Governing the Dangerous

Dangerousness, Law and Social Change
Author: John Pratt
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862872677
Category: Social Science
Page: 218
View: 1912

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The question of dangerousness - how it should be defined and punished, and the ethical dilemmas associated with it - is a recurring theme of modern policy. In this powerful and important book, John Pratt addresses this question by explaining how dangerousness first became an object of penological discourse and why it has since remained so. Pratt sees the late 19th century as an important turning point; earlier concerns about the threat posed by the dangerous classes give way to a new set of concerns about dangerous criminals. He traces change to the present, identifying ‘Three Strikes’ laws and related initiatives as the latest in a long line of attempts to govern the dangerous. Drawing on material from Australia, New Zealand, England, the United States and Canada, the author argues that dangerousness is not a quality possessed by certain groups of offenders. Rather, it is a particular creation of modernity, possessing a life force that began when the concept of risk and its attendant strategies of management found their way into the social fabric. Ultimately, the dilemma of dangerousness is seen as political rather than ethical. Which to choose? The burdens of state regulation necessary to keep dangerousness under control? Or, intolerable license that reducing the role of the state gives to it?

New Directions for Law in Australia

Essays in Contemporary Law Reform
Author: Ron Levy,Molly O’Brien,Simon Rice,Pauline Ridge,Margaret Thornton
Publisher: ANU Press
ISBN: 1760461423
Category: Law
Page: 661
View: 1417

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For reasons of effectiveness, efficiency and equity, Australian law reform should be planned carefully. Academics can and should take the lead in this process. This book collects over 50 discrete law reform recommendations, encapsulated in short, digestible essays written by leading Australian scholars. It emerges from a major conference held at The Australian National University in 2016, which featured intensive discussion among participants from government, practice and the academy. The book is intended to serve as a national focal point for Australian legal innovation. It is divided into six main parts: commercial and corporate law, criminal law and evidence, environmental law, private law, public law, and legal practice and legal education. In addition, Indigenous perspectives on law reform are embedded throughout each part. This collective work—the first of its kind—will be of value to policy makers, media, law reform agencies, academics, practitioners and the judiciary. It provides a bird’s eye view of the current state and the future of law reform in Australia.

Victims' needs, victims' rights

policies and programs for victims of crime in Australia
Author: Bree Cook,Fiona David,Anna Grant
Publisher: Natl Gallery of Australia
ISBN: N.A
Category: Law
Page: 160
View: 8874

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Dangerous Offenders

Punishment and Social Order
Author: Mark Brown,John Pratt
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134637047
Category: Social Science
Page: 208
View: 1190

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This highly controversial new book considers how the dangerous offender has become such a figure of collective anxiety for the citizens of rationalised Western societies. The authors consider: * ideas of danger and social threat in historical perspective * legal responses to violent criminals * attempts to predict dangerous behaviour * why particular groups, such as women, remain at risk from violent crime. This inspired collection invites us to rethink the received wisdom on dangerous offenders, and will be of interest to students and scholars in the fields of criminology and the sociology of Risk.

A Bird that Flies with Two Wings

Kastom and State Justice Systems in Vanuatu
Author: Miranda Forsyth
Publisher: ANU E Press
ISBN: 1921536799
Category: Law
Page: 298
View: 3045

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This book investigates the problems and possibilities of plural legal orders through an in-depth study of the relationship between the state and customary justice systems in Vanuatu. It argues that there is a need to move away from the current state-centric approach to law reform in the South Pacific region, and instead include all state and non-state legal orders in development strategies and dialogue. The book also presents a typology of models of engagement between state and non-state legal systems, and describes a process for analysing which of these models would be most advantageous for any country in the South Pacific region, and beyond.

