Governing the Dangerous

Dangerousness, Law and Social Change
Author: John Pratt
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862872677
Category: Social Science
Page: 218
View: 6944

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The question of dangerousness - how it should be defined and punished, and the ethical dilemmas associated with it - is a recurring theme of modern policy. In this powerful and important book, John Pratt addresses this question by explaining how dangerousness first became an object of penological discourse and why it has since remained so. Pratt sees the late 19th century as an important turning point; earlier concerns about the threat posed by the dangerous classes give way to a new set of concerns about dangerous criminals. He traces change to the present, identifying ‘Three Strikes’ laws and related initiatives as the latest in a long line of attempts to govern the dangerous. Drawing on material from Australia, New Zealand, England, the United States and Canada, the author argues that dangerousness is not a quality possessed by certain groups of offenders. Rather, it is a particular creation of modernity, possessing a life force that began when the concept of risk and its attendant strategies of management found their way into the social fabric. Ultimately, the dilemma of dangerousness is seen as political rather than ethical. Which to choose? The burdens of state regulation necessary to keep dangerousness under control? Or, intolerable license that reducing the role of the state gives to it?

Dangerous Offenders

Punishment and Social Order
Author: Mark Brown,John Pratt
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134637047
Category: Social Science
Page: 208
View: 9091

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This highly controversial new book considers how the dangerous offender has become such a figure of collective anxiety for the citizens of rationalised Western societies. The authors consider: * ideas of danger and social threat in historical perspective * legal responses to violent criminals * attempts to predict dangerous behaviour * why particular groups, such as women, remain at risk from violent crime. This inspired collection invites us to rethink the received wisdom on dangerous offenders, and will be of interest to students and scholars in the fields of criminology and the sociology of Risk.

Deviant Knowledge


Author: Reece Walters
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135991464
Category: Social Science
Page: 228
View: 8417

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In this important and original book, Reece Walters examines the politics of criminology and the ways in which criminological knowledge is generated. It includes an overview of the politics and practice of conducting criminological research (drawing upon material from Britain, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and the USA), and the ways that regulatory and governing authorities set research agendas, manipulate the processes and production of knowledge and silence or suppress critical voices through various techniques of neutralisation. The book argues for 'knowledges of resistance' - a position that promotes critique, challenges concepts of power and social order, wrestles with notions of truth and adheres to intellectual autonomy and independence. It provides invaluable insights into the relationship between the criminological researcher, public officials and corporate representatives. Drawing upon a wide range of interviews with academics and administrators from government and business, the book provides rare insights into the ways that knowledge about crime and criminal justice is produced and consumed, revealing why certain topics of criminological enquiry are rarely funded and why others receive ongoing political and governmental support. The book will be essential reading for anybody interested in the development of criminological theory and research, and the context and influences that shape it.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition
Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 2933

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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Public Criminology?


Author: Ian Loader,Richard Sparks
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113693152X
Category: Social Science
Page: 208
View: 5094

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What is the role and value of criminology in a democratic society? How do, and how should, its practitioners engage with politics and public policy? How can criminology find a voice in an agitated, insecure and intensely mediated world in which crime and punishment loom large in government agendas and public discourse? What collective good do we want criminological enquiry to promote? In addressing these questions, Ian Loader and Richard Sparks offer a sociological account of how criminologists understand their craft and position themselves in relation to social and political controversies about crime, whether as scientific experts, policy advisors, governmental players, social movement theorists, or lonely prophets. They examine the conditions under which these diverse commitments and affiliations arose, and gained or lost credibility and influence. This forms the basis for a timely articulation of the idea that criminology’s overarching public purpose is to contribute to a better politics of crime and its regulation. Public Criminology? offers an original and provocative account of the condition of, and prospects for, criminology which will be of interest not only to those who work in the fields of crime, security and punishment, but to anyone interested in the vexed relationship between social science, public policy and politics.

