Globalization and Health Inequities in Latin America


Author: Ligia Malagón de Salazar,Roberto Carlos Luján Villar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319672924
Category: Medical
Page: 306
View: 1458

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This book critically analyses the influence of international policies and guidelines on the performance of interventions aimed at reducing health inequities in Latin America, with special emphasis on health promotion and health in all policies strategies. While the implementation of these interventions plays a key role in strengthening these countries’ capacity to respond to current and future challenges, the urgency and pressures of cooperation and funding agencies to show results consistent with their own agendas not only hampers this goal, but also makes the territory invisible, hiding the real problems faced by most Latin American countries, diminishing the richness of local knowledge production, and hindering the development of relevant proposals that consider the territory’s conditions and cultural identity. Departing from this general analysis, the authors search for answers to the following questions: Why, despite the importance of the theoretical advances r egarding actions to address social and health inequities, haven’t Latin American countries been able to produce the expected results? Why do successful initiatives only take place within the framework of pilot projects? Why does the ideology of health promotion and health in all policies mainly permeate structures of the health sector, but not other sectors? Why are intersectoral actions conjunctural initiatives, which often fail to evolve into permanent practices? Based on an extensive literature review, case studies, personal experiences, and interviews with key informants in the region, Globalization and Health Inequities in Latin America presents a strategy that uses monitoring and evaluation practices for enhancing the capacity of Latin American and other low and middle-income countries to implement sustainable processes to foster inclusiveness, equity, social justice and human rights. p/pp

Neoliberalism, Globalization, and Inequalities

Consequences for Health and Quality of Life
Author: Vicente Navarro
Publisher: Baywood Publishing Company
ISBN: N.A
Category: Medical
Page: 506
View: 5126

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Since U.S. President Reagan and U.K. Prime Minister Thatcher, a major ideology (under the name of economic science) has been expanded worldwide that claims that the best policies to stimulate human development are those that reduce the role of the state in economic and social lives: privatizing public services and public enterprises, deregulating the mobility of capital and labor, eliminating protectionism, and reducing public social protection. This ideology, called "neoliberalism," has guided the globalization of economic activity and become the conventional wisdom in international agencies and institutions (such as the IMF, World Bank, World Trade Organization, and the technical agencies of the United Nations, including the WHO). Reproduced in the "Washington consensus" in the United States and the "Brussels consensus" in the European Union, this ideology has guided policies widely accepted as the only ones possible and advisable.This book assembles a series of articles that challenge that ideology. Written by well-known scholars, these articles question each of the tenets of neoliberal doctrine, showing how the policies guided by this ideology have adversely affected human development in the countries where they have been implemented.

Global Entangled Inequalities

Conceptual Debates and Evidence from Latin America
Author: Elizabeth Jelin,Renata Motta,Sérgio Costa
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351727885
Category: Social Science
Page: 244
View: 5759

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This book presents studies from across Latin America to take up the challenge of exploring the plurality of social inequalities from a global perspective. Accordingly, it identifies the structural forces of social inequalities on a world scale as they shape asymmetries observed in a wide array of phenomena, such as racial and gender inequality, urbanization, migration, commodity production, indigenous mobilization, ecological conflicts, and the "new middle class". A rich contribution to the study of the interconnections between the global social structure and multiple local and national hierarchies, Global Entangled Inequalities brings consistently together a variety of conceptual approaches, ranging from ethnographies to legal genealogies, and will therefore appeal to scholars across the social sciences with interests in social theory, power analysis, intersectionality studies, urban studies, and global social and environmental justice.

