Globalization and Health Inequities in Latin America


Author: Ligia Malagón de Salazar,Roberto Carlos Luján Villar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319672924
Category: Medical
Page: 306
View: 6586

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This book critically analyses the influence of international policies and guidelines on the performance of interventions aimed at reducing health inequities in Latin America, with special emphasis on health promotion and health in all policies strategies. While the implementation of these interventions plays a key role in strengthening these countries’ capacity to respond to current and future challenges, the urgency and pressures of cooperation and funding agencies to show results consistent with their own agendas not only hampers this goal, but also makes the territory invisible, hiding the real problems faced by most Latin American countries, diminishing the richness of local knowledge production, and hindering the development of relevant proposals that consider the territory’s conditions and cultural identity. Departing from this general analysis, the authors search for answers to the following questions: Why, despite the importance of the theoretical advances r egarding actions to address social and health inequities, haven’t Latin American countries been able to produce the expected results? Why do successful initiatives only take place within the framework of pilot projects? Why does the ideology of health promotion and health in all policies mainly permeate structures of the health sector, but not other sectors? Why are intersectoral actions conjunctural initiatives, which often fail to evolve into permanent practices? Based on an extensive literature review, case studies, personal experiences, and interviews with key informants in the region, Globalization and Health Inequities in Latin America presents a strategy that uses monitoring and evaluation practices for enhancing the capacity of Latin American and other low and middle-income countries to implement sustainable processes to foster inclusiveness, equity, social justice and human rights. p/pp

Gender, Globalization, and Health in a Latin American Context


Author: J. Gideon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137120274
Category: Political Science
Page: 271
View: 8418

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Using a political economy of health, Gender, Globalization, and Health in a Latin American Context demonstrates how the development of health systems in Latin America was closely linked to men's participation in formal labor. This established an inherent male bias that continues to shape health services today. While economic liberalization has created new jobs that have been taken up mainly by women, these jobs fail to offer the same health entitlements. Author Jasmine Gideon explores the resultant tensions and gender inequalities, which have been further exacerbated in the context of health care commercialization.

Globalization and Health

Pathways, Evidence and Policy
Author: Ronald Labonté,Ted Schrecker,Corinne Packer,Vivien Runnels
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135850097
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 378
View: 2773

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Contemporary globalization has had tremendous impact on health equity across the globe. However, no volume has systematically analyzed the relationship between globalization and global trends in health outcomes. This book consolidates and updates the findings of a global research project undertaken by the Globalisation Knowledge Network (GKN) of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Chapters examine such questions as: How has trade liberalisation affected the social determinants of health? How has globalization affected food security, nutrition and equitable access to water and sanitation? How well do present global governance structures take account of the health equity effects associated with the social determinants of health? This landmark volume will be a necessary addition for researchers and scholars studying the field of globalization, health and social policy, and public health across the social sciences.

Pharmaceutical Autonomy and Public Health in Latin America

State, Society and Industry in Brazil’s AIDS Program
Author: Matthew B. Flynn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317565614
Category: Political Science
Page: 232
View: 4650

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Brazil has occupied a central role in the access to medicines movement, especially with respect to drugs used to treat those with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). How and why Brazil succeeded in overcoming powerful political and economic interests, both at home and abroad, to roll-out and sustain treatment represents an intellectual puzzle. In this book, Matthew Flynn traces the numerous challenges Brazil faced in its efforts to provide essential medicines to all of its citizens. Using dependency theory, state theory, and moral underpinnings of markets, Flynn delves deeper into the salient factors contributing to Brazil’s successes and weaknesses, including control over technology, creation of political alliances, and instrumental use of normative frameworks and effectively explains the ability of countries to fulfill the prescription drug needs of its population versus the interests and operations of the global pharmaceutical industry Pharmaceutical Autonomy and Public Health in Latin America is one of the only books to provide an in-depth account of the challenges that a developing country, like Brazil, faces to fulfill public health objectives amidst increasing global economic integration and new international trade agreements. Scholars interested in public health issues, HIV/AIDS, and human rights, but also to social scientists interested in Latin America and international political economy will find this an original and thought provoking read.

