Fundamentals of Tree-ring Research


Author: James H. Speer
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 9780816526840
Category: Social Science
Page: 333
View: 9732

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Although there are other scientific means of dating climatic and environmental events, dendrochronology provides the most reliable of all palaeorecords. This comprehensive text addresses all of the subjects that a reader who is new to the field will need to know and will be a welcome reference for practitioners at all levels. It includes a history of the discipline, biological and ecological background, principles of the field, basic scientific information on the structure and growth of trees, the complete range of dendrochronology methods, and a full description of each of the relevant subdisciplines.

Tree Rings and Climate


Author: H Fritts
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323145280
Category: Science
Page: 582
View: 4933

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Tree Rings and Climate deals with the principles of dendrochronology, with emphasis on tree-ring studies involving climate-related problems. This book looks at the spatial and temporal variations in tree-ring growth and how they can be used to reconstruct past climate. Factors and conditions that appear most relevant to tree-ring research are highlighted. Comprised of nine chapters, this book opens with an overview of the basic biological facts and principles of tree growth, as well as the most important terms, principles, and concepts of dendrochronology. The discussion then shifts to the basic biology governing the response of ring width to variation in climate; systematic variations in the width and cell structure of annual tree rings; and the significance of tree growth and structure to dendroclimatology. The movement of materials and internal water relations of trees are also considered, along with photosynthesis, respiration, and the climatic and environmental system. Models of the growth-climate relationships as well as the basic statistics and methods of analysis of these relationships are described. The final chapter includes a general discussion of dendroclimatographic data and presents examples of statistical models that are useful for reconstructing spatial variations in climate. This monograph will be of interest to climatologists, college students, and practitioners in fields such as botany, archaeology, hydrology, oceanography, biology, physiology, forestry, and geophysics.

An Introduction to Tree-ring Dating


Author: Marvin A. Stokes
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 9780816516803
Category: Science
Page: 73
View: 5487

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Tree-ring dating, or dendrochronology, is the study of the chronological sequence of annual growth rings in trees. This book--a seminal study in its field--provides a simple yet eloquent introduction to the discipline, explaining what a dendrochronologist does both in the field and in the laboratory. Authors Stokes and Smiley first explain the basic principles of tree-ring dating, then describe details of the process, step by step, from the time a sample is collected until it is incorporated into a master chronology. The book focuses on coniferous evergreens of the Southwest, particularly pi–ons, because they have wide geographic distribution, constitute a large population, and show excellent growth response to certain controlling factors. The book is specifically concerned with the task of establishing a calendar date for a wood or charcoal specimen. This concise but thorough explication of an important discipline will make dendrochonology more meaningful to students and professionals in archaeology, forestry, hydrology, and global change.

Tree-ring Dating and Archaeology


Author: M.G.L. Baillie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317606809
Category: Social Science
Page: 272
View: 2260

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The analysis of tree-ring patterns, or dendrochronology, is a very exact science and an important dating technique. The basis of the method is misleadingly simple: that overlap of successive older ring patterns can generate a master chronology and samples of unknown age can then be checked against this. This book, published originally in 1982, traces the development of a specific project from its inception to the successful completion of some of the longest chronologies in Europe. In doing so it looks at some of the problems associated with the subject and at the levels of precision possible. After outlining the techniques associated with the measurement and processing of tree-ring patterns, the author traces an attempt to construct such an independent chronology in a new area. The book breaks naturally into sections conditioned by the availability of timbers and these can be listed as modern, late medieval, medieval, early medieval and prehistoric. As far as possible the results are presented in the order in which things happened, thus preserving the sense of a developing subject.

A Slice Through Time

Dendrochronology and Precision Dating
Author: M.G.L. Baillie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136226915
Category: Social Science
Page: 180
View: 5978

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The dramatic development of European oak chronologies over the last ten years parallels and supplements the bristlecone-pine chronology in the United States. Dendrochronologists can now provide a wood sample - a time capsule of biological material - for any calender date over the last seven millennia from two continents. For archaeologists, resigned to the imprecision of radiocarbon dating, the implications are profound. For the first time it is possible to establish precise dates for prehistoric events. Similarly, we have an independent and scientifically objective way of testing historical accounts, such as the traditional Egyptian chronology. Equally fundamental are the insights provided by the related disciplines of dendroecology and dendroclimatology. The Bronze Age eruption of Santorini and the AD 540 `event' are explored as fascinating case studies. Drawing on a further decade of research by himself and others, Mike Baille not only brings the pre-1980 story up to date, but demonstrates the wide and exciting applications of this comparatively new science.