Globalization and Austerity Politics in Latin America


Author: Stephen B. Kaplan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139619721
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 8333

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In an age of financial globalization, are markets and democracy compatible? For developing countries, the dramatic internationalization of financial markets over the last two decades deepens tensions between politics and markets. Notwithstanding the rise of left-leaning governments in regions like Latin America, macroeconomic policies often have a neoliberal appearance. When is austerity imposed externally and when is it a domestic political choice? By combining statistical tests with extensive field research across Latin America, this book examines the effect of financial globalization on economic policymaking. Kaplan argues that a country's structural composition of international borrowing and its individual technocratic understanding of past economic crises combine to produce dramatically different outcomes in national policy choices. Incorporating these factors into an electoral politics framework, the book then challenges the conventional wisdom that political business cycles are prevalent in newly democratizing regions. This book is accessible to a broad audience and scholars with an interest in the political economy of finance, development and democracy, and Latin American politics.

Globalization and Inequalities

Complexity and Contested Modernities
Author: Sylvia Walby
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1446202313
Category: Political Science
Page: 520
View: 3084

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How has globalization changed social inequality? Why do Americans die younger than Europeans, despite larger incomes? Is there an alternative to neoliberalism? Who are the champions of social democracy? Why are some countries more violent than others? In this groundbreaking book, Sylvia Walby examines the many changing forms of social inequality and their intersectionalities at both country and global levels. She shows how the contest between different modernities and conceptions of progress shape the present and future. The book re-thinks the nature of economy, polity, civil society and violence. It places globalization and inequalities at the centre of an innovative new understanding of modernity and progress and demonstrates the power of these theoretical reformulations in practice, drawing on global data and in-depth analysis of the US and EU. Walby analyses the tensions between the different forces that are shaping global futures. She examines the regulation and deregulation of employment and welfare; domestic and public gender regimes; secular and religious polities; path dependent trajectories and global political waves; and global inequalities and human rights.

Globalization, Poverty and Inequality

Between a Rock and a Hard Place
Author: Raphael Kaplinsky
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0745635849
Category: Political Science
Page: 304
View: 2852

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Globalization is characterised by persistent poverty and growing inequality. Conventional wisdom has it that this global poverty is residual – as globalization deepens, the poor will be lifted out of destitution. The policies of the World Bank, the IMF and the WTO echo this belief and push developing countries ever deeper into the global economy. Globalization, Poverty and Inequality provides an alternative viewpoint. It argues that for many – particularly for those living in Latin America, Asia and Central Europe – poverty and globalization are relational. It is the very workings of the global system which condemn many to poverty. In particular the mobility of investment, and the large pool of increasingly skilled workers in China and other parts of Asia, are driving down global wages. This poses challenges for policy makers in firms and countries throughout the world. It also challenges the very sustainability of globalisation itself. Are we about to witness the implosion of globalisation, as occurred between 1913 and 1950? Using a variety of theoretical frameworks and drawing on a vast amount of original research, this book will be an invaluable resource for all students of globalization and its effects.

Global Governance and Development


Author: José Antonio Ocampo
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191089052
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 224
View: 5768

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As the world becomes increasingly globalized, the need for governments to continually cooperate to achieve global objectives has become irreversible. This book looks critically at global governance structures in the economic and social field in order to understand what has been done and what can be done better. A close look at the United Nations relationship with development cooperation and the provision of global public goods, provides a thorough understanding of the current status of the world's premier global governance structure. Additionally, analyses of official development assistance and the role of multilateral development banks cast a wider net to demonstrate the growing need for global cooperation and development beyond the borders of the UN. These six chapters have been written at a pivotal moment in global governance initiatives, when the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda is drawing international development into a new era. As this new agenda shifts the future of global development initiatives and increasingly relies on civil society, non-state actors, and regional and local governments to fulfil the sustainable development goals, how will international cooperation and development institutions be changed? And how can we make sure that these initiatives and institutions are innovating for the better?

Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality


Author: Antonia Kupfer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317978269
Category: Education
Page: 232
View: 836

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Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality addresses the global transformation of higher education in relation to changes in the labour market. It focuses on the relative impact of elements of globalisation on social inequality, and provides insights into the ways in which these general forces of change are transformed into specific policies shaped by global forces and the various national values, institutional structures and politics of the specified societies. The book begins with a theoretical conceptualization for a comparative understanding of globalization, higher education, labour markets and inequality. This is followed by a range of mainstream accounts from an international selection of contributors of the ways in which national systems have responded to the forces of globalisation and the increasing demand for higher education graduates – in Australia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, New Zealand and the UK. Finally, contributors explore more specific concerns such as the transition from higher education to the labour market in China and Sweden, the division of the ‘knowledge’ workers into traditional social groups in the US, and the role and salience of Doctoral programmes in South Africa in developing a knowledge economy. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Education and Work.

The Globalization of Inequality


Author: François Bourguignon
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400885558
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 224
View: 1256

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In The Globalization of Inequality, distinguished economist and policymaker François Bourguignon examines the complex and paradoxical links between a vibrant world economy that has raised the living standard of over half a billion people in emerging nations such as China, India, and Brazil, and the exponentially increasing inequality within countries. Exploring globalization's role in the evolution of inequality, Bourguignon takes an original and truly international approach to the decrease in inequality between nations, the increase in inequality within nations, and the policies that might moderate inequality’s negative effects. Demonstrating that in a globalized world it becomes harder to separate out the factors leading to domestic or international inequality, Bourguignon examines each trend through a variety of sources, and looks at how these inequalities sometimes balance each other out or reinforce one another. Factoring in the most recent economic crisis, Bourguignon investigates why inequality in some countries has dropped back to levels that have not existed for several decades, and he asks if these should be considered in the context of globalization or if they are in fact specific to individual nations. Ultimately, Bourguignon argues that it will be up to countries in the developed and developing world to implement better policies, even though globalization limits the scope for some potential redistributive instruments. An informed and original contribution to the current debates about inequality, this book will be essential reading for anyone who is interested in the future of the world economy.

Crucial Needs, Weak Incentives

Social Sector Reform, Democratization, and Globalization in Latin America
Author: Robert R. Kaufman,Joan M. Nelson
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
ISBN: N.A
Category: Political Science
Page: 542
View: 3581

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Crucial Needs, Weak Incentives studies the politics of efforts to reform education and health services in Latin America in the 1990s. Both sectors were common targets of reform—education because of its economic importance, health care because of needs to reduce great inequities of access and opportunities to increase domestic savings presented by reforms. Both sectors also have large numbers of unionized public employees, whose presence affects patronage as well as political power. The book presents case studies that offer a wealth of new information not previously accessible to the English-speaking academic and policy community. For health care, these cover Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Costa Rica, and Peru; for eductaion, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Four chapters by the editors set out for each sector the goals, structure, and outcomes of reform efforts. Contributors are Marta Arretche, Josefina Bruni Celli, Mary A. Clark, Javier Corrales, Sonia M. Draibe, Christina Ewig, Alec Ian Gershberg, Alejandra Gonzalez Rossetti, Merilee S. Grindle, Peter Lloyd-Sherlock, Pamela S. Lowden, and Patricia Ramirez.

Understanding the Changing Planet:

Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences
Author: Committee on Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences in the Next Decade,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309150752
Category: Science
Page: 172
View: 8142

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From the oceans to continental heartlands, human activities have altered the physical characteristics of Earth's surface. With Earth's population projected to peak at 8 to 12 billion people by 2050 and the additional stress of climate change, it is more important than ever to understand how and where these changes are happening. Innovation in the geographical sciences has the potential to advance knowledge of place-based environmental change, sustainability, and the impacts of a rapidly changing economy and society. Understanding the Changing Planet outlines eleven strategic directions to focus research and leverage new technologies to harness the potential that the geographical sciences offer.

Capital, Power, and Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean


Author: Richard Legé Harris
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780742555242
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 344
View: 1625

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Comprehensive and interdisciplinary, the thoroughly updated and revised second edition of Capital, Power, and Inequality in Latin America is an engaging critical analysis of the major political, economic, social, and ecological conditions in Latin America and the Caribbean. Expert chapter authors describe and analyze the economies and trading relations, politics and state policies, social inequalities and social injustices, indigenous communities, gender relations, influence of religion, wide array of social movements, and social ecology of the societies in this important region of the world.