Der große Ausbruch

Health, Ealth, and the Origins of Inequality
Author: Angus Deaton
Publisher: Klett-Cotta
ISBN: 3608100741
Category: Political Science
Page: 448
View: 7307

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Heute sind die Menschen gesünder, wohlhabender und sie leben länger als früher. Einem Teil der Menschheit ist »Der Große Ausbruch« aus Armut, Not, Krankheit und Entbehrung in Freiheit, Bildung, Demokratie und eine freie globale Weltwirtschaft gelungen. Dennoch nimmt die Ungleichheit zwischen Nationen und Menschen unaufhaltsam zu. Das Opus Magnum des Nobelpreisträgers beschreibt, wie Lebens- und Gesundheitsstandards sich weltweit erhöhen ließen, wenn Aufrichtigkeit und neue Fairness Einzug in die globale Weltwirtschaft hielten. Aus dem »Wohlstand der Nationen« könnte ein Wohlstand aller Nationen werden. Angus Deaton, der Träger des Wirtschaftsnobelpreises 2015, schildert die Geschichte der Weltwirtschaft überraschend neu und anders. Vor 250 Jahren bescherte die Industrielle Revolution Westeuropa und den USA nachhaltigen Aufschwung und wirtschaftlicher Fortschritt, der bis heute andauert. Viele Menschen in Großbritannien, Frankreich, den USA und Deutschland überwanden ihre Armut, eigneten sich Bildung an und gestalteten ihre Staaten freiheitlich und demokratisch um. Aber bereits damals öffnete sich die Kluft zwischen Reich und Arm. Erhellend und eindringlich entwirft der Ökonom ein Panorama überwältigender Entdeckungen und phantastischer Erfindungen: Von der Überwindung von Pest, Cholera und Epidemien, von den Errungenschaften wie Impfungen, Antibiotika, Hygiene, sauberem Trinkwasser und den Erfolgen der modernen Medizin und Technik. Dennoch holen schmerzhafte Rückschläge auch die modernen Gesellschaften – vor allem aber die Ärmsten – immer wieder ein: entsetzliche Hungersnöte, Naturkatastrophen, Drogenhandel, Krebserkrankungen und die AIDS/HIV-Epidemie auf der anderen Seite. Alternativen bieten Reformen: Die Entwicklungs- und Protektionspolitik des Westens sollte eingestellt, jedenfalls grundlegend verändert werden. Dringend müssten die Handelshemmnisse aufgehoben werden, um der ganzen globalisierten Welt ihren eigenen „Großen Ausbruch“ zu eröffnen. Unser Wohlstand ist anfällig; Umdenken und anders Handeln sind dringend erforderlich. Hatten die USA noch vor 20 Jahren einen bis dahin nie gekannten Wohlstand für viele Amerikaner erreicht, wächst das einstige Vorbild der westlichen Welt heute wirtschaftlich schleppend oder gar nicht. Die Ungleichheit unter den Amerikanern hat schlagartig zugenommen. Hingegen hat sich das Wirtschaftswachstum in Indien und China vervielfacht und das Leben von mehr als zwei Milliarden Menschen unvorstellbar verbessert. »Dieses Thema bedarf einer großen Leinwand und eines kühnen Pinselstrichs, und Angus Deaton liefert auf virtuose Weise beides.« The Economist

Neoliberalism, Globalization, and Inequalities

Consequences for Health and Quality of Life
Author: Vicente Navarro
Publisher: Baywood Publishing Company
ISBN: N.A
Category: Medical
Page: 506
View: 4167

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Since U.S. President Reagan and U.K. Prime Minister Thatcher, a major ideology (under the name of economic science) has been expanded worldwide that claims that the best policies to stimulate human development are those that reduce the role of the state in economic and social lives: privatizing public services and public enterprises, deregulating the mobility of capital and labor, eliminating protectionism, and reducing public social protection. This ideology, called "neoliberalism," has guided the globalization of economic activity and become the conventional wisdom in international agencies and institutions (such as the IMF, World Bank, World Trade Organization, and the technical agencies of the United Nations, including the WHO). Reproduced in the "Washington consensus" in the United States and the "Brussels consensus" in the European Union, this ideology has guided policies widely accepted as the only ones possible and advisable.This book assembles a series of articles that challenge that ideology. Written by well-known scholars, these articles question each of the tenets of neoliberal doctrine, showing how the policies guided by this ideology have adversely affected human development in the countries where they have been implemented.

Global Inequalities at Work

Work's Impact on the Health of Individuals, Families, and Societies
Author: Jody Heymann
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199747993
Category: Medical
Page: 368
View: 788

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A map of the relationship between work and health that is truly global--both geographically and in its coverage of the impact of work on the health of individuals, families, and societies, has not previously been drawn. Global Inequalities at Work is the first book to fill in the map. Drawing from studies done around the world, it critically examines the many ways in which work is affecting health around the world. The first section covers the wide range of risks--physical, chemical, and social--tot he health of employees in agricultural, industrial, and post-industrial workplaces. Part II provides a detailed analysis of how working conditions can dramatically influence the health and welfare of family members--including children, elderly parents, and the disabled--in both the developing and industrial world. Part III examines the relationships between work and health at the societal level by focusing on two examples: the ways in which working conditions affect income inequalities and health, and the ways in which working conditions influence gender inequalities and health. Part IV investigates the new challenges to and opportunities for improving the relationship between work and health that are presented by a rapidly globalizing economy. Global Inequalities at Work addresses these issues at a time when globalization is both markedly changing the impact of work on the health of individuals, families, and societies, and radically revising what can be done about it. Leaders from universities, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations bring to this edited volume expertise from six continents.

Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean


Author: Ricardo Paes de Barros,Francisco H. G. Ferreira,Jose R Molinas Vega,Jaime Saavedra Chanduvi
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821377469
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 220
View: 2726

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Equality of opportunity is about leveling the playing field so that circumstances such as gender, ethnicity, place of birth, or family background do not influence a person s life chances. Success in life should depend on people s choices, effort and talents, not to their circumstances at birth. 'Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean' introduces new methods for measuring inequality of opportunities and makes an assessment of its evolution in Latin America over a decade. An innovative Human Opportunity Index and other parametric and non-parametric techniques are presented for quantifying inequality based on circumstances exogenous to individual efforts. These methods are applied to gauge inequality of opportunities in access to basic services for children, learning achievement for youth, and income and consumption for adults.

Globalization and the Distribution of Wealth

The Latin American Experience, 1982–2008
Author: Arie M. Kacowicz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139620142
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 7789

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The effects of globalization on poverty and inequality are a key issue in contemporary international politics, yet they have been neglected in international relations and comparative politics literatures. Arie M. Kacowicz explores the complex relationships between globalization and the distribution of wealth as a political problem in international relations, analyzing them through the prism of poverty and inequality. He develops a political framework (an 'intermestic model') which captures the interaction between the international and the domestic domains and explains those effects with a particular emphasis upon the state and its relations with society. He also specifies the different hypotheses about the possible links between globalization and the distribution of wealth and tests them in the context of Latin America during the years 1982–2008, with a particular focus on Argentina and the deep crisis it experienced in 2001–2.

Global Health Inequities

A Sociological Perspective
Author: Fernando De Maio
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
ISBN: 1137400633
Category: Social Science
Page: 200
View: 9703

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Despite living in a 'globalized' world where advances in medicine, technology and science come at an ever-increasing pace, there exist staggering inequalities in health. Even as we celebrate new pharmaceutical developments, access to already-existing medicines is hindered by economic and political barriers for poor people around the world. Critical but accessible, Global Health Inequities questions taken-for-granted assumptions, showing how breakthroughs in biomedicine alone cannot address inequities in health. The book's analysis of theory and empirical work elucidates key debates and highlights the most significant challenges facing global health today, including the growing burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and the persistent injustice of neglected tropical diseases. Fernando De Maio identifies the need for sociological analysis in global health, drawing together research from public health, sociology, anthropology and related fields, in order to expand the scope of the medical gaze towards a more holistic and structural perspective of health inequity.

Sociological Abstracts


Author: Leo P. Chall
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Sociology
Page: N.A
View: 8560

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CSA Sociological Abstracts abstracts and indexes the international literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences. The database provides abstracts of journal articles and citations to book reviews drawn from over 1,800+ serials publications, and also provides abstracts of books, book chapters, dissertations, and conference papers.

A Sociological Approach to Health Determinants


Author: Toni Schofield
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107689414
Category: Medical
Page: 272
View: 2768

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This book is a comprehensive resource that provides a new perspective on the influence of social structures on health.

Civilizing Globalization

A Survival Guide
Author: Richard Sandbrook
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791456675
Category: Political Science
Page: 280
View: 6418

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Discusses the many facets of globalization in easy to understand language.

Das Globalisierungs-Paradox

die Demokratie und die Zukunft der Weltwirtschaft
Author: Dani Rodrik
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 9783406613517
Category:
Page: 415
View: 6595

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Ein Plädoyer gegen Hyperglobalisierung und für eine gewisse demokratische Renationalisierung der Wirtschaftspolitik.

Der Preis der Ungleichheit

Wie die Spaltung der Gesellschaft unsere Zukunft bedroht
Author: Joseph Stiglitz
Publisher: Siedler Verlag
ISBN: 364109819X
Category: Social Science
Page: 544
View: 8835

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Viele Arme, wenige Reiche - Warum die wachsende Ungleichheit uns alle angeht Die Ungleichheit in der Welt nimmt zu: Immer weniger Menschen häufen immer größeren Reichtum an, während die Zahl der Armen wächst und die Mittelschicht vom Abstieg bedroht ist. Doch diese Entwicklung, so zeigt Nobelpreisträger Joseph Stiglitz in seinem neuen Bestseller, ist keine zwangsläufige Folge einer freien Marktwirtschaft, sondern Ergebnis einer globalisierten Ökonomie, die zunehmend vom reichsten einen Prozent der Bevölkerung beherrscht wird.

What Do We Know About Globalization?

