Global Change in the Holocene


Author: John Birks,Rick Battarbee,Anson Mackay,Frank Oldfield
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134669976
Category: Science
Page: 480
View: 565

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The Holocene spans the 11,500 years since the end of the last Ice Age and has been a period of major global environmental change. However the rate of change has accelerated during the last hundred years, due largely to human impacts and this has led to a growing concern for the future of our environmental resources. Global Change in the Holocene demonstrates how reconstructing the record of past environmental change can provide us with essential knowledge about how our environment works and presents the reader with an informed viewpoint from which to project realistic future scenarios. The book brings together key techniques that are widely used in Holocene research, such as radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology and sediment analysis and offers a comprehensive analysis of various archives of environmental change including instrumental and documentary records, corals, lake sediments, glaciers and ice cores. This reference will be an informative and cutting-edge resource for all researchers in the fields of climate change, environmental science, geography, palaeoecology and archaeology.

The Holocene

An Environmental History
Author: Neil Roberts
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118712552
Category: Science
Page: 376
View: 4662

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The Holocene provides students, researchers andlay-readers with the remarkable story of how the natural world hasbeen transformed since the end of the last Ice Age around 15,000years ago. This period has witnessed a shift fromenvironmental changes determined by natural forces to thosedominated by human actions, including those of climate andgreenhouse gases. Understanding the environmental changes - bothnatural and anthropogenic - that have occurred during the Holoceneis of crucial importance if we are to achieve a sustainableenvironmental future. Revised and updated to take full account of the most recentadvances, the third edition of this classic text includessubstantial material on the scientific methods that are used toreconstruct and date past environments, as well as new conceptssuch as the Anthropocene. The book is fully-illustrated, global incoverage, and contains case studies, a glossary and more than 500new references.

Climate Changes during the Holocene and their Impact on Hydrological Systems


Author: Arie S. Issar
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139436403
Category: Science
Page: N.A
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It is now widely accepted that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are causing higher global atmospheric temperatures. However, there is still a great deal of uncertainty about the likely effects of such a temperature rise on climate, and even more about the impacts of climate change and variability on the world's hydrological regimes and socio-economic systems. Studying the effects of climate variability in the past can give clues as to possible future effects. This volume provides a comprehensive review of the effects of climate variability on hydrological and human systems in the Holocene (the last 10,000 years), in various parts of the world. The book concentrates on the regions bordering the Mediterranean Sea, western and central Europe, China, Japan, West and South Africa and the southwestern USA. This book will be of value to researchers and professionals in hydrology, climatology, geology and historical geography.

The New Normal

The Canadian Prairies in a Changing Climate
Author: University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center
Publisher: University of Regina Press
ISBN: 9780889772311
Category: Science
Page: 380
View: 3321

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The Canadian Prairies in a Changing Climate is a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of climate change in the prairie provinces, the impacts on natural resources, communities, human health and sectors of the economy, and the adaptation options that are available for alleviating adverse impacts and taking advantage of new opportunities provided by a warmer climate.

Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Ecosystems


Author: Martin Kernan,Richard W. Battarbee,Brian R. Moss
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444391275
Category: Science
Page: 328
View: 3739

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This text examines the impact of climate change on freshwater ecosystems, past, present and future. It especially considers the interactions between climate change and other drivers of change including hydromorphological modification, nutrient loading, acid deposition and contamination by toxic substances using evidence from palaeolimnology, time-series analysis, space-for-time substitution, laboratory and field experiments and process modelling. The book evaluates these processes in relation to extreme events, seasonal changes in ecosystems, trends over decadal-scale time periods, mitigation strategies and ecosystem recovery. The book is also concerned with how aspects of hydrophysical, hydrochemical and ecological change can be used as early indicators of climate change in aquatic ecosystems and it addresses the implications of future climate change for freshwater ecosystem management at the catchment scale. This is an ideal book for the scientific research community, but is also accessible to Masters and senior undergraduate students.