Methods of Dendrochronology

Applications in the Environmental Sciences
Author: E.R. Cook,L.A. Kairiukstis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401578796
Category: Science
Page: 394
View: 6218

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This book is a review and description of the state-of-the-art methods of tree-ring analy~is with specific emphasis on applications in the environmental sciences. Traditionally, methods of tree-ring analysis, or more properly in this case methods 0/ dendrochronology, were developed and used for dating archaeological and historical structures and for reconstructing past climates. The classic book Tree Rings and Climate, by H.C. Fritts, published in 1976, provided a superb introduction to the science and an in-depth description of techniques useful for extracting climatic information from tree rings. This book, which was published by Academic Press, is sadly out of print and, even though only 12 years old, lim ited in its methods and applications. This is owing to the extremely rapid development of the science since the 1970s. Only recently have tree rings as environmental sensors been fully recog nized as a valuable tool in detecting environmental change. For example, tree ring measurements have been critically important in studies of forest decline in Europe and North America. There are also attempts to use tree-ring analysis for ecological prognosis to solve large-scale regional problems including the sustain ability of water supplies, prediction of agricultural crops, and adoption of silvi cultural measures in response to ecological changes. More speculatively, dendro chronological methods are also used for dating and evaluating some astrophysical phenomena and for indicating possible increase in the biospheric carrying capac ity due to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Dendroclimatic Studies

Tree Growth and Climate Change in Northern Forests
Author: Rosanne D'Arrigo,Nicole Davi,Gordon Jacoby,Rob Wilson,Greg Wiles
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118848713
Category: Science
Page: 88
View: 2348

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A top priority in climate research is obtaining broad-extent and long-term data to support analyses of historical patterns and trends, and for model development and evaluation. Along with directly measured climate data from the present and recent past, it is important to obtain estimates of long past climate variations spanning multiple centuries and millennia. Dendroclimatic Studies at the North American Tree Line presents an overview of the current state of dendroclimatology, its contributions over the past few decades, and its future potential. The material included is not useful not only to those who generate tree-ring records of past climate-dendroclimatologists, but also to users of their results-climatologists, hydrologists, ecologists and archeologists. In summary, this book: Sheds light on recent and future climate trends by assessing long term past climatic variations from tree rings Is a timely coverage of a crucial topic in climate science portraying recent warming trends which are of serious concern today Features well-reputed scientists highlighting new advanced methodologies to reconstruct past climate change Models the tree growth environmental response

Tree Rings, Environment, and Humanity

Proceedings of the International Conference, Tucson, Arizona, 17-21 May 1994
Author: Jeffrey S. Dean,David M. Meko,Thomas W. Swetnam
Publisher: Radiocarbon
ISBN: N.A
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 889
View: 4628

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Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics


Author: R. L. Goodstein
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 148315405X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 334
View: 6792

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Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people who want to gain a thorough understanding of the fundamental concepts of mathematics will find this book a good reference.

Handbook of Pulping and Papermaking


Author: Christopher J. Biermann
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 008053368X
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 754
View: 4941

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In its Second Edition, Handbook of Pulping and Papermaking is a comprehensive reference for industry and academia. The book offers a concise yet thorough introduction to the process of papermaking from the production of wood chips to the final testing and use of the paper product. The author has updated the extensive bibliography, providing the reader with easy access to the pulp and paper literature. The book emphasizes principles and concepts behind papermaking, detailing both the physical and chemical processes. A comprehensive introduction to the physical and chemical processes in pulping and papermaking Contains an extensive annotated bibliography Includes 12 pages of color plates

Fundamentals of Advanced Mathematics 1

Categories, Algebraic Structures, Linear and Homological Algebra
Author: Henri Bourles
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0081021127
Category: Mathematics
Page: 268
View: 2118

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This precis, comprised of three volumes, of which this book is the first, exposes the mathematical elements which make up the foundations of a number of contemporary scientific methods: modern theory on systems, physics and engineering. This first volume focuses primarily on algebraic questions: categories and functors, groups, rings, modules and algebra. Notions are introduced in a general framework and then studied in the context of commutative and homological algebra; their application in algebraic topology and geometry is therefore developed. These notions play an essential role in algebraic analysis (analytico-algebraic systems theory of ordinary or partial linear differential equations). The book concludes with a study of modules over the main types of rings, the rational canonical form of matrices, the (commutative) theory of elemental divisors and their application in systems of linear differential equations with constant coefficients. Part of the New Mathematical Methods, Systems, and Applications series Presents the notions, results, and proofs necessary to understand and master the various topics Provides a unified notation, making the task easier for the reader. Includes several summaries of mathematics for engineers

River of Renewal

Myth and History in the Klamath Basin
Author: Stephen Most
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780295986227
Category: History
Page: 292
View: 6414

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The succession of wars and resource conflicts that shaped the Klamath Basin are examined in a history of the region along the Oregon and California borders, looking at such issues as ecological restoration, the overallocation of the area's water resources, and more. Original.

