Globalization and Health Inequities in Latin America


Author: Ligia Malagón de Salazar,Roberto Carlos Luján Villar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319672924
Category: Medical
Page: 306
View: 7456

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This book critically analyses the influence of international policies and guidelines on the performance of interventions aimed at reducing health inequities in Latin America, with special emphasis on health promotion and health in all policies strategies. While the implementation of these interventions plays a key role in strengthening these countries’ capacity to respond to current and future challenges, the urgency and pressures of cooperation and funding agencies to show results consistent with their own agendas not only hampers this goal, but also makes the territory invisible, hiding the real problems faced by most Latin American countries, diminishing the richness of local knowledge production, and hindering the development of relevant proposals that consider the territory’s conditions and cultural identity. Departing from this general analysis, the authors search for answers to the following questions: Why, despite the importance of the theoretical advances r egarding actions to address social and health inequities, haven’t Latin American countries been able to produce the expected results? Why do successful initiatives only take place within the framework of pilot projects? Why does the ideology of health promotion and health in all policies mainly permeate structures of the health sector, but not other sectors? Why are intersectoral actions conjunctural initiatives, which often fail to evolve into permanent practices? Based on an extensive literature review, case studies, personal experiences, and interviews with key informants in the region, Globalization and Health Inequities in Latin America presents a strategy that uses monitoring and evaluation practices for enhancing the capacity of Latin American and other low and middle-income countries to implement sustainable processes to foster inclusiveness, equity, social justice and human rights. p/pp

Gender, Globalization, and Health in a Latin American Context


Author: J. Gideon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137120274
Category: Political Science
Page: 271
View: 9377

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Using a political economy of health, Gender, Globalization, and Health in a Latin American Context demonstrates how the development of health systems in Latin America was closely linked to men's participation in formal labor. This established an inherent male bias that continues to shape health services today. While economic liberalization has created new jobs that have been taken up mainly by women, these jobs fail to offer the same health entitlements. Author Jasmine Gideon explores the resultant tensions and gender inequalities, which have been further exacerbated in the context of health care commercialization.

Die Globalisierung der Ungleichheit


Author: Francois Bourguignon
Publisher: Hamburger Edition HIS
ISBN: 3868546030
Category: Social Science
Page: 128
View: 3372

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Segen oder Teufelswerk? Ist die Globalisierung für den beispiellosen Anstieg von Ungleichheit in der Welt verantwortlich? Verweist sie alle Hoffnungen auf soziale Gerechtigkeit ins Reich der Utopie? Kaum eine Debatte wird so erhitzt geführt wie jene um die Globalisierung. Das Verhältnis von Ungleichheit und Globalisierung muss in der doppelten Perspektive - national und international - betrachtet werden, um in seiner Komplexität begreifbar zu werden. So steht dem Anstieg nationaler Ungleichheit paradoxerweise eine Abnahme globaler Ungleichheit gegenüber. Bourguignon, ehemaliger Chefökonom der Weltbank, analysiert diese antagonistischen Effekte der Globalisierung. Mit Blick auf die Schwellenländer ist die Ungleichheit im Weltvergleich geringer geworden: Der Lebensstandard in Brasilien, China oder Indien nähert sich langsam demjenigen der Nordamerikaner und Europäer an. Binnenstaatlich betrachtet sind die Ungleichheiten jedoch in einer nicht geringen Anzahl der Länder eklatant geworden, was zu sozialen Spannungen führen musste. Ohne neue Marktregularien, einer steuerlich indizierten Umverteilung und Gehaltsobergrenzen wird die zunehmende Ungleichheit nicht einzudämmen sein. Bourguignon beschreibt das Instrumentarium, das den nationalen wie internationalen Entscheidungsträgern zur Verfügung steht, um eine an Gerechtigkeitsmaßstäben ausgerichtete Verteilungspolitik zu verwirklichen. Wer heute zunehmende Globalisierung der Ungleichheit verhindern will, muss für eine Globalisierung der Umverteilung eintreten.

Globalization and Health

Pathways, Evidence and Policy
Author: Ronald Labonté,Ted Schrecker,Corinne Packer,Vivien Runnels
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135850097
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 378
View: 7088

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Contemporary globalization has had tremendous impact on health equity across the globe. However, no volume has systematically analyzed the relationship between globalization and global trends in health outcomes. This book consolidates and updates the findings of a global research project undertaken by the Globalisation Knowledge Network (GKN) of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Chapters examine such questions as: How has trade liberalisation affected the social determinants of health? How has globalization affected food security, nutrition and equitable access to water and sanitation? How well do present global governance structures take account of the health equity effects associated with the social determinants of health? This landmark volume will be a necessary addition for researchers and scholars studying the field of globalization, health and social policy, and public health across the social sciences.

