists, there is no valid scientific justification for the concept of race. To be more precise, although there is clearly some physical basis for the variations that underlie perceptions of race, clear boundaries among “races” remain highly elusive from a purely biological standpoint. Differences among human populations that people intuitively view as “racial” are not only superficial but are also of astonishingly recent origin. In this intriguing and highly accessible book, physical anthropologist Ian Tattersall and geneticist Rob DeSalle, both senior scholars from the American Museum of Natural History, explain what human races actually are—and are not—and place them within the wider perspective of natural diversity. They explain that the relative isolation of local populations of the newly evolved human species during the last Ice Age—when Homo sapiens was spreading across the world from an African point of origin—has now begun to reverse itself, as differentiated human populations come back into contact and interbreed. Indeed, the authors suggest that all of the variety seen outside of Africa seems to have both accumulated and started reintegrating within only the last 50,000 or 60,000 years—the blink of an eye, from an evolutionary perspective. The overarching message of Race? Debunking a Scientific Myth is that scientifically speaking, there is nothing special about racial variation within the human species. These distinctions result from the working of entirely mundane evolutionary processes, such as those encountered in other organisms.

Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of the Midcontinental and Eastern United States

A Modern Survey and Reference
Author: Noel D. Justice
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 9780253209856
Category: History
Page: 288
View: 8349

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"This is an important new reference work for the professional archaeologist as well as the student and collector." —Central States Archaeological Journal "Justice... admirably synthesizes the scientific information integrating it with the popular approach. The result is a publication that readers on both sides of the spectrum should enjoy as well as comprehend." —Choice "... an indispensable guide to the literature. Attractive layout, design, and printing accent the useful text.... it should remain the standard reference on point typology of the midwest and eastern United States for many years to come." —Pennsylvania Archaeologist Archaeologists and amateur collectors alike will rejoice at this important reference work that surveys, describes, and categorizes the projectile points and cutting tools used in prehistory by the Indians in what are now the middle and eastern sections of the United States, from 12,000 B.C. to the beginning of the historic period. Mr. Justice describes over 120 separate types of stone arrowheads and spear points according to period, culture, and region. His detailed drawings show how Native Americans shaped their tools, what styles were peculiar to which regions, and how the various types can best be identified. There are over 485 drawings organized by type cluster and other identifying characteristics. The work also includes distribution maps and 111 examples in color.

The Osteology of Infants and Children


Author: Brenda J. Baker,Tosha L. Dupras,Matthew W. Tocheri
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585444656
Category: Social Science
Page: 188
View: 8172

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Most archaeologists and bioarchaeologists receive little or no training in the recognition of skeletal remains of fetuses, infants, and children. Yet many research sites may contain such materials. Without a framework for identifying the bones or the excavation techniques suited to their recovery, archaeologists may often overlook subadult skeletal remains or even confuse them with animal bones. The Osteology of Infants and Children fills the need for a field and lab manual on this important topic and provides a supplemental textbook for human osteology courses. Focusing on juvenile skeletons, their recovery and identification, and siding in both field and lab settings, the volume provides basic descriptions and careful illustrations of each skeletal element at varying stages of development, along with sections on differentiation from other bones and siding tips. The book offers detailed treatment of the skull and teeth, including the cranial vault and facial bones, and examines the infracranial skeleton: vertebrae, pelvis, chest, shoulders, arms, hands, legs, and feet. A quick reference guide explains age estimation and identification templates. The illustrations are enhanced by photographs from two recent archaeology projects in Egypt, at Abydos and Dakhleh Oasis. The extensive collection of fetal and child remains from these sites provides new reference material unavailable in previous publications, making this manual an unparalleled resource in the field of physical anthropology.

Animal Skulls and Bones

A Waterproof Pocket Guide to the Bones of Common North American Animals
Author: James Kavanagh,Raymond Leung
Publisher: Waterford Press
ISBN: 9781583555583
Category: Nature
Page: N.A
View: 6894

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Indulge your inner explorer and learn where you are likely to find bones and how to identify animals based on their skull and limb shape and size, dental patterns, horns and beaks. This Duraguide� teaches how to identify the skulls and bones of common North American mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes and also features a 20 in. (50 cm) ruler and step-by-step instructions for preparing and preserving specimens. This lightweight, pocket-sized folding guide is an excellent source of portable information and ideal for field use by novices and experts alike.

Mammal Bones and Teeth

An Introductory Guide to Methods of Identification
Author: Simon Hillson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315424991
Category: Social Science
Page: 132
View: 9891

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This guide is designed as an introduction to the basic methods for identifying mammal bones and teeth. It is intended to highlight for beginners the main points on which identifications can be made on the bulk of bones and teeth from a small range of common Old World mammals.

