Human Factors in the Health Care Setting

A Pocket Guide for Clinical Instructors
Author: Advanced Life Support Group
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118339681
Category: Medical
Page: 120
View: 7111

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Human factors relates to the interaction of humans and technical systems. Human factors engineering analyzes tasks, considering the components in relation to a number of factors focusing particularly on human interactions and the interface between people working within systems. This book will help instructors teach the topic of human factors.

Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Medical Devices

Proceedings of the AHFE 2017 International Conferences on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Medical Devices, July 17–21, 2017, The Westin Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles, California, USA
Author: Vincent Duffy,Nancy Lightner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331960483X
Category: Computers
Page: 633
View: 4124

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This book discusses the latest advances in human factors and ergonomics, focusing on methods for improving quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness in patient care. By emphasizing the physical, cognitive, and organizational aspects of human factors and ergonomics applications, it presents various perspectives, including those of clinicians, patients, health organizations, and insurance providers. The book describes cutting-edge applications, highlighting best practices for staff interactions with patients, as well as interactions with computers and medical devices. It also presents new findings related to improved organizational outcomes in healthcare settings, and approaches to modeling and analysis specifically targeting those work aspects unique to healthcare. Based on the AHFE 2017 International Conference on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Medical Devices, held on July 17–21, 2017, in Los Angeles, California, USA, the book is intended as a timely reference guide for both researchers involved in the design of healthcare systems and devices and for healthcare professionals working to deliver safe and effective health service. Moreover, by providing a useful survey of cutting-edge methods for improving organizational outcomes in healthcare settings, the book also represents a source of inspiration for healthcare counselors and international health organizations.

Health Care Comes Home

The Human Factors
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Human-Systems Integration,Committee on the Role of Human Factors in Home Health Care
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309212405
Category: Medical
Page: 202
View: 471

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In the United States, health care devices, technologies, and practices are rapidly moving into the home. The factors driving this migration include the costs of health care, the growing numbers of older adults, the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions and diseases and improved survival rates for people with those conditions and diseases, and a wide range of technological innovations. The health care that results varies considerably in its safety, effectiveness, and efficiency, as well as in its quality and cost. Health Care Comes Home reviews the state of current knowledge and practice about many aspects of health care in residential settings and explores the short- and long-term effects of emerging trends and technologies. By evaluating existing systems, the book identifies design problems and imbalances between technological system demands and the capabilities of users. Health Care Comes Home recommends critical steps to improve health care in the home. The book's recommendations cover the regulation of health care technologies, proper training and preparation for people who provide in-home care, and how existing housing can be modified and new accessible housing can be better designed for residential health care. The book also identifies knowledge gaps in the field and how these can be addressed through research and development initiatives. Health Care Comes Home lays the foundation for the integration of human health factors with the design and implementation of home health care devices, technologies, and practices. The book describes ways in which the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and federal housing agencies can collaborate to improve the quality of health care at home. It is also a valuable resource for residential health care providers and caregivers.

Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare

Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA
Author: Vincent G. Duffy,Nancy Lightner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319416529
Category: Computers
Page: 465
View: 3644

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This book discusses the latest advances in human factors and ergonomics, focusing on methods for improving quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness in patient care. By emphasizing the physical, cognitive and organizational aspects of human factors and ergonomics applications, it reports on various perspectives, including those of clinicians, patients, health organizations and insurance providers. The book describes cutting-edge applications, highlighting the best practices of staff interactions with patients, as well as interactions with computers and medical devices. It also presents new findings related to improved organizational outcomes in healthcare settings, and approaches to modeling and analysis specifically targeting those work aspects unique to healthcare. Based on the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare, held on July 27-31, 2016, in Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, the book is intended as timely reference guide for both researchers involved in the design of healthcare systems and devices and healthcare professionals aiming at effective and safe health service delivery. Moreover, by providing a useful survey of cutting-edge methods for improving organizational outcomes in healthcare settings, the book also represents an inspiring reading for healthcare counselors and international health organizations.