Pharmaceutical Autonomy and Public Health in Latin America

State, Society and Industry in Brazil’s AIDS Program
Author: Matthew B. Flynn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317565614
Category: Political Science
Page: 232
View: 1648

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Brazil has occupied a central role in the access to medicines movement, especially with respect to drugs used to treat those with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). How and why Brazil succeeded in overcoming powerful political and economic interests, both at home and abroad, to roll-out and sustain treatment represents an intellectual puzzle. In this book, Matthew Flynn traces the numerous challenges Brazil faced in its efforts to provide essential medicines to all of its citizens. Using dependency theory, state theory, and moral underpinnings of markets, Flynn delves deeper into the salient factors contributing to Brazil’s successes and weaknesses, including control over technology, creation of political alliances, and instrumental use of normative frameworks and effectively explains the ability of countries to fulfill the prescription drug needs of its population versus the interests and operations of the global pharmaceutical industry Pharmaceutical Autonomy and Public Health in Latin America is one of the only books to provide an in-depth account of the challenges that a developing country, like Brazil, faces to fulfill public health objectives amidst increasing global economic integration and new international trade agreements. Scholars interested in public health issues, HIV/AIDS, and human rights, but also to social scientists interested in Latin America and international political economy will find this an original and thought provoking read.

Global Inequalities at Work

Work's Impact on the Health of Individuals, Families, and Societies
Author: Jody Heymann
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199747993
Category: Medical
Page: 368
View: 3901

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A map of the relationship between work and health that is truly global--both geographically and in its coverage of the impact of work on the health of individuals, families, and societies, has not previously been drawn. Global Inequalities at Work is the first book to fill in the map. Drawing from studies done around the world, it critically examines the many ways in which work is affecting health around the world. The first section covers the wide range of risks--physical, chemical, and social--tot he health of employees in agricultural, industrial, and post-industrial workplaces. Part II provides a detailed analysis of how working conditions can dramatically influence the health and welfare of family members--including children, elderly parents, and the disabled--in both the developing and industrial world. Part III examines the relationships between work and health at the societal level by focusing on two examples: the ways in which working conditions affect income inequalities and health, and the ways in which working conditions influence gender inequalities and health. Part IV investigates the new challenges to and opportunities for improving the relationship between work and health that are presented by a rapidly globalizing economy. Global Inequalities at Work addresses these issues at a time when globalization is both markedly changing the impact of work on the health of individuals, families, and societies, and radically revising what can be done about it. Leaders from universities, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations bring to this edited volume expertise from six continents.

Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean


Author: Ricardo Paes de Barros,Francisco H. G. Ferreira,Jose R Molinas Vega,Jaime Saavedra Chanduvi
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821377469
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 220
View: 2198

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Equality of opportunity is about leveling the playing field so that circumstances such as gender, ethnicity, place of birth, or family background do not influence a person s life chances. Success in life should depend on people s choices, effort and talents, not to their circumstances at birth. 'Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean' introduces new methods for measuring inequality of opportunities and makes an assessment of its evolution in Latin America over a decade. An innovative Human Opportunity Index and other parametric and non-parametric techniques are presented for quantifying inequality based on circumstances exogenous to individual efforts. These methods are applied to gauge inequality of opportunities in access to basic services for children, learning achievement for youth, and income and consumption for adults.

Globalization and the Distribution of Wealth

The Latin American Experience, 1982–2008
Author: Arie M. Kacowicz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139620142
Category: Political Science
Page: N.A
View: 9178

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The effects of globalization on poverty and inequality are a key issue in contemporary international politics, yet they have been neglected in international relations and comparative politics literatures. Arie M. Kacowicz explores the complex relationships between globalization and the distribution of wealth as a political problem in international relations, analyzing them through the prism of poverty and inequality. He develops a political framework (an 'intermestic model') which captures the interaction between the international and the domestic domains and explains those effects with a particular emphasis upon the state and its relations with society. He also specifies the different hypotheses about the possible links between globalization and the distribution of wealth and tests them in the context of Latin America during the years 1982–2008, with a particular focus on Argentina and the deep crisis it experienced in 2001–2.

Sociological Abstracts


Author: Leo P. Chall
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: N.A
Category: Sociology
Page: N.A
View: 9472

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CSA Sociological Abstracts abstracts and indexes the international literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences. The database provides abstracts of journal articles and citations to book reviews drawn from over 1,800+ serials publications, and also provides abstracts of books, book chapters, dissertations, and conference papers.