Fundamentals of Structural Stability


Author: George J. Simitses,Dewey H. Hodges
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0750678755
Category: Science
Page: 389
View: 4339

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An understanable introduction to the theory of structural stability, useful for a wide variety of engineering disciplines, including mechanical, civil and aerospace.

Environmental Forensics Fundamentals

A Practical Guide
Author: Ioana Gloria Petrisor
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466571594
Category: Law
Page: 445
View: 8236

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A Practical Guide to Environmental Crime Scene Investigations Releasing contaminants into the environment—whether deliberate or unintentional—can be thought of as a crime against the environment. The role of environmental forensics is to identify and prevent environmental pollution, or crimes. Environmental Forensics Fundamentals: A Practical Guide examines this growing field, and provides environmental professionals looking to specialize in environmental forensics with the materials they need to effectively investigate and solve crimes against the environment. Pointing the Finger at Environmental Crime Environmental forensics uses "fingerprinting" techniques in order to assess and analyze contamination sites. Fingerprinting can reveal the source of contamination, as well as how, where, and when the contamination was released. This handy guidebook outlines the proven techniques, applications, and resources needed to efficiently investigate environmental crimes and become successful in this emerging field. Learn the Basics from a Single Source Divided into three main parts, the first part of the book examines the role of evidence in forensic investigations and court proceedings. It highlights general forensic concepts and offers guidelines for obtaining defensible evidence. The second part details environmental forensic investigative techniques. It includes a step-by-step guide that enables the reader to apply the techniques in practice. The final section covers strategy building. It presents real case studies, as well as key principles and concepts for strategy building, and addresses the most common challenges faced in environmental forensics. Environmental Forensics Fundamentals: A Practical Guide provides information on cutting-edge scientific techniques that investigate the source and age of environmental pollution and solve environmental crimes. It examines the principles behind each main forensic technique. It also offers guidance on what to look for in order to successfully apply the techniques and interpret results. In addition, the author provides relevant sources where more information can be found.

Foundations of Restoration Ecology


Author: Margaret A. Palmer,Joy B. Zedler,Donald A. Falk
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1610916980
Category: Nature
Page: 584
View: 8452

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The practice of ecological restoration, firmly grounded in the science of restoration ecology, provides governments, organizations, and landowners a means to halt degradation and restore function and resilience to ecosystems stressed by climate change and other pressures on the natural world. Foundational theory is a critical component of the underlying science, providing valuable insights into restoring ecological systems effectively and understanding why some efforts to restore systems can fail. In turn, on-the-ground restoration projects can help to guide and refine theory, advancing the field and providing new ideas and innovations for practical application. This new edition of Foundations of Restoration Ecology provides the latest emerging theories and ideas in the science of restoration ecology. Fully one-third longer than the first edition and comprehensive in scope, it has been dramatically updated to reflect new research. Included are new sections devoted to concepts critical to all restoration projects as well as restoration of specific ecosystem processes, including hydrology, nutrient dynamics, and carbon. Also new to this edition are case studies that describe real-life restoration scenarios in North and South America, Europe, and Australia. They highlight supporting theory for restoration application and other details important for assessing the degree of success of restoration projects in a variety of contexts. Lists at the end of each chapter summarize new theory introduced in that chapter and its practical application. Written by acclaimed researchers in the field, this book provides practitioners as well as graduate and undergraduate students with a solid grounding in the newest advances in ecological science and theory.

Fundamentals of Elementary Mathematics


Author: Merlyn J. Behr,Dale G. Jungst
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483277798
Category: Mathematics
Page: 440
View: 6301

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Fundamentals of Elementary Mathematics provides an understanding of the fundamental aspects of elementary mathematics. This book presents the relevance of the mathematical concepts, which are also demonstrated in numerous exercises. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the study of logic to understand the nature of mathematics. This text then discusses mathematics as a system of structure or as a collection of substructures. Other chapters consider the four essential components in a mathematical or logical system or structure, namely, undefined terms, defined terms, postulates, and theorems. This book discusses as well several principles used in numeration systems and provides examples of some numeration systems that are in use to illustrate these principles. The final chapter deals with the classification of certain mathematical systems as groups, fields, or rings to demonstrate some abstract mathematics. This book is a valuable resource for students and teachers in elementary mathematics.