The Diatoms

Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences
Author: John P. Smol,Eugene F. Stoermer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139492624
Category: Science
Page: N.A
View: 2614

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This much revised and expanded edition provides a valuable and detailed summary of the many uses of diatoms in a wide range of applications in the environmental and earth sciences. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of diatoms in analysing ecological problems related to climate change, acidification, eutrophication, and other pollution issues. The chapters are divided into sections for easy reference, with separate sections covering indicators in different aquatic environments. A final section explores diatom use in other fields of study such as forensics, oil and gas exploration, nanotechnology, and archaeology. Sixteen new chapters have been added since the first edition, including introductory chapters on diatom biology and the numerical approaches used by diatomists. The extensive glossary has also been expanded and now includes over 1,000 detailed entries, which will help non-specialists to use the book effectively.

Issues in Global Environment—Globalization and Global Change Research: 2012 Edition

ScholarlyBrief
Author: N.A
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1481648985
Category: Political Science
Page: 70
View: 3506

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Issues in Global Environment—Globalization and Global Change Research: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Global Change in a concise format. The editors have built Issues in Global Environment—Globalization and Global Change Research: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Global Change in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Global Environment—Globalization and Global Change Research: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

The Oxford Companion to Global Change


Author: David Cuff,Andrew Goudie
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195324889
Category: Science
Page: 684
View: 9333

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In recent years, global change has become increasingly important in technological, ecological and political spheres. This companion examines the environmental events of recent times, and investigates long-term trends as well as broader issues of global change.

Environmental Change

Key Issues and Alternative Perspectives
Author: Frank Oldfield
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521829366
Category: Nature
Page: 363
View: 9970

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Environmental Change: Key Issues and Alternative Approaches describes and explains the significance of past and contemporary environmental and climatic change. It outlines the conceptual framework for studies of environmental change by posing key questions and presenting the results of relevant research. It provides a non-specialist introduction to models in environmental change research and to the study of past environmental changes. Covering the last 400 000 years, special emphasis is placed on past periods of rapid warming, the nature of climatic variability over the last 1000 years and the dramatic and accelerating changes in the Earth system heralded by the industrial revolution. The book is extensively referenced and illustrated. This book provides a balanced, non-specialist basis for understanding and exploring the scientific issues underlying global change for advanced undergraduates in geography, environmental, earth, biological and ecological sciences.

Sediment Records of Biomass Burning and Global Change


Author: James S. Clark,Helene Cachier,Johann G. Goldammer,Brian J. Stocks
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364259171X
Category: Science
Page: 492
View: 585

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Biomass burning profoundly affects atmospheric chemistry, the carbon cycle, and climate and may have done so for millions of years. Bringing together renowned experts from paleoecology, fire ecology, atmospheric chemistry, and organic chemistry, the volume elucidates the role of fire during global changes of the past and future. Topics covered include: the characterization of combustion products that occur in sediments, including char, soot/fly ash, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; the calibration of these constituents against atmospheric measurements from wildland and prescribed fire emissions; spatial and temporal patterns in combustion emissions at scales of individual burns to the globe.

Climate Change in the Polar Regions


Author: John Turner,Gareth J. Marshall
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052185010X
Category: Nature
Page: 434
View: 5615

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Comprehensive, up-to-date account of polar climate change over the last one million years for researchers and advanced students in polar science.

Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics

A Global Perspective on Mid-Holocene Transitions
Author: David G. Anderson,Kirk Maasch,Daniel H. Sandweiss
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080554556
Category: Science
Page: 602
View: 364

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The Middle Holocene epoch (8,000 to 3,000 years ago) was a time of dramatic changes in the physical world and in human cultures. Across this span, climatic conditions changed rapidly, with cooling in the high to mid-latitudes and drying in the tropics. In many parts of the world, human groups became more complex, with early horticultural systems replaced by intensive agriculture and small-scale societies being replaced by larger, more hierarchial organizations. Climate Change and Cultural Dynamics explores the cause and effect relationship between climatic change and cultural transformations across the mid-Holocene (c. 4000 B.C.). Explores the role of climatic change on the development of society around the world Chapters detail diverse geographical regions Co-written by noted archaeologists and paleoclimatologists for non-specialists