New Directions for Law in Australia

Essays in Contemporary Law Reform
Author: Ron Levy,Molly O’Brien,Simon Rice,Pauline Ridge,Margaret Thornton
Publisher: ANU Press
ISBN: 1760461423
Category: Law
Page: 661
View: 5218

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For reasons of effectiveness, efficiency and equity, Australian law reform should be planned carefully. Academics can and should take the lead in this process. This book collects over 50 discrete law reform recommendations, encapsulated in short, digestible essays written by leading Australian scholars. It emerges from a major conference held at The Australian National University in 2016, which featured intensive discussion among participants from government, practice and the academy. The book is intended to serve as a national focal point for Australian legal innovation. It is divided into six main parts: commercial and corporate law, criminal law and evidence, environmental law, private law, public law, and legal practice and legal education. In addition, Indigenous perspectives on law reform are embedded throughout each part. This collective work—the first of its kind—will be of value to policy makers, media, law reform agencies, academics, practitioners and the judiciary. It provides a bird’s eye view of the current state and the future of law reform in Australia.

Australia

Identity, Fear and Governance in the 21st Century
Author: Juliet Pietsch,Haydn Aarons
Publisher: ANU E Press
ISBN: 192214407X
Category: History
Page: 191
View: 1954

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The latter years of the first decade of the twenty-first century were characterised by an enormous amount of challenge and change to Australia and Australians. Australia's part in these challenges and changes is borne of our domestic and global ties, our orientation towards ourselves and others, and an ever increasing awareness of the interdependency of our world. Challenges and changes such as terrorism, climate change, human rights, community breakdown, work and livelihood, and crime are not new but they take on new variations and impact on us in different ways in times such as these.

Victims' needs, victims' rights

policies and programs for victims of crime in Australia
Author: Bree Cook,Fiona David,Anna Grant
Publisher: Natl Gallery of Australia
ISBN: N.A
Category: Law
Page: 160
View: 4593

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Collaborative Governance

A New Era of Public Policy in Australia?
Author: Janine O'Flynn,John Wanna
Publisher: ANU E Press
ISBN: 1921536411
Category: Political Science
Page: 201
View: 814

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Collaboration has emerged as a central concept in public policy circles in Australia and a panacea to the complex challenges facing Australia. But is this really the cure-all it seems to be? In this edited collection we present scholarly and practitioner perspectives on the drivers, challenges, prospects and promise of collaboration. The papers, first presented at the 2007 ANZSOG Conference, draw on the extensive experience of the contributors in either trying to enact collaboration, or studying the processes of this phenomenon. Together the collection provides important insights into the potential of collaboration, but also the fiercely stubborn barriers to adopting more collaborative approaches to policy and implementation. The collection includes chapter from public servants, third sector managers, and both Australian and international academics which together make it a stimulating read for those working with or within government. It adds considerably to the debate about how to address current challenges of public policy and provides a significant resource for those interested in the realities of collaborative governance.

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind
Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: Signal
ISBN: 9780771038518
Category:
Page: 464
View: 9146

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Destined to become a modern classic in the vein of Guns, Germs, and Steel, Sapiens is a lively, groundbreaking history of humankind told from a unique perspective. 100,000 years ago, at least six species of human inhabited the earth. Today there is just one. Us. Homo Sapiens. How did our species succeed in the battle for dominance? Why did our foraging ancestors come together to create cities and kingdoms? How did we come to believe in gods, nations, and human rights; to trust money, books, and laws; and to be enslaved by bureaucracy, timetables, and consumerism? And what will our world be like in the millennia to come? In Sapiens, Dr. Yuval Noah Harari spans the whole of human history, from the very first humans to walk the earth to the radical -- and sometimes devastating -- breakthroughs of the Cognitive, Agricultural, and Scientific Revolutions. Drawing on insights from biology, anthropology, palaeontology, and economics, he explores how the currents of history have shaped our human societies, the animals and plants around us, and even our personalities. Have we become happier as history has unfolded? Can we ever free our behaviour from the heritage of our ancestors? And what, if anything, can we do to influence the course of the centuries to come? Bold, wide-ranging and provocative, Sapiens challenges everything we thought we knew about being human: our thoughts, our actions, our power...and our future.