The Urban Fabric of Crime and Fear


Author: Vania Ceccato
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940074210X
Category: Social Science
Page: 354
View: 7159

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How does the city’s urban fabric relate to crime and fear, and how is that fabric affected by crime and fear? Does the urban environment affect one’s decision to commit an offence? Is there a victimisation-related inequality within cities? How do crime and fear interrelate to inequality and segregation in cities of developing countries? What are the challenges to planning cities which are both safe and sustainable? This book searches for answers to these questions in the nature of the city, particularly in the social interactions that take place in urban space distinctively guided by different land uses and people’s activities. In other words, the book deals with the urban fabric of crime and fear. The novelty of the book is to place safety and security issues on the urban scale by (1) showing links between urban structure, and crime and fear, (2) illustrating how different disciplines deal with urban vulnerability to (and fear of) crime (3) including concrete examples of issues and challenges found in European and North American cities, and, without being too extensive, also in cities of the Global South.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition
Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Category: Science
Page: 264
View: 6244

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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Deviant Knowledge


Author: Reece Walters
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135991464
Category: Social Science
Page: 228
View: 1096

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In this important and original book, Reece Walters examines the politics of criminology and the ways in which criminological knowledge is generated. It includes an overview of the politics and practice of conducting criminological research (drawing upon material from Britain, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and the USA), and the ways that regulatory and governing authorities set research agendas, manipulate the processes and production of knowledge and silence or suppress critical voices through various techniques of neutralisation. The book argues for 'knowledges of resistance' - a position that promotes critique, challenges concepts of power and social order, wrestles with notions of truth and adheres to intellectual autonomy and independence. It provides invaluable insights into the relationship between the criminological researcher, public officials and corporate representatives. Drawing upon a wide range of interviews with academics and administrators from government and business, the book provides rare insights into the ways that knowledge about crime and criminal justice is produced and consumed, revealing why certain topics of criminological enquiry are rarely funded and why others receive ongoing political and governmental support. The book will be essential reading for anybody interested in the development of criminological theory and research, and the context and influences that shape it.

Mainstreaming Politics

Gendering Practices and Feminist Theory
Author: Carol Lee Bacchi,Joan Eveline
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
ISBN: 0980672384
Category: Political Science
Page: 368
View: 6448

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This book offers an innovative rethinking of policy approaches to 'gender equality' and of the process of social change. It brings several new chapters together with a series of previously published articles to reflect on these topics. A particular focus is gender mainstreaming, a relatively recent development in equality policy in many industrialised and some industrialising countries, as well as in large international organisations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the International Labour Organization. The book draws upon poststructuralist organisation and policy theory to argue that it is impossible to 'script' reform initiatives such as gender mainstreaming. As an alternative it recommends thinking about such policy developments as fields of contestation, shaped by on-the-ground political deliberations and practices, including the discursive practices that produce specific ways of understanding the 'problem' of 'gender inequality'. In addition to the new chapters the editors Bacchi and Eveline produce brief introductions for each chapter, tracing the development of their ideas over four years. Through these commentaries the book provides exciting insights into the complex processes of collaboration and theory generation. Mainstreaming Politics is a rich resource for both practitioners in the field and for theorists. In particular it will appeal to those interested in public policy, public administration, organisation studies, sociology, comparative politics and international studies.

The Politics of Evidence

From evidence-based policy to the good governance of evidence
Author: Justin Parkhurst
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131738086X
Category: Political Science
Page: 196
View: 2805

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There has been an enormous increase in interest in the use of evidence for public policymaking, but the vast majority of work on the subject has failed to engage with the political nature of decision making and how this influences the ways in which evidence will be used (or misused) within political areas. This book provides new insights into the nature of political bias with regards to evidence and critically considers what an ‘improved’ use of evidence would look like from a policymaking perspective. Part I describes the great potential for evidence to help achieve social goals, as well as the challenges raised by the political nature of policymaking. It explores the concern of evidence advocates that political interests drive the misuse or manipulation of evidence, as well as counter-concerns of critical policy scholars about how appeals to ‘evidence-based policy’ can depoliticise political debates. Both concerns reflect forms of bias – the first representing technical bias, whereby evidence use violates principles of scientific best practice, and the second representing issue bias in how appeals to evidence can shift political debates to particular questions or marginalise policy-relevant social concerns. Part II then draws on the fields of policy studies and cognitive psychology to understand the origins and mechanisms of both forms of bias in relation to political interests and values. It illustrates how such biases are not only common, but can be much more predictable once we recognise their origins and manifestations in policy arenas. Finally, Part III discusses ways to move forward for those seeking to improve the use of evidence in public policymaking. It explores what constitutes ‘good evidence for policy’, as well as the ‘good use of evidence’ within policy processes, and considers how to build evidence-advisory institutions that embed key principles of both scientific good practice and democratic representation. Taken as a whole, the approach promoted is termed the ‘good governance of evidence’ – a concept that represents the use of rigorous, systematic and technically valid pieces of evidence within decision-making processes that are representative of, and accountable to, populations served.