Lagoons and Coastal Wetlands in the Global Change Context: Impact and Management Issues

Selected papers of the International Conference "CoastWetChange", Venice 26-28 April 2004
Author: P., Viaroli,P. Lasserre,P. Campostrini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402060084
Category: Science
Page: 168
View: 1313

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This interdisciplinary volume comprehensively reviews recent developments in wetland science and global change. The aim is to identify gaps, problems and successes in the integration of scientific issues into lagoon and coastal wetland management. The major strength of this volume is that it integrates several fields of research including climatology, hydrology, geomorphology, ecology and biology.

Global Change and Protected Areas


Author: Guido Visconti,Professor of Geography Martin Beniston,Martin Beniston,Diego Barba,Emilio D. Iannorelli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0792369181
Category: Nature
Page: 521
View: 4968

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The scope of this book is to show that protected areas may be the regions where early signs of the impact of global change can be observed. These signs are not limited to physical parameters like temperature, precipitation, etc. but could include changes in the biosphere and in social behavior. The book is a collection of papers presented at the meeting `Global Change and Protected Areas' held in L'Aquila, Italy, in September 1998. It is divided into four sections dealing with the physical evidence for climatic and environmental changes, the impact on the biosphere and hydrology and the socio-economic implications. The last section is a case study on the Abruzzo Region which has the peculiarity among the Italian regions of having dedicated a third of its territory to natural parks. Most of the contributions have been prepared for this book and each section is opened by a general review that may also be very useful as a teaching tool. The book will be useful for both the researcher and the student. This rather interdisciplinary subject is totally new, with very few books in print.

Paleoclimate, Global Change and the Future


Author: Keith D. Alverson,Raymond S. Bradley
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540424024
Category: Nature
Page: 220
View: 9161

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This book provides a synthesis of the past decade of research into global changes that occurred in the earth system in the past. Focus is achieved by concentrating on those changes in the Earth's past environment that best inform our evaluation of current and future global changes and their consequences for human populations. The book stands as a ten year milestone in the operation of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). It seeks to provide a quantitative understanding of the Earth’s environment in the geologically recent past and to define the envelope of natural environmental variability against which anthropogenic impacts on the Earth System may be assessed. A set of color overhead transparencies based on the figures in the book is available free on the PAGES website (www.pages-igbp.org) for use in teaching and lecturing.

Climate ChangeImpact on Coastal Habitation


Author: Doeke Eisma
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780873713016
Category: Science
Page: 272
View: 373

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Temperature and precipitation increase and decrease because of natural causes. However, anthropogenic changes, such as an enhanced greenhouse effect, may result in alterations in the regional climate and in relative sea level. Serious changes in climate and sea level-with adverse effects particularly along low-lying coasts-would affect millions of people. Climate Change takes an in-depth, worldwide look at coastal habitation with respect to these natural and anthropogenic changes. No universally applicable coastal model can be used to describe climatic changes. This unique book provides individual discussions of beaches and barrier islands, cliffs, deltas, tidal flats and wetlands, reefs, and atolls. The impact of climatic change on coastal ecology and agriculture is investigated, and human responses to the effects of climatic change along the world's coasts are included.