Issues of Poverty and Income Distribution
Author: Guillermo de la Dehesa
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470765895
Category: Political Science
Page: 384
View: 4320

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What Do We Know About Globalization: Issues of Poverty & Income Distribution examines the two fundamental arguments that are often raised against globalization: that it produces inequality and that it increases poverty. A lively and accessible argument about the impact and consequences of globalization from a leading figure in economics - Dehesa is Chairman of the Centre for Economic Policy Research and a member of the Group of Thirty Demonstrates the ways in which wealthy nations and developing countries alike have failed to implement changes that would result in a reversal of these social ills Dispels the notion of the so-called 'victim of globalization', demonstrating how, despite popular belief, acceleration of globalization actually stands to reduce the levels of poverty and inequality worldwide Asks whether increased technological, economic, and cultural change can save us from international income inequality, and by extension, further violence, terrorism and war

Handbook of Income Distribution


Author: Anthony B. Atkinson,Francois Bourguignon
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444594760
Category: Social Science
Page: 2366
View: 8118

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What new theories, evidence, explanations, and policies have shaped our studies of income distribution in the 21st century? Editors Tony Atkinson and Francois Bourguignon assemble the expertise of leading authorities in this survey of substantive issues. In two volumes they address subjects that were not covered in Volume 1 (2000), such as education, health and experimental economics; and subjects that were covered but where there have been substantial new developments, such as the historical study of income inequality and globalization. Some chapters discuss future growth areas, such as inheritance, the links between inequality and macro-economics and finance, and the distributional implications of climate change. They also update empirical advances and major changes in the policy environment. The volumes define and organize key areas of income distribution studies Contributors focus on identifying newly developing questions and opportunities for future research The authoritative articles emphasize the ways that income mobility and inequality studies have recently gained greater political significance

Latinos in American Society

Families and Communities in Transition
Author: Ruth Enid Zambrana
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801461521
Category: Social Science
Page: 296
View: 3215

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It is well known that Latinos in the United States bear a disproportionate burden of low educational attainment, high residential segregation, and low visibility in the national political landscape. In Latinos in American Society, Ruth Enid Zambrana brings together the latest research on Latinos in the United States to demonstrate how national origin, age, gender, socioeconomic status, and education affect the well-being of families and individuals. By mapping out how these factors result in economic, social, and political disadvantage, Zambrana challenges the widespread negative perceptions of Latinos in America and the single story of Latinos in the United States as a monolithic group. Synthesizing an increasingly substantial body of social science research-much of it emerging from the interdisciplinary fields of Chicano studies, U.S. Latino studies, critical race studies, and family studies-the author adopts an intersectional "social inequality lens" as a means for understanding the broader sociopolitical dynamics of the Latino family, considering ethnic subgroup diversity, community context, institutional practices, and their intersections with family processes and well-being. Zambrana, a leading expert on Latino populations in America, demonstrates the value of this approach for capturing the contemporary complexity of and transitions within diverse U.S. Latino families and communities. This book offers the most up-to-date portrait we have of Latinos in America today.

Die weltweite Ungleichheit

Der World Inequality Report 2018
Author: Facundo Alvaredo,Lucas Chancel,Thomas Piketty,Emmanuel Saez,Gabriel Zucman
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406723861
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 456
View: 9928

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Mit seinem Weltbestseller «Das Kapital im 21. Jahrhundert» hat Thomas Piketty eine heftige Kontroverse über die wachsende Ungleichheit in den westlichen Gesellschaften und deren Ursachen ausgelöst. Nun folgt der «World Inequality Report» – der gründlichste und aktuellste Bericht zur Lage der weltweiten Ungleichheit. Ein junges Team von Ökonomen, zu dem auch Piketty gehört, legt darin Fakten und Analysen vor, die ganz klar zeigen: Fast überall auf der Welt nimmt die Ungleichheit dramatisch zu. 1980 verdienten in den USA die unteren 50 Prozent der Lohnskala 21 Prozent des gesamten nationalen Einkommens, während das oberste 1 Prozent 11 Prozent des gesamten Einkommens mit nach Hause nahm. Doch dieser gewaltige Spagat hat sich heute sogar noch umgekehrt: Während die untersten 50 Prozent nur noch 13 Prozent des Einkommens nach Hause bringen, sichert sich das oberste 1 Prozent mehr als 20 Prozent des gesamten Einkommens. Diesen Trend zunehmender ökonomischer Ungleichheit gibt es nicht nur in den USA, sondern nahezu überall auf der Welt. Er wirkt wie eine bedrohliche kapitalistische Urgewalt, gegen die sich im Zeitalter von Globalisierung und Beschleunigung nichts ausrichten lässt. Der «World Inequality Report» zeigt, dass dies nicht stimmt. Wir können und müssen etwas gegen diesen Trend unternehmen – und eine starke Demokratie mit klaren Spielregeln für die Marktwirtschaft kann dies bewirken.