Geometric Methods and Applications

For Computer Science and Engineering
Author: Jean Gallier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441999610
Category: Mathematics
Page: 680
View: 5828

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This book is an introduction to the fundamental concepts and tools needed for solving problems of a geometric nature using a computer. It attempts to fill the gap between standard geometry books, which are primarily theoretical, and applied books on computer graphics, computer vision, robotics, or machine learning. This book covers the following topics: affine geometry, projective geometry, Euclidean geometry, convex sets, SVD and principal component analysis, manifolds and Lie groups, quadratic optimization, basics of differential geometry, and a glimpse of computational geometry (Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations). Some practical applications of the concepts presented in this book include computer vision, more specifically contour grouping, motion interpolation, and robot kinematics. In this extensively updated second edition, more material on convex sets, Farkas’s lemma, quadratic optimization and the Schur complement have been added. The chapter on SVD has been greatly expanded and now includes a presentation of PCA. The book is well illustrated and has chapter summaries and a large number of exercises throughout. It will be of interest to a wide audience including computer scientists, mathematicians, and engineers. Reviews of first edition: "Gallier's book will be a useful source for anyone interested in applications of geometrical methods to solve problems that arise in various branches of engineering. It may help to develop the sophisticated concepts from the more advanced parts of geometry into useful tools for applications." (Mathematical Reviews, 2001) "...it will be useful as a reference book for postgraduates wishing to find the connection between their current problem and the underlying geometry." (The Australian Mathematical Society, 2001)

Curves and Surfaces in Geometric Modeling

Theory and Algorithms
Author: Jean H. Gallier
Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann
ISBN: 9781558605992
Category: Computers
Page: 491
View: 8284

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"Curves and Surfaces in Geometric Modeling: Theory and Algorithms offers a theoretically unifying understanding of polynomial curves and surfaces as well as an effective approach to implementation that you can apply to your own work as a graduate student, scientist, or practitioner." "The focus here is on blossoming - the process of converting a polynomial to its polar form - as a natural, purely geometric explanation of the behavior of curves and surfaces. This insight is important for more than just its theoretical elegance - the author demonstrates the value of blossoming as a practical algorithmic tool for generating and manipulating curves and surfaces that meet many different criteria. You'll learn to use this and other related techniques drawn from affine geometry for computing and adjusting control points, deriving the continuity conditions for splines, creating subdivision surfaces, and more." "It will be an essential acquisition for readers in many different areas, including computer graphics and animation, robotics, virtual reality, geometric modeling and design, medical imaging, computer vision, and motion planning."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Lectures on Formal and Rigid Geometry


Author: Siegfried Bosch
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319044176
Category: Mathematics
Page: 254
View: 9242

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The aim of this work is to offer a concise and self-contained 'lecture-style' introduction to the theory of classical rigid geometry established by John Tate, together with the formal algebraic geometry approach launched by Michel Raynaud. These Lectures are now viewed commonly as an ideal means of learning advanced rigid geometry, regardless of the reader's level of background. Despite its parsimonious style, the presentation illustrates a number of key facts even more extensively than any other previous work. This Lecture Notes Volume is a revised and slightly expanded version of a preprint that appeared in 2005 at the University of Münster's Collaborative Research Center "Geometrical Structures in Mathematics".

Arithmetic and Geometry of K3 Surfaces and Calabi–Yau Threefolds


Author: Radu Laza,Matthias Schütt,Noriko Yui
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146146403X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 602
View: 9225

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In recent years, research in K3 surfaces and Calabi–Yau varieties has seen spectacular progress from both arithmetic and geometric points of view, which in turn continues to have a huge influence and impact in theoretical physics—in particular, in string theory. The workshop on Arithmetic and Geometry of K3 surfaces and Calabi–Yau threefolds, held at the Fields Institute (August 16-25, 2011), aimed to give a state-of-the-art survey of these new developments. This proceedings volume includes a representative sampling of the broad range of topics covered by the workshop. While the subjects range from arithmetic geometry through algebraic geometry and differential geometry to mathematical physics, the papers are naturally related by the common theme of Calabi–Yau varieties. With the big variety of branches of mathematics and mathematical physics touched upon, this area reveals many deep connections between subjects previously considered unrelated. Unlike most other conferences, the 2011 Calabi–Yau workshop started with 3 days of introductory lectures. A selection of 4 of these lectures is included in this volume. These lectures can be used as a starting point for the graduate students and other junior researchers, or as a guide to the subject.