Climates and Societies - A Climatological Perspective

A Contribution on Global Change and Related Problems Prepared by the Commission on Climatology of the International Geographical Union
Author: M. Yoshino,Manfred Domrös,Annick Douguédroit,J. Paszynski,L.C. Nkemdirim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401710554
Category: Science
Page: 408
View: 5288

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The impact of climate on human activities and the effect of humans on cli mate are two of the most important areas of inquiry in climatology. These interactions conducted through physical, chemical and biological process es were described as early as Roman and Greek times. Marcus Vitruvius (75-25 B. C. ), a famous Roman engineer and architect, made the following observation about the climatic conditions necessary for founding a city: Land ideal for the health is slightly elevated and there should be neither fog nor frost. The direction of the slope and the distance to the swamps, lakes, and beaches must also be considered. The prevailing wind directions, observed by a wind tower at the center of the city, like Horologium at Athens, should be taken into consideration in city planning. The main and narrow streets should be placed in the middle angle of the two prevailing wind directions. Then the location of the Pantheons and squares should be decided. The influence of humans on climate was a major subject for discussion in the 19th century, inspired in part, by the rapid industrial growth and expanding deforestation of the time. D. L. Howard wrote brilliant pieces on the climate of London in the 1830s, while G . P. Marsh discussed the effects of forests on precipitation in the U. S . A. in the second half of the 19th century.

Late Pleistocene and Holocene Environmental Change on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington


Author: Daniel G. Gavin,Linda B. Brubaker
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319110144
Category: Science
Page: 142
View: 3912

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This study brings together decades of research on the modern natural environment of Washington's Olympic Peninsula, reviews past research on paleoenvironmental change since the Late Pleistocene, and finally presents paleoecological records of changing forest composition and fire over the last 14,000 years. The focus of this study is on the authors’ studies of five pollen records from the Olympic Peninsula. Maps and other data graphics are used extensively. Paleoecology can effectively address some of these challenges we face in understanding the biotic response to climate change and other agents of change in ecosystems. First, species responses to climate change are mediated by changing disturbance regimes. Second, biotic hotspots today suggest a long-term maintenance of diversity in an area, and researchers approach the maintenance of diversity from a wide range and angles (CITE). Mountain regions may maintain biodiversity through significant climate change in ‘refugia’: locations where components of diversity retreat to and expand from during periods of unfavorable climate (Keppel et al., 2012). Paleoecological studies can describe the context for which biodiversity persisted through time climate refugia. Third, the paleoecological approach is especially suited for long-lived organisms. For example, a tree species that may typically reach reproductive sizes only after 50 years and remain fertile for 300 years, will experience only 30 to 200 generations since colonizing a location after Holocene warming about 11,000 years ago. Thus, by summarizing community change through multiple generations and natural disturbance events, paleoecological studies can examine the resilience of ecosystems to disturbances in the past, showing how many ecosystems recover quickly while others may not (Willis et al., 2010).

The Global Prehistory of Human Migration


Author: Immanuel Ness
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118970586
Category: Social Science
Page: 448
View: 2946

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Previously published as the first volume of The Encyclopediaof Global Human Migration, this work is devoted exclusively toprehistoric migration, covering all periods and places from thefirst hominin migrations out of Africa through the end ofprehistory. Presents interdisciplinary coverage of this topic, includingscholarship from the fields of archaeology, anthropology, genetics,biology, linguistics, and more Includes contributions from a diverse international team ofauthors, representing 17 countries and a variety ofdisciplines Divided into two sections, covering the Pleistocene andHolocene; each section examines human migration through chaptersthat focus on different regional and disciplinary lenses

The Way the Wind Blows

Climate Change, History, and Human Action
Author: Roderick J. McIntosh,Joseph A. Tainter,Susan Keech McIntosh
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231505787
Category: Science
Page: 448
View: 2697

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Scientists and policymakers are beginning to understand in ever-increasing detail that environmental problems cannot be understood solely through the biophysical sciences. Environmental issues are fundamentally human issues and must be set in the context of social, political, cultural, and economic knowledge. The need both to understand how human beings in the past responded to climatic and other environmental changes and to synthesize the implications of these historical patterns for present-day sustainability spurred a conference of the world's leading scholars on the topic. The Way the Wind Blows is the rich result of that conference. Articles discuss the dynamics of climate, human perceptions of and responses to the environment, and issues of sustainability and resiliency. These themes are illustrated through discussions of human societies around the world and throughout history.