Handbook of Neurosociology


Author: David D. Franks,Jonathan H. Turner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400744730
Category: Social Science
Page: 406
View: 9713

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Until recently, a handbook on neurosociology would have been viewed with skepticism by sociologists, who have long been protective of their disciplinary domain against perceived encroachment by biology. But a number of developments in the last decade or so have made sociologists more receptive to biological factors in sociology and social psychology. Much of this has been encouraged by the coeditors of this volume, David Franks and Jonathan Turner. This new interest has been increased by the explosion of research in neuroscience on brain functioning and brain-environment interaction (via new MRI technologies), with implications for social and psychological functioning. This handbook emphasizes the integration of perspectives within sociology as well as between fields in social neuroscience. For example, Franks represents a social constructionist position following from G.H. Mead’s voluntaristic theory of the act while Turner is more social structural and positivistic. Furthermore, this handbook not only contains contributions from sociologists, but leading figures from the psychological perspective of social neuroscience.

Handbook on Evolution and Society

Toward an Evolutionary Social Science
Author: Alexandra Maryanski,Richard Machalek,Jonathan H. Turner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317258320
Category: Political Science
Page: 580
View: 5307

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"Handbook on Evolution and Society" brings together original chapters by prominent scholars who have been instrumental in the revival of evolutionary theorizing and research in the social sciences over the last twenty-five years. Previously unpublished essays provide up-to-date, critical surveys of recent research and key debates. The contributors discuss early challenges posed by sociobiology, the rise of evolutionary psychology, the more conflicted response of evolutionary sociology to sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology. Chapters address the application and limitations of Darwinian ideas in the social sciences. Prominent authors come from a variety of disciplines in ecology, biology, primatology, psychology, sociology, and the humanities. The most comprehensive resource available, this vital collection demonstrates to scholars and students the new ways in which evolutionary approaches, ultimately derived from biology, are influencing the diverse social sciences and humanities.

Routledge Handbook of Body Studies


Author: Bryan S Turner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136903313
Category: Social Science
Page: 448
View: 5926

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In the last three decades, the human body has gained increasing prominence in contemporary political debates, and it has become a central topic of modern social sciences and humanities. Modern technologies – such as organ transplants, stem-cell research, nanotechnology, cosmetic surgery and cryonics – have changed how we think about the body. In this collection of thirty original essays by leading figures in the field, these issues are explored across a number of theoretical and disciplinary perspectives, including pragmatism, feminism, queer theory, post-modernism, post-humanism, cultural sociology, philosophy and anthropology. A wide range of case studies, which include cosmetics, diet, organ transplants, racial bodies, masculinity and sexuality, eating disorders, religion and the sacred body, and disability, are used to appraise these different perspectives. In addition, this Handbook explores various epistemological approaches to the basic question: what is a body? It also offers a strongly themed range of chapters on empirical topics that are organized around religion, medicine, gender, technology and consumption. It also contributes to the debate over the globalization of the body: how have military technology, modern medicine, sport and consumption led to this contemporary obsession with matters corporeal? The Handbook’s clear, direct style will appeal to a wide undergraduate audience in the social sciences, particularly for those studying medical sociology, gender studies, sports studies, disability studies, social gerontology, or the sociology of religion. It will serve to consolidate the new field of body studies.

Social Urbanism and the Politics of Violence

The Medellín Miracle
Author: K. Maclean
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137397365
Category: Social Science
Page: 147
View: 4965

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Medellín, Colombia, used to be the most violent city on earth, but in recent years, allegedly thanks to its 'social urbanism' approach to regeneration, it has experienced a sharp decline in violence. The author explores the politics behind this decline and the complex transformations in terms of urban development policies in Medellín.

Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions:


Author: Jan E. Stets,Jonathan H. Turner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401791309
Category: Social Science
Page: 579
View: 8769

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Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions Volume II presents all new chapters in the ever developing area of the sociology of emotions. The volume is divided into two sections: Theoretical Perspectives and Social Arenas of Emotions. It reviews major sociological theories on emotions, which include evolutionary theory, identity theory, affect control theory, social exchange theory, ritual theory, and cultural theory among others. Social arenas where emotions are examined include, but are not limited to, the economy and the workplace, the family, mental health, crime, sports, technology, social movements and the field of science. All the chapters review the major theories and research in the area and each chapter ends with some discussion of directions for future research. The Sociology of Emotions is a fast growing and vital field in the broad discipline of Sociology. This volume II follows the Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions which was first published in 2006. In 2008, this first handbook received the “Outstanding Recent Contribution” in the Emotions Section of the American Sociological Association. With contributions from leading scholars from different areas in the discipline, such as neurosociology, culture, economics, mental health, gender, social movements, discussing state-of-art theory and research on emotions in sociology this volume will generate wider appeal to the sociological community.