Algebraic Geometry and Commutative Algebra


Author: Siegfried Bosch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447148290
Category: Mathematics
Page: 504
View: 3167

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Algebraic geometry is a fascinating branch of mathematics that combines methods from both, algebra and geometry. It transcends the limited scope of pure algebra by means of geometric construction principles. Moreover, Grothendieck’s schemes invented in the late 1950s allowed the application of algebraic-geometric methods in fields that formerly seemed to be far away from geometry, like algebraic number theory. The new techniques paved the way to spectacular progress such as the proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem by Wiles and Taylor. The scheme-theoretic approach to algebraic geometry is explained for non-experts. More advanced readers can use the book to broaden their view on the subject. A separate part deals with the necessary prerequisites from commutative algebra. On a whole, the book provides a very accessible and self-contained introduction to algebraic geometry, up to a quite advanced level. Every chapter of the book is preceded by a motivating introduction with an informal discussion of the contents. Typical examples and an abundance of exercises illustrate each section. This way the book is an excellent solution for learning by yourself or for complementing knowledge that is already present. It can equally be used as a convenient source for courses and seminars or as supplemental literature.

Topics in Geometric Group Theory


Author: Pierre de la Harpe
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226317199
Category: Mathematics
Page: 310
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In this book, Pierre de la Harpe provides a concise and engaging introduction to geometric group theory, a new method for studying infinite groups via their intrinsic geometry that has played a major role in mathematics over the past two decades. A recognized expert in the field, de la Harpe adopts a hands-on approach, illustrating key concepts with numerous concrete examples. The first five chapters present basic combinatorial and geometric group theory in a unique and refreshing way, with an emphasis on finitely generated versus finitely presented groups. In the final three chapters, de la Harpe discusses new material on the growth of groups, including a detailed treatment of the "Grigorchuk group." Most sections are followed by exercises and a list of problems and complements, enhancing the book's value for students; problems range from slightly more difficult exercises to open research problems in the field. An extensive list of references directs readers to more advanced results as well as connections with other fields.

The Ricci Flow

Techniques and Applications. Geometric-analytic aspects
Author: Bennett Chow,Sun-Chin Chu,David Glickenstein,Christine Guenther,James Isenberg,Tom Ivey,Dan Knopf,Peng Lu,Feng Luo,Lei Ni
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821846612
Category:
Page: N.A
View: 7986

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The Ricci flow uses methods from analysis to study the geometry and topology of manifolds. With the third part of their volume on techniques and applications of the theory, the authors give a presentation of Hamilton's Ricci flow for graduate students and mathematicians interested in working in the subject, with an emphasis on the geometric and analytic aspects. The topics include Perelman's entropy functional, point picking methods, aspects of Perelman's theory of $\kappa$-solutions including the $\kappa$-gap theorem, compactness theorem and derivative estimates, Perelman's pseudolocality theorem, and aspects of the heat equation with respect to static and evolving metrics related to Ricci flow. In the appendices, we review metric and Riemannian geometry including the space of points at infinity and Sharafutdinov retraction for complete noncompact manifolds with nonnegative sectional curvature. As in the previous volumes, the authors have endeavored, as much as possible, to make the chapters independent of each other. The book makes advanced material accessible to graduate students and nonexperts. It includes a rigorous introduction to some of Perelman's work and explains some technical aspects of Ricci flow useful for singularity analysis. The authors give the appropriate references so that the reader may further pursue the statements and proofs of the various results.

Old and New Aspects in Spectral Geometry


Author: M.-E. Craioveanu,Mircea Puta,Themistocles M. Rassias
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402000522
Category: Mathematics
Page: 446
View: 3901

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It is known that to any Riemannian manifold (M, g ) , with or without boundary, one can associate certain fundamental objects. Among them are the Laplace-Beltrami opera tor and the Hodge-de Rham operators, which are natural [that is, they commute with the isometries of (M,g)], elliptic, self-adjoint second order differential operators acting on the space of real valued smooth functions on M and the spaces of smooth differential forms on M, respectively. If M is closed, the spectrum of each such operator is an infinite divergent sequence of real numbers, each eigenvalue being repeated according to its finite multiplicity. Spectral Geometry is concerned with the spectra of these operators, also the extent to which these spectra determine the geometry of (M, g) and the topology of M. This problem has been translated by several authors (most notably M. Kac). into the col loquial question "Can one hear the shape of a manifold?" because of its analogy with the wave equation. This terminology was inspired from earlier results of H. Weyl. It is known that the above spectra cannot completely determine either the geometry of (M , g) or the topology of M. For instance, there are examples of pairs of closed Riemannian manifolds with the same spectra corresponding to the Laplace-Beltrami operators, but which differ substantially in their geometry and which are even not homotopically equiva lent.