Imagining Law:

Essays in Conversation with Judith Gardam
Author: Dale Stephens,Paul Babie
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
ISBN: 192526131X
Category: Law
Page: 332
View: 1990

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By any measure, Judith Gardam has accomplished much in her professional life and is rightly acknowledged by scholars throughout the world as an expert in her many fields of diverse interest — including international law, energy law and feminist theory. This book celebrates her academic life and work with twelve essays from leading scholars in Gardam’s fields of expertise.

Social Control and Justice

Crimmigration in the Age of Fear
Author: Maria João Guia,Joanne van der Leun
Publisher: Eleven International Pub
ISBN: 9789490947781
Category: Law
Page: 340
View: 7006

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This book offers a fresh, multi-disciplinary, and international examination of a phenomenon that has altered the landscape of migration in the United States and is now taking root in Canada and throughout Europe: 'crimmigration law.' Crimmigration law consists of the letter and practice of laws and policies at the intersection of criminal law and immigration law. Crimmigration scholars study the creation of laws and policies, their enforcement, as well as the institutional dynamics that create crimmigration law and are created by it. Many have written about the use of crimmigration law to exert social control over groups marginalized by ethnic bias, class, or citizenship status. This book's contents include: Crimmigration, Securitization, and the Criminal Law of the Crimmigrant * A Reflection on Crimmigration in the Netherlands * Entering the Risk Society: A Contested Terrain for Immigration Enforcement * The Changing Landscape of the Criminalization of Migration in Europe * Disappearing Rights: How States Are Eroding Membership in American Society * The Impact of Immigration Enforcement Outsourcing on Ice Priorities * The Spirit of Crimmigration * Crime and Immigration: The Discourses of Fear as a Theoretical Approach of Critical Evaluation * Recorded Crime Committed by Migrant Groups and Native Dutch in the Netherlands * The Foreign-Born in the Canadian Federal Correctional Population * The Impact of Safety on Levels of Ethnocentrism * The Control of Irregular Migrants and the Criminal Law of the Enemy * Crime among Irregular Immigrants and the Influence of Crimmigration Processes * The Wide Scope of Immigration in the Azores and Its Relationship with Crime * Irregular Immigrants and Their Irish Citizen Children: The Limits of National Citizenship * The Treaty of Prum * Unauthorized Migration

Dealing with Uncertainties in Policing Serious Crime


Author: Gabriele Bammer
Publisher: ANU E Press
ISBN: 1921666374
Category: Social Science
Page: 213
View: 4897

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Grappling with uncertainties is at the heart of investigating serious crime. At a time when such crime is becoming more complex and resources are increasingly stretched, this book draws together research and practice perspectives to review fruitful approaches to uncertainties and to chart the way forward. Scene setting chapters describe the consequences of globalisation and the spread of sophisticated information technologies (Sue Wilkinson), as well as advances in understanding and managing uncertainty (Michael Smithson). Ways of enhancing responses from statistics (Robyn Attewell), risk analysis (Richard Jarrett and Mark Westcott) and the psychology of decision making (Mark Kebbell, Damon Muller and Kirsty Martin) follow. These are complemented by insights from law (the Hon. Tim Carmody SC), politics (the Hon. Carmen Lawrence) and business (Neil Fargher), which all have significant intersections with policing. Synthesis is provided by the four final chapters which present the outlooks of the investigating officer and investigation manager (Peter Martin), the provider of policing higher education (Tracey Green and Greg Linsdell), the capacity-building consultant (Steve Longford), and the leader of a law enforcement agency (Alastair Milroy).