Human Factors in Healthcare

Level One
Author: Debbie Rosenorn-Lanng
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191649562
Category: Medical
Page: 224
View: 779

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The majority of errors, litigation, and complaints in the health service are due to 'human factors', yet the term is still not widely understood and is sometimes used interchangeably to refer to team training or communication skills. Although including these, the subject of 'human factors' goes far beyond this to look at systems, environmental influences, and interactions with equipment, in addition to self-awareness and human interaction. All of these aspects are captured in Human Factors in Healthcare and are built into a new framework: the SHEEP model, which breaks down into five key areas: Systems, Human Interaction, Environment, Equipment, and Personal, providing a structured way to focus on adopting 'safety positive' behaviours. Written in a clear and engaging way, the book is ideal for clinicians and non-clinicians alike. Through the use of relevant real world healthcare examples and exercises the book encourages interaction and thinking, as well as illustrating how mistakes can be avoided. The book also sets out ways on how to improve the experience of patients and staff across healthcare, in particular focusing on how to improve patient safety. In light of regular news reports about patient care, Human Factors in Healthcare presents a timely and proactive approach to these issues and is essential reading for doctors, nurses, managers, and everyone working in the healthcare profession.

The Role of Human Factors in Home Health Care:

Workshop Summary
Author: Board on Human-Systems Integration,Committee on the Role of Human Factors in Home Healthcare,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309156297
Category: Medical
Page: 322
View: 7977

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The rapid growth of home health care has raised many unsolved issues and will have consequences that are far too broad for any one group to analyze in their entirety. Yet a major influence on the safety, quality, and effectiveness of home health care will be the set of issues encompassed by the field of human factors research--the discipline of applying what is known about human capabilities and limitations to the design of products, processes, systems, and work environments. To address these challenges, the National Research Council began a multidisciplinary study to examine a diverse range of behavioral and human factors issues resulting from the increasing migration of medical devices, technologies, and care practices into the home. Its goal is to lay the groundwork for a thorough integration of human factors research with the design and implementation of home health care devices, technologies, and practices. On October 1 and 2, 2009, a group of human factors and other experts met to consider a diverse range of behavioral and human factors issues associated with the increasing migration of medical devices, technologies, and care practices into the home. This book is a summary of that workshop, representing the culmination of the first phase of the study.

Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety, Second Edition


Author: Pascale Carayon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439830347
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 876
View: 8500

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The first edition of Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care and Patient Safety took the medical and ergonomics communities by storm with in-depth coverage of human factors and ergonomics research, concepts, theories, models, methods, and interventions and how they can be applied in health care. Other books focus on particular human factors and ergonomics issues such as human error or design of medical devices or a specific application such as emergency medicine. This book draws on both areas to provide a compendium of human factors and ergonomics issues relevant to health care and patient safety. The second edition takes a more practical approach with coverage of methods, interventions, and applications and a greater range of domains such as medication safety, surgery, anesthesia, and infection prevention. New topics include: work schedules error recovery telemedicine workflow analysis simulation health information technology development and design patient safety management Reflecting developments and advances in the five years since the first edition, the book explores medical technology and telemedicine and puts a special emphasis on the contributions of human factors and ergonomics to the improvement of patient safety and quality of care. In order to take patient safety to the next level, collaboration between human factors professionals and health care providers must occur. This book brings both groups closer to achieving that goal.

Crisis Management in Acute Care Settings

Human Factors and Team Psychology in a High-Stakes Environment
Author: Michael St.Pierre,Gesine Hofinger,Robert Simon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319414275
Category: Medical
Page: 430
View: 767

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This book is unique in providing a comprehensive overview of the human factors issues relevant to patient safety during acute care. By elucidating the principles of human behavior and decision-making in critical situations and identifying frequent sources of human error, it will help healthcare professionals provide safer, more effective treatment when dealing with emergencies characterized by uncertainty, high stakes, time pressure, and stress. The third edition has emerged from an ongoing synergistic relationship between clinicians and behavioral scientists on both sides of the Atlantic to update and enhance each chapter -- blending the strengths of the two professions into a readily accessible text. Among other improvements, readers will find sharper articulation of concepts and significantly more information on the organizational impact on individual and team performance. Crisis Management in Acute Care Settings is the required reference for all who are learning about, teaching, or providing acute and emergency healthcare. It will be of high value for undergraduate and graduate medical and nursing program and offer a much-needed resource for those who use high-fidelity healthcare simulation to teach teamwork.