Elements of Programming


Author: Alexander A. Stepanov,Paul McJones
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
ISBN: 032163537X
Category: Computers
Page: 262
View: 2678

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New techniques for building more secure, reliable, high-performance software, from the renowned creator of the C++ STL • • A truly foundational book on the discipline of generic programming: how to write better software by mastering the development of abstract components. • Based on Alexander Stepanov's breakthrough lectures to programmers at Adobe and throughout Silicon Valley. • For serious software developers, architects, and engineers, the perfect complement to Knuth's theory and Stoustrup's practice. Elements of Programming is the next breakthrough book for serious practitioners seeking ways to write better software. In this book, Alexander Stepanov - the legendary architect and creator of the C++ Standard Template Libraries - focuses on the discipline that offers the greatest potential for improving contemporary software: the proper development of abstract components. Drawing on his enormously popular lectures to programmers at Adobe and throughout Silicon Valley, Stepanov illuminates crucial techniques of generic programming, specifically focusing on abstraction as the key to secure, reliable, and high-performance software. Together with co-author and ACM Fellow Paul McJones, Stepanov shows programmers how to use mathematics to compose reliable algorithms from components, and to design effective interfaces between algorithms and data structures. Topics covered in Elements of Programming include: transformations, associative operations, linear orderings, ordered algebraic structures, iterators, coordinates and coordinate structures, copying algorithms, rearrangement, sorting, and much more. This book requires an understanding of mathematics, but is consistently focused on identifying superior solutions to practical programming problems. Stepanov and McJones illuminate their concepts and techniques with C++ code, but the techniques are equally applicable to a wide range of contemporary object-oriented languages.

Alternative Loop Rings


Author: E.G. Goodaire,E. Jespers,C. Polcino Milies
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080527062
Category: Mathematics
Page: 386
View: 3123

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For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group rings is of immense interest. This is the first survey of the theory of alternative loop rings and related issues. Due to the strong interaction between loop rings and certain group rings, many results on group rings have been included, some of which are published for the first time. The authors often provide a new viewpoint and novel, elementary proofs in cases where results are already known. The authors assume only that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. They present a work which is very much self-contained. It is thus a valuable reference to the student as well as the research mathematician. An extensive bibliography of references which are either directly relevant to the text or which offer supplementary material of interest, are also included.

Industrial Water Treatment Process Technology


Author: Parimal Pal
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0128103922
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 614
View: 7903

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Industrial Water Treatment Process Technology begins with a brief overview of the challenges in water resource management, covering issues of plenty and scarcity-spatial variation, as well as water quality standards. In this book, the author includes a clear and rigorous exposition of the various water resource management approaches such as: separation and purification (end of discharge pipe), zero discharge approach (green process development), flow management approach, and preservation and control approach. This coverage is followed by deeper discussion of individual technologies and their applications. Covers water treatment approaches including: separation and purification—end of discharge pipe; zero discharge approach; flow management approach; and preservation and control approach Discusses water treatment process selection, trouble shooting, design, operation, and physico-chemical and treatment Discusses industry-specific water treatment processes

Microbial Electrochemical and Fuel Cells

Fundamentals and Applications
Author: Keith Scott,Eileen Hao Yu
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 1782423966
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 410
View: 5090

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Microbial Electrochemical and Fuel Cells: Fundamentals and Applications contains the most updated information on bio-electrical systems and their ability to drive an electrical current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature to produce a small amount of power. One of the most promising features of the microbial fuel cell is its application to generate power from wastewater, and its use in the treatment of water to remove contaminants, making it a very sustainable source of power generation that can feasibly find application in rural areas where providing more conventional sources of power is often difficult. The book explores, in detail, both the technical aspects and applications of this technology, and was written by an international team of experts in the field who provide an introduction to microbial fuel cells that looks at their electrochemical principles and mechanisms, explains the materials that can be used for the various sections of the fuel cells, including cathode and anode materials, and provides key analysis of microbial fuel cell performance looking at their usage in hydrogen production, waste treatment, and sensors, amongst other applications. Includes coverage of the types and principles of electrochemical cells Provides information on the construction of fuel cells and appropriate materials Presents the latest on this renewable source of energy and the process for the treatment of waste water