Crime in Rural Australia


Author: Elaine Barclay
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862876354
Category: Social Science
Page: 214
View: 9762

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Contemporary rural crime is more varied and sophisticated than it once was. The new forms range from agricultural crimes, such as the theft of water designated for agricultural production, to environmental crimes such as the illegal dumping of waste. They take place side by side with "traditional" rural crimes such as cattle duffing while "urban" crimes such as drug and alcohol abuse and violent assaults are also prevalent, and on the rise. Crime in Rural Australia covers them all. It brings together leading academics who examine the major dimensions of crime and justice in rural and regional Australia including:the extent of rural crime farm crime violence juvenile crime policing Indigenous crime and justice crime prevention drugs fear of crime, and sentencing and punishment.It includes vignettes on rural policing and the stock squad from the perspectives of the NSW police. An ideal text for rural crime and criminology courses, Crime in Rural Australia will also be of interest to criminal justice practitioners, policy-makers, and criminology scholars. Three of the editors, Dr Elaine Barclay, Dr John Scott and Associate Professor Russell Hogg, are associated with the Centre for Rural Crime at the University of New England. Professor Joseph F. Donnermeyer is the International Research Co-ordinator for the Rural Crime Centre and is a leading US scholar on rural crime at Ohio State University.

The Politics of Evidence (Open Access)

From evidence-based policy to the good governance of evidence
Author: Justin Parkhurst
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317380878
Category: Political Science
Page: 182
View: 4681

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The Open Access version of this book, available at http://www.tandfebooks.com/, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license. There has been an enormous increase in interest in the use of evidence for public policymaking, but the vast majority of work on the subject has failed to engage with the political nature of decision making and how this influences the ways in which evidence will be used (or misused) within political areas. This book provides new insights into the nature of political bias with regards to evidence and critically considers what an ‘improved’ use of evidence would look like from a policymaking perspective. Part I describes the great potential for evidence to help achieve social goals, as well as the challenges raised by the political nature of policymaking. It explores the concern of evidence advocates that political interests drive the misuse or manipulation of evidence, as well as counter-concerns of critical policy scholars about how appeals to ‘evidence-based policy’ can depoliticise political debates. Both concerns reflect forms of bias – the first representing technical bias, whereby evidence use violates principles of scientific best practice, and the second representing issue bias in how appeals to evidence can shift political debates to particular questions or marginalise policy-relevant social concerns. Part II then draws on the fields of policy studies and cognitive psychology to understand the origins and mechanisms of both forms of bias in relation to political interests and values. It illustrates how such biases are not only common, but can be much more predictable once we recognise their origins and manifestations in policy arenas. Finally, Part III discusses ways to move forward for those seeking to improve the use of evidence in public policymaking. It explores what constitutes ‘good evidence for policy’, as well as the ‘good use of evidence’ within policy processes, and considers how to build evidence-advisory institutions that embed key principles of both scientific good practice and democratic representation. Taken as a whole, the approach promoted is termed the ‘good governance of evidence’ – a concept that represents the use of rigorous, systematic and technically valid pieces of evidence within decision-making processes that are representative of, and accountable to, populations served.

Multi-level Governance

Conceptual challenges and case studies from Australia
Author: Katherine A. Daniell,Adrian Kay
Publisher: ANU Press
ISBN: 1760461601
Category: Political Science
Page: 457
View: 4257

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Important policy problems rarely fit neatly within existing territorial boundaries. More difficult still, individual governments or government departments rarely enjoy the power, resources and governance structures required to respond effectively to policy challenges under their responsibility. These dilemmas impose the requirement to work with others from the public, private, non-governmental organisation (NGO) or community spheres, and across a range of administrative levels and sectors. But how? This book investigates the challenges—both conceptual and practical—of multi-level governance processes. It draws on a range of cases from Australian public policy, with comparisons to multi-level governance systems abroad, to understand factors behind the effective coordination and management of multi-level governance processes in different policy areas over the short and longer term. Issues such as accountability, politics and cultures of governance are investigated through policy areas including social, environmental and spatial planning policy. The authors of the volume are a range of academics and past public servants from different jurisdictions, which allows previously hidden stories and processes of multi-level governance in Australia across different periods of government to be revealed and analysed for the first time.