Global Inequality


Author: Branko Milanovic
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674969766
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 311
View: 2311

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Branko Milanovic presents a bold account of the dynamics that drive inequality on a global scale. Using vast data sets, he explains the forces that make inequality rise and fall within and among nations over time. He reveals who has been helped by globalization, who has been hurt, andwhat policies might tilt the balance toward economic justice.

Aging, Globalization and Inequality

The New Critical Gerontology
Author: Jan Baars,Dale Dannefer,Chris Phillipson,Alan Walker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351845918
Category: Psychology
Page: 304
View: 9234

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This book is a major reassessment of work in the field of critical gerontology, providing a comprehensive survey of issues by a team of contributors drawn from Europe and North America. The book focuses on the variety of ways in which age and ageing are socially constructed, and the extent to which growing old is being transformed through processes associated with globalisation. The collection offers a range of alternative views and visions about the nature of social ageing, making a major contribution to theory-building within the discipline of gerontology. The different sections of the book give an overview of the key issues and concerns underlying the development of critical gerontology. These include: first, the impact of globalisation and of multinational organizations and agencies on the lives of older people; second, the factors contributing to the "social construction" of later life; and third, issues associated with diversity and inequality in old age, arising through the effects of cumulative advantage and disadvantage over the life course. These different themes are analysed using a variety of theoretical perspectives drawn from sociology, social policy, political science, and social anthropology. "Aging, Globalization and Inequality" brings together key contributors to critical perspectives on aging and is unique in the range of themes and concerns covered in a single volume. The study moves forward an important area of debate in studies of aging, and thus provides the basis for a new type of critical gerontology relevant to the twenty-first century.

Private Wealth and Public Revenue


Author: Tasha Fairfield
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107088372
Category: Political Science
Page: 364
View: 1731

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This book identifies sources of power that help business and economic elites influence policy decisions.

Pathologies of Power

Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor
Author: Paul Farmer
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520243269
Category: History
Page: 402
View: 7130

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"Pathologies of Power" uses harrowing stories of life and death to argue thatthe promotion of social and economic rights of the poor is the most importanthuman rights struggle of our times.

Globalization and Its Discontents


Author: Joseph E. Stiglitz
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393071078
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 304
View: 3656

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This powerful, unsettling book gives us a rare glimpse behind the closed doors of global financial institutions by the winner of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Economics. When it was first published, this national bestseller quickly became a touchstone in the globalization debate. Renowned economist and Nobel Prize winner Joseph E. Stiglitz had a ringside seat for most of the major economic events of the last decade, including stints as chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers and chief economist at the World Bank. Particularly concerned with the plight of the developing nations, he became increasingly disillusioned as he saw the International Monetary Fund and other major institutions put the interests of Wall Street and the financial community ahead of the poorer nations. Those seeking to understand why globalization has engendered the hostility of protesters in Seattle and Genoa will find the reasons here. While this book includes no simple formula on how to make globalization work, Stiglitz provides a reform agenda that will provoke debate for years to come. Rarely do we get such an insider's analysis of the major institutions of globalization as in this penetrating book. With a new foreword for this paperback edition.

Clinical Decision Support Systems

Theory and Practice
Author: Eta S. Berner
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319319132
Category: Medical
Page: 313
View: 3364

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Building on the success of the previous editions, this fully updated book once again brings together worldwide experts to illustrate the underlying science and day-to-day use of decision support systems in clinical and educational settings. Topics discussed include: -Mathematical Foundations of Decision Support Systems -Design and Implementation Issues -Ethical and Legal Issues in Decision Support -Clinical Trials of Information Interventions -Hospital-Based Decision Support -Real World Case Studies