Neurosociology

The Nexus Between Neuroscience and Social Psychology
Author: David D. Franks
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441955319
Category: Social Science
Page: 216
View: 9158

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As a career sociologist I ?rst became interested in neurosociology around 1987 when a graduate student lent me Michael Gazzaniga’s The Social Brain. Ifthe biological human brain was really social, I thought sociologists and their students should be the ?rst, not the last, to know. As I read on I found little of the clumsy reductionism of the earlier biosociologists whom I had learned to see as the arch- emy of our ?eld. Clearly, reductionism does exist among many neuroscientists. But I also found some things that were very social and quite relevant for sociology. After reading Descarte’s Error by Antonio Damasio, I learned how some types of emotion were necessary for rational thought – a very radical innovation for the long-honored “objective rationalist. ” I started inserting some things about split-brain research into my classes, mispronouncing terms like amygdala and being corrected by my s- dents. That instruction helped me realize how much we professors needed to catch up with our students. I also wrote a review of Leslie Brothers’ Fridays Footprint: How Society Shapes the Human Mind. I thought if she could write so well about social processes maybe I could attempt to do something similar in connection with my ?eld. For several years I found her an e-mail partner with a wonderful sense of humor. She even retrieved copies of her book for the use of my graduate students when I had assigned it for a seminar.

Emotionen und soziale Strukturen

Die affektiven Grundlagen sozialer Ordnung
Author: Christian von Scheve
Publisher: Campus Verlag
ISBN: 3593389118
Category: Social Science
Page: 389
View: 6810

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Die Angst vor dem sozialen Abstieg oder der Freudentaumel bei einem gewonnenen Fußballspiel: Emotionen sind nicht nur Ausdruck von Individualität und Persönlichkeit, sondern auch des sozialen Miteinanders und der gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse. Im Rückgriff auf neurowissenschaftliche, psychologische und soziologische Emotionstheorien weist Christian von Scheve die tiefgreifende soziale Strukturierung von Affekten und Emotionen nach, zeigt den Einfluss von Gefühlen auf das soziale Handeln und analysiert die Regulation und soziale Kontrolle von Emotionen. Der Autor macht damit deutlich, wie wichtig Emotionen für die Entstehung und Reproduktion sozialer Ordnung sind.

Neurosoziologie

Ein Versuch
Author: Dirk Baecker
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518736426
Category: Social Science
Page: 262
View: 6448

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Die Soziologie hat den steilen Aufstieg der Hirnforschung, der mit dem Aufkommen neuer bildgebender Verfahren seinen Ausgang nahm, bislang eher zögernd beobachtet. Eine soziologische Theorie des Gehirns fehlt, ähnlich wie die Schwerkraft oder den Sauerstoff setzte man das Vorhandensein dieses Organs einfach voraus. Ausgehend von den Berührungspunkten in den Überlegungen, die Autoren wie Heinz von Foerster, Humberto Maturana und Niklas Luhmann zu geschlossenen Systemen anstellten, lässt sich Dirk Baecker nun erstmals auf dieses interdisziplinäre Wagnis »hart an der Grenze der Kompetenzüberschreitung« ein. Man könne, so Baecker, die Neuropublizisten, die aus fragwürdigen Forschungsergebnissen noch fragwürdigere Konsequenzen für den Reformbedarf von Schulen, Gerichten, Sendeanstalten und Internetdiensten ableiten, schließlich nicht ungestraft aus den Augen lassen.

Das empathische Gehirn

Spiegelneurone als Grundlage menschlicher Kommunikation
Author: Nadia Zaboura
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3531913832
Category: Social Science
Page: 152
View: 5814

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Die Provokation der Reduktion

Beiträge zur Wissenschaftstheorie der Soziologie
Author: Gerhard Wagner
Publisher: Harrassowitz
ISBN: 9783447108546
Category: Individualism
Page: 251
View: 4573

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Die Provokation der Reduktion, mit der sich die Soziologie seit ihren Anfangen konfrontiert sieht, hat eine ontologische und eine epistemologische Dimension. In ontologischer Hinsicht geht es um die Frage, ob das Soziale eine eigene, sogenannte emergente Seinsqualitat hat oder "nur" aus Konfigurationen sozialer Handlungen besteht, die aus psychischen und physischen Eigenschaften der handelnden Menschen entstanden sind. In epistemologischer Hinsicht geht es dementsprechend um die Frage, ob man Theorien uber das Soziale aus Theorien uber das Psychische und Physische ableiten kann oder nicht. Die Soziologie sieht sich seit jeher durch den Reduktionismus in ihrer Existenz bedroht. Sie fluchtet sich in einen ontologischen und epistemologischen Pluralismus, der ihre Kontur als wissenschaftliche Disziplin vollkommen verschwimmen lasst. Die Beitrage dieses Bandes widmen sich der Klarung dieser komplexen Problematik.