Managing Fear

The Law and Ethics of Preventive Detention and Risk Assessment
Author: Bernadette McSherry
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136215174
Category: Psychology
Page: 242
View: 2306

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Managing Fear examines the growing use of risk assessment as it relates to preventive detention and supervision schemes for offenders perceived to be at a high risk of re-offending, individuals with severe mental illness, and suspected terrorists. It outlines a number of legislative regimes in common law countries that have broadened ‘civil’ (as opposed to criminal) powers of detention and supervision. Drawing on the disciplines of criminology and social psychology, it explores how and why such schemes reflect a move towards curtailing liberty before harm results rather than after a crime has occurred. Human rights and ethical issues concerning the role of mental health practitioners in assessing risk for the purposes of preventive detention and supervision are explored, and regimes that require evidence from mental health practitioners are compared with those that rely on decision-makers’ notions of ‘reasonable belief’ concerning the risk of harm. Case studies are used to exemplify some of the issues relating to how governments have attempted to manage the fear of future harm. This book aims to educate mental health practitioners in the law relating to preventive detention and supervision schemes and how the legal requirements differ from clinical assessment practices; examine the reasons why there has been a recent renewal of preventive detention and supervision schemes in common law countries; provide a comparative overview of existing preventive detention and supervision schemes; and analyse the human rights implications and the ethics of using forensic risk assessment techniques for preventive detention and supervision schemes.

Ethnography at the Edge

Crime, Deviance, and Field Research
Author: Jeff Ferrell
Publisher: UPNE
ISBN: 9781555533403
Category: Social Science
Page: 309
View: 3833

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Pioneering criminologists and sociologists vividly recount the personal and professional tribulations of conducting field research with deviant and criminal subcultures.

Imagining Law:

Essays in Conversation with Judith Gardam
Author: Dale Stephens,Paul Babie
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
ISBN: 192526131X
Category: Law
Page: 332
View: 8328

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By any measure, Judith Gardam has accomplished much in her professional life and is rightly acknowledged by scholars throughout the world as an expert in her many fields of diverse interest — including international law, energy law and feminist theory. This book celebrates her academic life and work with twelve essays from leading scholars in Gardam’s fields of expertise.

Sex Offenders and Preventive Detention

Politics, Policy and Practice
Author: Bernadette McSherry,Patrick Keyzer
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862877634
Category: Social Science
Page: 136
View: 5343

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Criminals do a crime, get caught, serve their time and come out to go on living except sex offenders. They come out and nobody will accept them as neighbours. They used to be able to hide but modern communciations make this impossible. What can be done? Keeping them locked up is effectively imprisonment on suspicion by one of the markers of tyranny. But how can society acknowledge revulsion, factor in safety and enable these people to live outside a prison? McSherry and Keyzer have written a succinct book aimed at a broad audience, which crosses from criminology and politics to proposals for law reform. They base it around three case studies from Washington State, Scotland and Queensland, Australia representing the three main legislative options for managing sex offenders.

The Three Sector Solution

Delivering public policy in collaboration with not-for-profits and business
Author: John Butcher,David Gilchrist
Publisher: ANU Press
ISBN: 1760460397
Category: Political Science
Page: 374
View: 9753

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This collection of essays had its origins in a one-day workshop held in August 2015 at The Australian National University. Jointly convened by Dr John Butcher (ANZSOG) and Professor David Gilchrist (Curtin Not-for-profit Initiative) the purpose of the workshop was to bring together academic researchers, policy practitioners and thought leaders to address a variety of emerging issues facing policymakers, public sector commissioners, not-for-profit providers of publicly funded services, and businesses interested in opportunities for social investment. The workshop itself generated a great deal of interest and a ‘baker’s dozen’ of contributors challenged and engaged a full house. The level of enthusiasm shown by the audience for the subject matter was such that the decision to curate the presentations in the form of a book was never in doubt. The editors trust that this volume will vindicate that decision. At one time the state exercised a near monopoly in the delivery of social programs. Today, almost every important public problem is a three sector problem and yet we have little idea of what a high-performing three sector production system looks like. It is the editors’ hope that this volume will provide a foundation for some answers to these important public policy questions.