The State and Illegality in Indonesia


Author: E. Aspinall,G. van Klinken
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004253688
Category: SOCIAL SCIENCE
Page: 340
View: 6816

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The popular 1998 reformasi movement that brought down President Suharto’s regime demanded an end to illegal practices by state officials, from human rights abuse to nepotistic investments. Yet today, such practices have proven more resistant to reform than people had hoped. Many have said corruption in Indonesia is "entrenched". We argue it is precisely this entrenched character that requires attention. What is state illegality entrenched in and how does it become entrenched? This involves studying actual cases. Our observations led us to rethink fundamental ideas about the nature of the state in Indonesia, especially regarding its socially embedded character. We conclude that illegal practices by state officials are not just aberrations to the state, they are the state. Almost invariably, illegality occurs as part of collective, patterned, organized and collaborative acts, linked to the competition for political power and access to state resources. While obviously excluding many without connections, corrupt behaviour also plays integrative and stabilizing functions. Especially at the lower end of the social ladder, it gets a lot of things done and is often considered legitimate.

Youth Crime and Justice


Author: Barry Goldson,John Muncie
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1473917956
Category: Social Science
Page: 280
View: 3984

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Building upon the success of the first edition, this second - and substantially revised - edition of Youth Crime and Justice comprises a range of cutting-edge contributions from leading national and international researchers. The book: Situates youth crime and youth justice within historical and social-structural contexts; Critically examines policy and practice trends and their relation to knowledge and ‘evidence’; and Presents a forward looking vision of a rights compliant youth justice with integrity. An authoritative and accessible book, Youth Crime and Justice (2nd ed) provides a coherent, comprehensive and fully up-to-date analysis of contemporary developments and debates. A must for researchers, teachers, students and practitioners.

Gambling, Crime and Society


Author: James Banks
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137579943
Category: Social Science
Page: 200
View: 1210

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This book explores the manifold actual, possible and probable interconnections between gambling and crime in the context of the increased availability of wagering activities across many regions of the world. It examines the impact of the proliferation and propinquity of land-based betting establishments on crime, the role of organised crime in the provision of both licit and illicit forms of gambling, as well as problem gambling, crime and the administration of criminal justice. It also assesses the links between gambling, sport and corruption and the dimensions of crime that takes place in and around internet gambling sites. A thought-provoking study, this will be of particular interest to scholars in the fields of sociology, criminology and social policy.

Crime in Rural Australia


Author: Elaine Barclay
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862876354
Category: Social Science
Page: 214
View: 5849

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Contemporary rural crime is more varied and sophisticated than it once was. The new forms range from agricultural crimes, such as the theft of water designated for agricultural production, to environmental crimes such as the illegal dumping of waste. They take place side by side with "traditional" rural crimes such as cattle duffing while "urban" crimes such as drug and alcohol abuse and violent assaults are also prevalent, and on the rise. Crime in Rural Australia covers them all. It brings together leading academics who examine the major dimensions of crime and justice in rural and regional Australia including:the extent of rural crime farm crime violence juvenile crime policing Indigenous crime and justice crime prevention drugs fear of crime, and sentencing and punishment.It includes vignettes on rural policing and the stock squad from the perspectives of the NSW police. An ideal text for rural crime and criminology courses, Crime in Rural Australia will also be of interest to criminal justice practitioners, policy-makers, and criminology scholars. Three of the editors, Dr Elaine Barclay, Dr John Scott and Associate Professor Russell Hogg, are associated with the Centre for Rural Crime at the University of New England. Professor Joseph F. Donnermeyer is the International Research Co-ordinator for the Rural Crime Centre and is a leading US scholar on rural crime at Ohio State University.

Not Just Deserts

A Republican Theory of Criminal Justice
Author: John Braithwaite,Philip Pettit
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198240562
Category: History
Page: 229
View: 6246

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* A new approach to sentencing Not Just Deserts inaugurates a radical shift in the research agenda of criminology. The authors attack currently fashionable retributivist theories of punishment, arguing that the criminal justice system is so integrated that sentencing policy has to be considered in the system-wide context. They offer a comprehensive theory of criminal justice which draws on a philosophical view of the good and the right, and which points the way to practical intervention in the real world of incremental reform. They put the case for a criminal justice system which maximizes freedom in the old republican sense of the term, and which they call `dominion'.