Die Schatten der Globalisierung


Author: Joseph Stiglitz
Publisher: Siedler Verlag
ISBN: 3641202779
Category: Business & Economics
Page: N.A
View: 4292

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Explodierende Aktienkurse und scheinbar nie dagewesenes Wirtschaftswachstum kennzeichneten die »Goldenen Neunziger« – bis der Absturz in eine weltweite, tiefe und bis heute andauernde Rezession folgte. Was ist schief gelaufen? Nobelpreisträger Joseph Stiglitz zeigt, welchen Kräften sich der schwindelerregende Boom verdankte und inwiefern in ihm bereits die Saat der Zerstörung angelegt war. Stiglitz, als Berater der ersten Clinton-Administration und später Chefökonom der Weltbank ein intimer Kenner des »Tatorts Washington« (NZZ) und der internationalen Konzernzentralen, weiß von den strategischen Entscheidungen in den innersten Zirkeln von Politik und Wirtschaft zu berichten, aber auch von den hitzigen Debatten, die diesen vorausgingen. Selbstkritisch beleuchtet er die globalen Folgen ihres gemeinsamen Tuns: Wie ist die Fixierung auf den Defizitabbau heute zu bewerten? Wie wirkt sich die von der US-Regierung exzessiv betriebene Deregulierung des Marktes aus? Wohin hat uns die Maxime, Eigennutz diene automatisch auch der Allgemeinheit, geführt? Das Gleichgewicht zwischen Staat und Markt ist verloren gegangen, so Stiglitz’ zentrale These. Um diese Balance wiederherzustellen, entwickelt Stiglitz eine überzeugende Alternative zum Diktat des Marktes – denn das, so zeigt er auf provozierende Weise, ist nicht nur wenig sozial, sondern auf lange Sicht sogar unwirtschaftlich.

A Sociological Approach to Health Determinants


Author: Toni Schofield
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107689414
Category: Medical
Page: 272
View: 1708

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This book is a comprehensive resource that provides a new perspective on the influence of social structures on health.

Der Preis der Ungleichheit

Wie die Spaltung der Gesellschaft unsere Zukunft bedroht
Author: Joseph Stiglitz
Publisher: Siedler Verlag
ISBN: 364109819X
Category: Social Science
Page: 544
View: 8762

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Viele Arme, wenige Reiche - Warum die wachsende Ungleichheit uns alle angeht Die Ungleichheit in der Welt nimmt zu: Immer weniger Menschen häufen immer größeren Reichtum an, während die Zahl der Armen wächst und die Mittelschicht vom Abstieg bedroht ist. Doch diese Entwicklung, so zeigt Nobelpreisträger Joseph Stiglitz in seinem neuen Bestseller, ist keine zwangsläufige Folge einer freien Marktwirtschaft, sondern Ergebnis einer globalisierten Ökonomie, die zunehmend vom reichsten einen Prozent der Bevölkerung beherrscht wird.

Hot Zone

Ebola, das tödliche Virus
Author: Richard Preston
Publisher: Knaur eBook
ISBN: 3426434571
Category: Health & Fitness
Page: 368
View: 5604

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Richard Prestons populärwissenschaftlicher Tatsachen-Thriller liest sich spannender als jeder Horror-Roman. Preston berichtet darin über die ersten Infektionen mit dem Ebola-Virus vor über vierzig Jahren. Sein Tatsachenthriller von 1998 ist immer noch hochaktuell, wie die schreckliche Ebola-Epidemie in Zentralafrika gerade zeigt. Ebola gehört zu den gefährlichsten Killerviren. Diese aus dem Afrikanischen Regenwald stammenden sogenannten „Filoviren“, können einen Menschen auf grausamste Art und Weise töten. Das Virus löst innerhalb weniger Tage die inneren Organe auf, und der Erkrankte verblutet von innen. Das Virus ist zudem extrem ansteckend, und weltweit gibt es immer noch kein wirksames Heilmittel dagegen. Deshalb ist es nicht auszuschließen, dass die Menschheit eines Tages einer Seuche wie Ebola erliegen könnte. Preston schildert, wie der Ebola-Erreger über Affen, die für medizinische Versuche importiert wurden, schließlich nach Amerika kommt. In einem kleinen Labor in Reston, USA, verbreitet er Angst und Schrecken. Als sich die Seuche unter den im Quarantänelager zusammengepferchten Affen ausbreitet, rufen die Betreiber der Anlage die Gesundheitsbehörden zu Hilfe. Bald müssen die Wissenschaftler feststellen, dass sich das Virus inzwischen nicht nur durch Kontakt, sondern auch durch die Luft verbreiten kann.