Fieldwork for Healthcare

Case Studies Investigating Human Factors in Computing Systems
Author: Dominic Furniss,Aisling Ann O'Kane,Rebecca Randell,Svetlena Taneva
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627053204
Category: Computers
Page: 129
View: 381

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Performing fieldwork in healthcare settings is significantly different from fieldwork in other domains and it presents unique challenges to researchers. Whilst results are reported in research papers, the details of how to actually perform these fieldwork studies are not. This is the first of two volumes designed as a collective graduate guidebook for conducting fieldwork in healthcare. This volume brings together the experiences of established researchers who do fieldwork in clinical and non-clinical settings, focusing on how people interact with healthcare technology, in the form of case studies. These case studies are all personal, reflective accounts of challenges faced and lessons learned, which future researchers might also learn from. We open with an account of studies in the Operating Room, focusing on the role of the researcher, and how participants engage and resist engaging with the research process. Subsequent case studies address themes in a variety of hospital settings, which highlight the variability that is experienced across study settings and the importance of context in shaping what is possible when conducting research in hospitals. Recognising and dealing with emotions, strategies for gaining access, and data gathering are themes that pervade the studies. Later case studies introduce research involving collaborative design and intervention studies, which seek to have an immediate impact on practice. Mental health is a theme of two intervention studies as we move out of the hospital to engage with vulnerable participants suffering from long-term conditions and people in the home. This volume closes with an intervention study in the developing world that ends with some tips for conducting studies in healthcare. Such tips are synthesised through the thematic chapters presented in the companion volume.

Resilient Health Care, Volume 2

The Resilience of Everyday Clinical Work
Author: Robert L. Wears,Erik Hollnagel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 131706514X
Category: Political Science
Page: 328
View: 8942

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Health systems everywhere are expected to meet increasing public and political demands for accessible, high-quality care. Policy-makers, managers, and clinicians use their best efforts to improve efficiency, safety, quality, and economic viability. One solution has been to mimic approaches that have been shown to work in other domains, such as quality management, lean production, and high reliability. In the enthusiasm for such solutions, scant attention has been paid to the fact that health care as a multifaceted system differs significantly from most traditional industries. Solutions based on linear thinking in engineered systems do not work well in complicated, multi-stakeholder non-engineered systems, of which health care is a leading example. A prerequisite for improving health care and making it more resilient is that the nature of everyday clinical work be well understood. Yet the focus of the majority of policy or management solutions, as well as that of accreditation and regulation, is work as it ought to be (also known as ’work-as-imagined’). The aim of policy-makers and managers, whether the priority is safety, quality, or efficiency, is therefore to make everyday clinical work - or work-as-done - comply with work-as-imagined. This fails to recognise that this normative conception of work is often oversimplified, incomplete, and outdated. There is therefore an urgent need to better understand everyday clinical work as it is done. Despite the common focus on deviations and failures, it is undeniable that clinical work goes right far more often than it goes wrong, and that we only can make it better if we understand how this happens. This second volume of Resilient Health Care continues the line of thinking of the first book, but takes it further through a range of chapters from leading international thinkers on resilience and health care. Where the first book provided the rationale and basic concepts of RHC, the Resilience of Everyday Clinical Work b

Beating Stress in the NHS


Author: Ruth Chambers,Anthony L. Schwartz,Elizabeth Boath
Publisher: Radcliffe Publishing
ISBN: 9781857759273
Category: Job stress
Page: 160
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All pressure is not harmful. A certain amount of pressure can enhance performance. But excessive, unrelenting negative pressure results in individuals experiencing stress. This book focuses on the why, when and how stress occurs from working in the health service, and on advisable approaches to take, from the perspectives of the practitioner, the workplace team, and health care organization.

The Design of Everyday Things

Psychologie und Design der alltäglichen Dinge
Author: Norman Don
Publisher: Vahlen
ISBN: 3800648105
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 320
View: 4456

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Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Beyond the Checklist

What Else Health Care Can Learn from Aviation Teamwork and Safety
Author: Suzanne Gordon,Patrick Mendenhall,Bonnie Blair O'Connor
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801465346
Category: Medical
Page: 272
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The U.S. healthcare system is now spending many millions of dollars to improve "patient safety" and "inter-professional practice." Nevertheless, an estimated 100,000 patients still succumb to preventable medical errors or infections every year. How can health care providers reduce the terrible financial and human toll of medical errors and injuries that harm rather than heal? Beyond the Checklist argues that lives could be saved and patient care enhanced by adapting the relevant lessons of aviation safety and teamwork. In response to a series of human-error caused crashes, the airline industry developed the system of job training and information sharing known as Crew Resource Management (CRM). Under the new industry-wide system of CRM, pilots, flight attendants, and ground crews now communicate and cooperate in ways that have greatly reduced the hazards of commercial air travel. The coauthors of this book sought out the aviation professionals who made this transformation possible. Beyond the Checklist gives us an inside look at CRM training and shows how airline staff interaction that once suffered from the same dysfunction that too often undermines real teamwork in health care today has dramatically improved. Drawing on the experience of doctors, nurses, medical educators, and administrators, this book demonstrates how CRM can be adapted, more widely and effectively, to health care delivery. The authors provide case studies of three institutions that have successfully incorporated CRM-like principles into the fabric of their clinical culture by embracing practices that promote common patient safety knowledge and skills.They infuse this study with their own diverse experience and collaborative spirit: Patrick Mendenhall is a commercial airline pilot who teaches CRM; Suzanne Gordon is a nationally known health care journalist, training consultant, and speaker on issues related to nursing; and Bonnie Blair O'Connor is an ethnographer and medical educator who has spent more than two decades observing medical training and teamwork from the inside.