Complex Geometry

An Introduction
Author: Daniel Huybrechts
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540212904
Category: Computers
Page: 309
View: 8832

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This accessible introduction to the contemporary theory of compact complex manifolds emphasizes Kahler manifolds in their various aspects and applications. It contains accounts of basic concepts, exercises to illustrate the theory, and chapter appendices that cover recent research. Two appendices at the end of the book recall basic facts from differential geometry, Hodge theory on differential manifold, sheaf theory and sheaf cohomology.

Riemannian Geometry


Author: Gérard Besson,Miroslav Lovric,Maung Min-Oo,McKenzie Yuen-kong Wang
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821871874
Category: Mathematics
Page: 115
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This book is a compendium of survey lectures presented at a conference on Riemannian Geometry sponsored by The Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Sciences (Waterloo, Canada) in August 1993. Attended by over 80 participants, the aim of the conference was to promote research activity in Riemannian geometry. A select group of internationally established researchers in the field were invited to discuss and present current developments in a selection of contemporary topics in Riemannian geometry. This volume contains four of the five survey lectures presented at the conference.

Differentialgeometrie und Minimalflächen


Author: Jürgen Jost
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662067188
Category: Mathematics
Page: 152
View: 3951

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Das vorliegende Lehrbuch bietet eine moderne Einführung in die Differentialgeometrie etwa im Umfang einer einsemestrigen Vorlesung. Zunächst wird die Geometrie von Flächen im Raum behandelt. Hierbei wird die geometrische Anschauung des Lesers anhand vieler Beispiele gefördert, deren wichtigste Klasse die Minimalflächen bilden. Zu ihrem Studium werden analytische Methoden entwickelt, und in diesem Zusammenhang wird auch das Plateausche Problem, eine Minimalfläche mit vorgegebener Berandung zu finden, gelöst. Als Beispiel einer globalen Aussage der Differentialgeometrie wird der Bernsteinsche Satz bewiesen. Weitere Kapitel behandeln die innere Geometrie von Flächen, einschließlich des Satzes von Gauss-Bonnet und einer ausführlichen Darstellung der hyperbolischen Geometrie. Verschiedene geistesgeschichtliche Bemerkungen runden diesen Text ab, welcher durch seine Verbindung von geometrischen Konstruktionen und analytischen Methoden einem zentralen Trend der modernen mathematischen Forschung folgt. Das erste Lehrbuch, das eine gründliche Einführung in die Theorie der Minimalflächen gewährleistet.

Riemannian Geometry and Geometric Analysis


Author: Jürgen Jost
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642212980
Category: Mathematics
Page: 611
View: 7700

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This established reference work continues to lead its readers to some of the hottest topics of contemporary mathematical research. The previous edition already introduced and explained the ideas of the parabolic methods that had found a spectacular success in the work of Perelman at the examples of closed geodesics and harmonic forms. It also discussed further examples of geometric variational problems from quantum field theory, another source of profound new ideas and methods in geometry. The 6th edition includes a systematic treatment of eigenvalues of Riemannian manifolds and several other additions. Also, the entire material has been reorganized in order to improve the coherence of the book. From the reviews: "This book provides a very readable introduction to Riemannian geometry and geometric analysis. ... With the vast development of the mathematical subject of geometric analysis, the present textbook is most welcome." Mathematical Reviews "...the material ... is self-contained. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. Most of the paragraphs have a section ‘Perspectives’, written with the aim to place the material in a broader context and explain further results and directions." Zentralblatt MATH

Real Analysis: Measures, Integrals and Applications


Author: Boris Makarov,Anatolii Podkorytov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447151224
Category: Mathematics
Page: 772
View: 1792

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Real Analysis: Measures, Integrals and Applications is devoted to the basics of integration theory and its related topics. The main emphasis is made on the properties of the Lebesgue integral and various applications both classical and those rarely covered in literature. This book provides a detailed introduction to Lebesgue measure and integration as well as the classical results concerning integrals of multivariable functions. It examines the concept of the Hausdorff measure, the properties of the area on smooth and Lipschitz surfaces, the divergence formula, and Laplace's method for finding the asymptotic behavior of integrals. The general theory is then applied to harmonic analysis, geometry, and topology. Preliminaries are provided on probability theory, including the study of the Rademacher functions as a sequence of independent random variables. The book contains more than 600 examples and exercises. The reader who has mastered the first third of the book will be able to study other areas of mathematics that use integration, such as probability theory, statistics, functional analysis, partial probability theory, statistics, functional analysis, partial differential equations and others. Real Analysis: Measures, Integrals and Applications is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics and physics. It assumes that the reader is familiar with basic linear algebra and differential calculus of functions of several variables.