Globalization and Development

Why East Asia Surged Ahead and Latin America Fell Behind
Author: A. Elson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 113731639X
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 272
View: 1489

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Comparing the experience of East Asia and Latin America since the mid-1970s, Elson identifies the key internal factors common to each region which have allowed East Asia to take advantage of the trade, financial, and technological impact of a more globalized economy to support its development, while Latin America has not.

Globalization and Development in Latin America


Author: Richard Legé Harris
Publisher: de Sitter Publications
ISBN: 9781897160022
Category: Business & Economics
Page: 353
View: 3687

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This volume critically examines the effects of globalization and neoliberal development policies on economic, social, and political conditions in contemporary Latin America and the Caribbean. The contributors provide a series of complementary perspectives on some of the most important trends and issues in this important region of the world. In general, they provide multiple view points and extensive evidence of profound transformations in the economic, social, and political systems as well as in the international relations of the societies in the region.

Handbook of Income Distribution


Author: Anthony B. Atkinson,Francois Bourguignon
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444594760
Category: Social Science
Page: 2366
View: 5884

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What new theories, evidence, explanations, and policies have shaped our studies of income distribution in the 21st century? Editors Tony Atkinson and Francois Bourguignon assemble the expertise of leading authorities in this survey of substantive issues. In two volumes they address subjects that were not covered in Volume 1 (2000), such as education, health and experimental economics; and subjects that were covered but where there have been substantial new developments, such as the historical study of income inequality and globalization. Some chapters discuss future growth areas, such as inheritance, the links between inequality and macro-economics and finance, and the distributional implications of climate change. They also update empirical advances and major changes in the policy environment. The volumes define and organize key areas of income distribution studies Contributors focus on identifying newly developing questions and opportunities for future research The authoritative articles emphasize the ways that income mobility and inequality studies have recently gained greater political significance

Latinos in American Society

Families and Communities in Transition
Author: Ruth Enid Zambrana
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801461521
Category: Social Science
Page: 296
View: 8326

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It is well known that Latinos in the United States bear a disproportionate burden of low educational attainment, high residential segregation, and low visibility in the national political landscape. In Latinos in American Society, Ruth Enid Zambrana brings together the latest research on Latinos in the United States to demonstrate how national origin, age, gender, socioeconomic status, and education affect the well-being of families and individuals. By mapping out how these factors result in economic, social, and political disadvantage, Zambrana challenges the widespread negative perceptions of Latinos in America and the single story of Latinos in the United States as a monolithic group. Synthesizing an increasingly substantial body of social science research-much of it emerging from the interdisciplinary fields of Chicano studies, U.S. Latino studies, critical race studies, and family studies-the author adopts an intersectional "social inequality lens" as a means for understanding the broader sociopolitical dynamics of the Latino family, considering ethnic subgroup diversity, community context, institutional practices, and their intersections with family processes and well-being. Zambrana, a leading expert on Latino populations in America, demonstrates the value of this approach for capturing the contemporary complexity of and transitions within diverse U.S. Latino families and communities. This book offers the most up-to-date portrait we have of Latinos in America today.

Health Inequalities and Global Justice


Author: Patti Tamara Lenard
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 0748656529
Category: Political Science
Page: 256
View: 1324

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Explores the moral dilemmas posed by disparities in health across nations

Neoliberalism, Globalization, and Inequalities

Consequences for Health and Quality of Life
Author: Vicente Navarro
Publisher: Baywood Publishing Company
ISBN: N.A
Category: Medical
Page: 506
View: 1349

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Since U.S. President Reagan and U.K. Prime Minister Thatcher, a major ideology (under the name of economic science) has been expanded worldwide that claims that the best policies to stimulate human development are those that reduce the role of the state in economic and social lives: privatizing public services and public enterprises, deregulating the mobility of capital and labor, eliminating protectionism, and reducing public social protection. This ideology, called "neoliberalism," has guided the globalization of economic activity and become the conventional wisdom in international agencies and institutions (such as the IMF, World Bank, World Trade Organization, and the technical agencies of the United Nations, including the WHO). Reproduced in the "Washington consensus" in the United States and the "Brussels consensus" in the European Union, this ideology has guided policies widely accepted as the only ones possible and advisable.This book assembles a series of articles that challenge that ideology. Written by well-known scholars, these articles question each of the tenets of neoliberal doctrine, showing how the policies guided by this ideology have adversely affected human development in the countries where they have been implemented.

A-Z of Public Health


Author: Glenn Laverack
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
ISBN: 1137426179
Category: Medical
Page: 248
View: 3066

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This book provides a clear and comprehensive introduction to the many definitions, theories and approaches in public health. It is an important book for students and practitioners who are interested in public health, and for those who are keen to improve it.