Human Factors and Ergonomics of Prehospital Emergency Care


Author: Joseph R. Keebler,Elizabeth H. Lazzara,Paul Misasi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315280159
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 262
View: 6466

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This book provides an introduction to the field of human factors for individuals who are involved in the delivery and/or improvement of prehospital emergency care and describes opportunities to advance the practical application of human factors research in this critical domain. Relevant theories of human performance, including systems engineering principles, teamwork, training, and decision making are reviewed in light of the needs of current day prehospital emergency care. The primary focus is to expand awareness human factors and outlay the potential for novel and more effective solutions to the issues facing prehospital care and its practitioners.

Designing Telehealth for an Aging Population

A Human Factors Perspective
Author: Neil Charness,George Demiris,Elizabeth Krupinski
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439825297
Category: Medical
Page: 111
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As simple and straightforward as two health professionals conferring over the telephone or as complex and sophisticated as robotic surgery between facilities at different ends of the globe, telehealth is an increasingly frequent component in healthcare. A primer on the human factors issues that can influence how older adults interact with telehealth systems, Designing Telehealth for an Aging Population: A Human Factors Perspective examines the new ways patients and healthcare providers communicate to achieve the same or better outcomes than with traditional face-to-face healthcare. The authors examine older adult capabilities and provide standards and guidelines for telehealth design, enlivened by clinical examples and tutorials on human factors methodologies. They take a systematic look at how the use of human factors principles can facilitate the successful development, deployment, and maintenance of telehealth technology to better serve the aging population. The authors have carefully stayed away from academic writing, distilling their experience in the form of basic observations and principles drawn from their work. They include suggested readings at the end of each chapter that supply the research underpinning their recommendations. The first reference to cover older adult users in an area that will only get bigger, this book sets itself apart by providing focused coverage of the human factors issues specific to aging populations and practical advice on how to accommodate them.

Space Planning Basics


Author: Mark Karlen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118174348
Category: Architecture
Page: 240
View: 9651

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Space planning involves much more than sketching a preliminary floor plan. A designer must take a client's programming needs into account and must also consider how other factors such as building codes and environmental factors affect a spatial composition. Space Planning Basics, now in its Third Edition, offers a highly visual, step-by-step approach to developing preliminary floor plans for commercial spaces. The book provides tools for visualizing space and walks the designer through other considerations such as building code requirements and environmental control needs. Specific programming techniques covered include matrices, bubble diagrams, CAD templates, block plans, and more. New to this edition are coverage of the basics of stair design, an essential aspect for planning spaces.

Handbook of Human Factors in Medical Device Design


Author: Matthew Bret Weinger,Michael E. Wiklund,Daryle Jean Gardner-Bonneau
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420063516
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 844
View: 9686

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Developed to promote the design of safe, effective, and usable medical devices, Handbook of Human Factors in Medical Device Design provides a single convenient source of authoritative information to support evidence-based design and evaluation of medical device user interfaces using rigorous human factors engineering principles. It offers guidance on user-centric design supported by discussions of design issues, case studies, and examples. The book sets the foundation with coverage of fundamental topics such as aligning the interactive nature of medical devices to the expected use environments ranging from hospitals and ambulances to patients’ homes, drawing on anthropometric and biomechanical data to ensure that designs match the intended users’ bodies and physical abilities, and conducting usability tests and other evaluations to ensure that devices perform as intended. It then focuses on applied design issues, offering guidance on the design of specific types of devices and designing devices for particular use environments. Adapted in part from established design standards and conventions, the design guidance presented in this work distills professional judgment extracted from the contributing authors’ years of experience in applied analysis and design. Written in true handbook style, each chapter stands alone and includes tables, illustrations, and cross references, allowing you to quickly find the exact information you need. Most chapters begin with a general introduction to the selected topic, followed by the presentation of general and special design considerations and then specific, numbered design guidelines. The book also presents a listing of resources, literature, and website references. It not only focuses on the human factors issues that arise when developing medical devices, it supplies the necessary guidance to resolve them.