Geometry I


Author: Marcel Berger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540116585
Category: Mathematics
Page: 432
View: 3210

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Volume I of this 2-volume textbook provides a lively and readable presentation of large parts of classical geometry. For each topic the author presents an esthetically pleasing and easily stated theorem - although the proof may be difficult and concealed. The mathematical text is illustrated with figures, open problems and references to modern literature, providing a unified reference to geometry in the full breadth of its subfields and ramifications.

Geometric Continuum Mechanics and Induced Beam Theories


Author: Simon R. Eugster
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319164953
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 146
View: 6711

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This research monograph discusses novel approaches to geometric continuum mechanics and introduces beams as constraint continuous bodies. In the coordinate free and metric independent geometric formulation of continuum mechanics as well as for beam theories, the principle of virtual work serves as the fundamental principle of mechanics. Based on the perception of analytical mechanics that forces of a mechanical system are defined as dual quantities to the kinematical description, the virtual work approach is a systematic way to treat arbitrary mechanical systems. Whereas this methodology is very convenient to formulate induced beam theories, it is essential in geometric continuum mechanics when the assumptions on the physical space are relaxed and the space is modeled as a smooth manifold. The book addresses researcher and graduate students in engineering and mathematics interested in recent developments of a geometric formulation of continuum mechanics and a hierarchical development of induced beam theories.

A Sampler of Riemann-Finsler Geometry


Author: David Dai-Wai Bao
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521831819
Category: Mathematics
Page: 363
View: 1154

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These expository accounts treat issues related to volume, geodesics, curvature and mathematical biology, with instructive examples.

Einführung in die Geometrie und Topologie


Author: Werner Ballmann
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3034809018
Category: Mathematics
Page: 162
View: 9611

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Das Buch bietet eine Einführung in die Topologie, Differentialtopologie und Differentialgeometrie. Es basiert auf Manuskripten, die in verschiedenen Vorlesungszyklen erprobt wurden. Im ersten Kapitel werden grundlegende Begriffe und Resultate aus der mengentheoretischen Topologie bereitgestellt. Eine Ausnahme hiervon bildet der Jordansche Kurvensatz, der für Polygonzüge bewiesen wird und eine erste Idee davon vermitteln soll, welcher Art tiefere topologische Probleme sind. Im zweiten Kapitel werden Mannigfaltigkeiten und Liesche Gruppen eingeführt und an einer Reihe von Beispielen veranschaulicht. Diskutiert werden auch Tangential- und Vektorraumbündel, Differentiale, Vektorfelder und Liesche Klammern von Vektorfeldern. Weiter vertieft wird diese Diskussion im dritten Kapitel, in dem die de Rhamsche Kohomologie und das orientierte Integral eingeführt und der Brouwersche Fixpunktsatz, der Jordan-Brouwersche Zerlegungssatz und die Integralformel von Stokes bewiesen werden. Das abschließende vierte Kapitel ist den Grundlagen der Differentialgeometrie gewidmet. Entlang der Entwicklungslinien, die die Geometrie der Kurven und Untermannigfaltigkeiten in Euklidischen Räumen durchlaufen hat, werden Zusammenhänge und Krümmung, die zentralen Konzepte der Differentialgeometrie, diskutiert. Den Höhepunkt bilden die Gaussgleichungen, die Version des theorema egregium von Gauss für Untermannigfaltigkeiten beliebiger Dimension und Kodimension. Das Buch richtet sich in erster Linie an Mathematik- und Physikstudenten im zweiten und dritten Studienjahr und ist als Vorlage für ein- oder zweisemestrige Vorlesungen geeignet.

Geometry of Surfaces


Author: John Stillwell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387977430
Category: Mathematics
Page: 236
View: 8831

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The geometry of surfaces is an ideal starting point for learning geometry, for, among other reasons, the theory of surfaces of constant curvature has maximal connectivity with the rest of mathematics. This text provides the student with the knowledge of a geometry of greater scope than the classical geometry taught today, which is no longer an adequate basis for mathematics or physics, both of which are becoming increasingly geometric. It includes exercises and informal discussions.