Zooarchaeology and Field Ecology

A Photographic Atlas
Author: Jack M. Broughton,Shawn D. Miller
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9781607814863
Category: HISTORY
Page: N.A
View: 9705

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"The only field guide and laboratory manual to cover both the osteology and the natural history of western North American vertebrates in a single volume This photographic atlas, developed over twenty years of teaching in the field, expedites the work of the zooarchaeologist by integrating both osteology and wildlife ecology into a single volume. Zooarchaeology, the study of animal remains found at archaeological sites, is interdisciplinary in nature, requiring students and researchers to not only master the technical skills of identifying fragmentary bones and teeth but also to develop a deep understanding of the taxonomy, natural history, behavior, and ecology of the species identified. Until now, these topics have always been treated separately. This book is the only field guide and laboratory manual to combine animal ecology and natural history with the detailed osteology of all the vertebrate classes (fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals) and all the primary orders native to western North America. Skeletal images are shown at a variety of magnifications and views and are accompanied by photographs of the animals in their characteristic habitats"--

Bone Collection: Skulls


Author: Rob Scott Colson,Camilla De La Baedoyaere
Publisher: Scholastic Nonfiction
ISBN: 9780545724579
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Page: 96
View: 9333

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Illustrates a variety of vertebrate skulls and provides facts about each animal.

Human and Nonhuman Bone Identification

A Color Atlas
Author: Diane L. France
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420062878
Category: Law
Page: 584
View: 8083

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When a bone of unknown origin is found at a location, forensic implications arise immediately. Is this bone human, and if so, is it evidence of a murder? Human and Non-Human Bone Identification: A Color Atlas presents a comprehensive handbook of photographs and other information essential for law enforcement and forensic anthropologists when examining skeletal remains and determining species and body parts. Presenting over 3000 color photographs, this atlas is a practical comparative guide to the differences among species for nearly all bones in the body. Useful in either the laboratory or the field, it features images of the types of bones that are most commonly discovered, and provides annotations pointing out salient features. The book begins with a section on general osteology and explains the major anatomical differences between humans and other animals. It compares human and non-human bones, categorized by type of bone, and includes most of the major bones in humans and non-humans. The third section discusses non-human skeletal elements, categorized by species, and explores numerous skeletal elements within those species. This book is also available on a fully searchable DVD: Catalog no. 62964 Includes Bones from the Following Species! Moose Elk Deer Bison Cow Antelope Mountain Sheep Domestic Sheep Llama Horse Bear Wolf Coyote Domestic dog Mountain lion Bobcat Raccoon Badger Skunk River Otter Beaver Porcupine Marmot Prairie dog Rabbit Norway rat Squirrel Armadillo Opossum Vampire bat Seal Written by Diane L. France, one of the most respected forensic anthropologists in the world, this supremely organized atlas helps those tasked with bone identification to quickly and efficiently determine the origin of discovered remains and plan the appropriate course of action.

Birds


Author: Dale Serjeantson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521866170
Category: Science
Page: 486
View: 4411

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Birds is the first book to examine bird remains in archaeology and anthropology. Providing a thorough review of the literature on this topic, it also serves as a guide to the methods of study of bird remains from the past and covers a wide range of topics, including anatomy and osteology, taphonomy, eggs, feathers, and, bone tools. Dale Serjeantson is a Research Fellow in Archaeology in the School of Humanities, University of Southampton, UK. She is the co-author, with Alan Cohen, of Manual for the Identification of Bird Bones from Archaeological Sites and has contributed papers on birds and other zooarchaeological topics in journals and popular magazines. She is an Associate Editor of the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology and a member of the Institute of Field Archaeologists, the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, the Association for Environmental Archaeology, and L'homme et l'animal: Societié de recherche interdisciplinaire.

Skulls and Bones

A Guide to the Skeletal Structures and Behavior of North American Mammals
Author: Glenn Searfoss
Publisher: Stackpole Books
ISBN: 9780811725712
Category: Nature
Page: 277
View: 9563

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How to identify mammal bones and comprehend what the structures indicate about each animal's lifestyle.

Applied Zooarchaeology

Five Case Studies
Author: Steve Wolverton,Lisa Ann Nagaoka,Torben C. Rick
Publisher: Eliot Werner Publications
ISBN: 9780989824965
Category: Animal remains (Archaeology)
Page: 130
View: 4222

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During the last two decades, zooarchaeologists have increasingly focused aspects of their work on conservation biology. Zooarchaeological data represent an empirical record of past human-animal interactions, which provides conservation with a deep temporal perspective. There are many challenges that face the archaeologist as conservation biologist, however, that have little to do with deep time, faunal remains, and zooarchaeological method and theory. In this book we use a series of case studies with which each of the authors has relevant personal experience to explore the types of interdisciplinary challenges that zooarchaeologists face when crossing into the world of environmental management and animal conservation. Never has there been a greater need for multi-vocal perspectives in conservation biology. This book shows zooarchaeologists how to use zooarchaeological perspectives to help meet those needs, while crossing traditional academic disciplinary boundaries.