Cognitive Informatics for Biomedicine

Human Computer Interaction in Healthcare
Author: Vimla L. Patel,Thomas G. Kannampallil,David R. Kaufman
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319172727
Category: Medical
Page: 332
View: 3047

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The book reports on the current state on HCI in biomedicine and health care, focusing on the role of human factors, patient safety well as methodological underpinnings of HCI theories and its application for biomedical informatics. Theories, models and frameworks for human-computer interaction (HCI) have been recognized as key contributors for the design, development and use of computer-based systems. In the clinical domain, key themes that litter the research landscape of health information technology (HIT) are usability, decision support and clinical workflow – all of which are affected directly or indirectly by the nature of HCI. While the implications of HCI principles for the design of HIT are acknowledged, the adoption of the tools and techniques among clinicians, informatics researchers and developers of HIT are limited. There is a general consensus that HIT has not realized its potential as a tool to facilitate clinical decision-making, the coordination of care and improves patient safety. Embracing sound principles of iterative design can yield significant dividends. It can also enhance practitioner’s abilities to meet “meaningful use” requirements. The purpose of the book is two-fold: to address key gaps on the applicability of theories, models and evaluation frameworks of HCI and human factors for research in biomedical informatics. It highlights the state of the art, drawing from the current research in HCI. Second, it also serves as a graduate level textbook highlighting key topics in HCI relevant for biomedical informatics, computer science and social science students working in the healthcare domain. For instructional purposes, the book provides additional information and a set of questions for interactive class discussion for each section. The purpose of these questions is to encourage students to apply the learned concepts to real world healthcare problems.​

Emergency Care and the Public's Health


Author: Jesse M. Pines,Jameel Abualenain,James Scott,Robert Shesser
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118779797
Category: Medical
Page: 232
View: 4488

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As US health care systems undergo a period of transformative change, so too will emergency care, and more specifically emergency departments. This transformation will include: The development of new diagnostic, therapeutic, and information technologies A growing need to prepare and respond to emerging public health threats The expansion of the role of allied health professionals to address the workforce crisis Novel expectations for care coordination The fundamental economics of emergency care under new payment models, and The key relationship with American law. Emergency Care and the Public's Health explores the complex role of emergency care in the context of these changes and as an increasingly vital component of health care systems both within and outside the US. From an expert emergency medicine team, this new title is a reference for emergency care and critical care providers, allied health professionals and hospital administrators. It is also for relevant for public policy and healthcare policy professionals.

The Changing Face of Health Care Social Work, Third Edition

Opportunities and Challenges for Professional Practice
Author: Sophia F. Dziegielewski, PhD, LCSW
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 0826119433
Category: Social Science
Page: 484
View: 4507

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This third edition of a best-selling social work text reflects the dramatic changes that have taken place in our health care environment since the second edition was published in 2004óand will likely continue to take place. It is a practical guide for social workers who must navigate our complex health care environment and accept new challenges while adapting to continual change. The book encompasses many facets of professional health care social work within the U.S. health care system, across key health care settings and with numerous different patient populations. The book is also a call to action for social workers, who today must not only be therapeutically effective but must be professionally competitive with other health care providers that claim similar treatment strategies and techniques. Permeating the third edition is a strong emphasis on the importance of developing best practices that are evidence-based, supportive, and ethically accountable while remaining time-limited and cost-effective. Each chapter contains a Glossary, Questions for Further Study, and a list of relevant websites. At the end of each chapter, a ìFuture Directionsî section helps social workers understand what to expect and how to prepare for changes in order to practice successfully. This third edition additionally encompasses updated professional profiles for diverse arenas of practice and is accompanied by an Instructorís Manual that provides a test bank, activities designed to enhance learning, and a sample syllabus. Completely new or updated sections examine: Mental health parity Changes in billing Evidence-based practice strategy Electronic record keeping and other advances in health technology Information related to the DSM-5 Protecting yourself legally in your documentation Protecting the privacy of the client Supervision in the health care setting The importance of teamwork and collaboration Social work in the military and VA settings Safety planning