A General Theory of Emotions and Social Life


Author: Warren D. TenHouten
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134229089
Category: Psychology
Page: 336
View: 9822

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Founded upon the psychoevolutionary theories of Darwin, Plutchik and Izard, a general socioevolutionary theory of the emotions - affect-spectrum theory - classifies a wide spectrum of the emotions and analyzes them on the sociological, psychological and neurobiological levels. This neurocognitive sociology of the emotions supersedes the major theoretical perspectives developed in the sociology of emotions by showing primary emotions to be adaptive reactions to fundamental problems of life which have evolved into elementary social relationships and which can predict occurrences of the entire spectrum of primary, complex secondary, and tertiary emotions. Written by leading social theorist Warren D. TenHouten, this book presents an encyclopaedic classification of the emotions, describing forty-six emotions in detail, and presenting a general multilevel theory of emotions and social life. The scope of coverage of this key work is highly topical and comprehensive, and includes the development of emotions in childhood, symbolic elaboration of complex emotions, emotions management, violence, and cultural and gender differences. While primary emotions have clearly defined valences, this theory shows that complex emotions obey no algebraic law and that all emotions have both creative and destructive potentialities.

Der lange Weg zur Freiheit

Autobiographie
Author: Nelson Mandela
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
ISBN: 3104031541
Category: History
Page: 864
View: 2316

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»Ich bin einer von ungezählten Millionen, die durch Nelson Mandelas Leben inspiriert wurden.« Barack Obama Eine fast drei Jahrzehnte währende Gefängnishaft ließ Nelson Mandela zum Mythos der schwarzen Befreiungsbewegung werden. Kaum ein anderer Politiker unserer Zeit symbolisiert heute in solchem Maße die Friedenshoffnungen der Menschheit und den Gedanken der Aussöhnung aller Rassen wie der ehemalige südafrikanische Präsident und Friedensnobelpreisträger. Auch nach seinem Tod finden seine ungebrochene Charakterstärke und Menschenfreundlichkeit die Bewunderung aller friedenswilligen Menschen auf der Welt. Mandelas Lebensgeschichte ist über die politische Bedeutung hinaus ein spannend zu lesendes, kenntnis- und faktenreiches Dokument menschlicher Entwicklung unter Bedingungen und Fährnissen, vor denen die meisten Menschen innerlich wie äußerlich kapituliert haben dürften.

The Principles of Sociology


Author: Herbert Spencer
Publisher: Wentworth Press
ISBN: 9780270258035
Category:
Page: 448
View: 5580

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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

Envy

Theory and Research
Author: Richard H. Smith
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: N.A
Category: Psychology
Page: 372
View: 1711

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This book has an overall focus on psychological approaches to the study of envy, but it also has a strong interdisciplinary character as well. Envy serves as a reference and spur for further research for researchers in psychology as well as other disciplines."--BOOK JACKET.

Das vergessene Königreich

Israel und die verborgenen Ursprünge der Bibel
Author: Israel Finkelstein
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406669611
Category: History
Page: 234
View: 1623

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Israel Finkelstein beschreibt in seinem bahnbrechenden Buch die Geschichte des Königreichs Israel konsequent aus archäologischer Sicht. In diesem schon 722 v. Chr. untergegangenen, von der Bibel als sündig verworfenen und von der Forschung vergessenen Reich findet er die wahren Ursprünge von zentralen biblischen Erzählungen. Für die Bibel waren die Könige von Israel treulose Sünder – im Gegensatz zu den Königen von Juda. Das hat dazu geführt, dass man vom Königreich Israel über die biblische Sicht hinaus wenig weiß. Israel Finkelstein rekonstruiert auf der Grundlage von jahrzehntelangen Ausgrabungen erstmals dessen wahre Geschichte. Dabei zeigt sich das überraschende Bild eines altorientalischen Reiches, das viel weiter entwickelt war als das südlich angrenzende Königreich Juda mit seiner Hauptstadt Jerusalem. Hier, in Israel, standen in Wirklichkeit der Palast und der Tempel, die später den legendären Königen David und Salomo zugeschrieben wurden. Hier entstanden so zentrale Erzählungen wie die vom Stammvater Jakob oder vom Auszug aus Ägypten. Dass dieses Königreich erobert, verworfen und vergessen wurde, aber sein Name und seine Mythen schließlich um die Welt gingen, ist das eigentliche Wunder, das Israel Finkelstein höchst anschaulich erklärt.