Cultural Foundations of Mathematics

The Nature of Mathematical Proof and the Transmission of the Calculus from India to Europe in the 16th C. CE
Author: C. K. Raju
Publisher: Pearson Education India
ISBN: 9788131708712
Category: Calculus
Page: 477
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The Volume Examines, In Depth, The Implications Of Indian History And Philosophy For Contemporary Mathematics And Science. The Conclusions Challenge Current Formal Mathematics And Its Basis In The Western Dogma That Deduction Is Infallible (Or That It Is Less Fallible Than Induction). The Development Of The Calculus In India, Over A Thousand Years, Is Exhaustively Documented In This Volume, Along With Novel Insights, And Is Related To The Key Sources Of Wealth-Monsoon-Dependent Agriculture And Navigation Required For Overseas Trade - And The Corresponding Requirement Of Timekeeping. Refecting The Usual Double Standard Of Evidence Used To Construct Eurocentric History, A Single, New Standard Of Evidence For Transmissions Is Proposed. Using This, It Is Pointed Out That Jesuits In Cochin, Following The Toledo Model Of Translation, Had Long-Term Opportunity To Transmit Indian Calculus Texts To Europe. The European Navigational Problem Of Determining Latitude, Longitude, And Loxodromes, And The 1582 Gregorian Calendar-Reform, Provided Ample Motivation. The Mathematics In These Earlier Indian Texts Suddenly Starts Appearing In European Works From The Mid-16Th Century Onwards, Providing Compelling Circumstantial Evidence. While The Calculus In India Had Valid Pramana, This Differed From Western Notions Of Proof, And The Indian (Algorismus) Notion Of Number Differed From The European (Abacus) Notion. Hence, Like Their Earlier Difficulties With The Algorismus, Europeans Had Difficulties In Understanding The Calculus, Which, Like Computer Technology, Enhanced The Ability To Calculate, Albeit In A Way Regarded As Epistemologically Insecure. Present-Day Difficulties In Learning Mathematics Are Related, Via Phylogeny Is Ontogeny , To These Historical Difficulties In Assimilating Imported Mathematics. An Appendix Takes Up Further Contemporary Implications Of The New Philosophy Of Mathematics For The Extension Of The Calculus, Which Is Needed To Handle The Infinities Arising In The Study Of Shock Waves And The Renormalization Problem Of Quantum Field Theory.

Foundations of Mathematics


Author: Andrés Eduardo Caicedo,James Cummings,Peter Koellner,Paul B. Larson
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470422565
Category: Continuum hypothesis
Page: 322
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This volume contains the proceedings of the Logic at Harvard conference in honor of W. Hugh Woodin's 60th birthday, held March 27–29, 2015, at Harvard University. It presents a collection of papers related to the work of Woodin, who has been one of the leading figures in set theory since the early 1980s. The topics cover many of the areas central to Woodin's work, including large cardinals, determinacy, descriptive set theory and the continuum problem, as well as connections between set theory and Banach spaces, recursion theory, and philosophy, each reflecting a period of Woodin's career. Other topics covered are forcing axioms, inner model theory, the partition calculus, and the theory of ultrafilters. This volume should make a suitable introduction to Woodin's work and the concerns which motivate it. The papers should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in both mathematics and philosophy of mathematics, particularly in set theory, foundations and related areas.

Philosophy of Mathematics


Author: Øystein Linnebo
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400885248
Category: Philosophy
Page: 216
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A sophisticated, original introduction to the philosophy of mathematics from one of its leading contemporary scholars Mathematics is one of humanity's most successful yet puzzling endeavors. It is a model of precision and objectivity, but appears distinct from the empirical sciences because it seems to deliver nonexperiential knowledge of a nonphysical reality of numbers, sets, and functions. How can these two aspects of mathematics be reconciled? This concise book provides a systematic yet accessible introduction to the field that is trying to answer that question: the philosophy of mathematics. Written by Øystein Linnebo, one of the world's leading scholars on the subject, the book introduces all of the classical approaches to the field, including logicism, formalism, intuitionism, empiricism, and structuralism. It also contains accessible introductions to some more specialized issues, such as mathematical intuition, potential infinity, the iterative conception of sets, and the search for new mathematical axioms. The groundbreaking work of German mathematician and philosopher Gottlob Frege, one of the founders of analytic philosophy, figures prominently throughout the book. Other important thinkers whose work is introduced and discussed include Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, David Hilbert, Kurt Gödel, W. V. Quine, Paul Benacerraf, and Hartry H. Field. Sophisticated but clear and approachable, this is an essential introduction for all students and teachers of philosophy, as well as mathematicians and others who want to understand the foundations of mathematics.

Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity

A Gentle Introduction
Author: Pavel Pudlák
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319001191
Category: Mathematics
Page: 695
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The two main themes of this book, logic and complexity, are both essential for understanding the main problems about the foundations of mathematics. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity covers a broad spectrum of results in logic and set theory that are relevant to the foundations, as well as the results in computational complexity and the interdisciplinary area of proof complexity. The author presents his ideas on how these areas are connected, what are the most fundamental problems and how they should be approached. In particular, he argues that complexity is as important for foundations as are the more traditional concepts of computability and provability. Emphasis is on explaining the essence of concepts and the ideas of proofs, rather than presenting precise formal statements and full proofs. Each section starts with concepts and results easily explained, and gradually proceeds to more difficult ones. The notes after each section present some formal definitions, theorems and proofs. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity is aimed at graduate students of all fields of mathematics who are interested in logic, complexity and foundations. It will also be of interest for both physicists and philosophers who are curious to learn the basics of logic and complexity theory.

Mathematical Intuition

Phenomenology and Mathematical Knowledge
Author: R.L. Tieszen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400922930
Category: Philosophy
Page: 210
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"Intuition" has perhaps been the least understood and the most abused term in philosophy. It is often the term used when one has no plausible explanation for the source of a given belief or opinion. According to some sceptics, it is understood only in terms of what it is not, and it is not any of the better understood means for acquiring knowledge. In mathematics the term has also unfortunately been used in this way. Thus, intuition is sometimes portrayed as if it were the Third Eye, something only mathematical "mystics", like Ramanujan, possess. In mathematics the notion has also been used in a host of other senses: by "intuitive" one might mean informal, or non-rigourous, or visual, or holistic, or incomplete, or perhaps even convincing in spite of lack of proof. My aim in this book is to sweep all of this aside, to argue that there is a perfectly coherent, philosophically respectable notion of mathematical intuition according to which intuition is a condition necessary for mathemati cal knowledge. I shall argue that mathematical intuition is not any special or mysterious kind of faculty, and that it is possible to make progress in the philosophical analysis of this notion. This kind of undertaking has a precedent in the philosophy of Kant. While I shall be mostly developing ideas about intuition due to Edmund Husser! there will be a kind of Kantian argument underlying the entire book.

Foundations of Computational Mathematics


Author: DeVore Iserles Suli
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521003490
Category: Mathematics
Page: 400
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Collection of papers by leading researchers in computational mathematics, suitable for graduate students and researchers.

Mathematical Foundations of Classical Statistical Mechanics


Author: D.Ya. Petrina,V.I. Gerasimenko,P V Malyshev
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780415273541
Category: Science
Page: 352
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This monograph considers systems of infinite number of particles, in particular the justification of the procedure of thermodynamic limit transition. The authors discuss the equilibrium and non-equilibrium states of infinite classical statistical systems. Those states are defined in terms of stationary and nonstationary solutions to the Bogolyubov equations for the sequences of correlation functions in the thermodynamic limit. This is the first detailed investigation of the thermodynamic limit for non-equilibrium systems and of the states of infinite systems in the cases of both canonical and grand canonical ensembles, for which the thermodynamic equivalence is proved. A comprehensive survey of results is also included; it concerns the properties of correlation functions for infinite systems and the corresponding equations. For this new edition, the authors have made changes to reflect the development of theory in the last ten years. They have also simplified certain sections, presenting them more systematically, and greatly increased the number of references. The book is aimed at theoretical physicists and mathematicians and will also be of use to students and postgraduate students in the field.

Set Theory, Arithmetic, and Foundations of Mathematics

Theorems, Philosophies
Author: Juliette Kennedy,Roman Kossak
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139504819
Category: Mathematics
Page: N.A
View: 566

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This collection of papers from various areas of mathematical logic showcases the remarkable breadth and richness of the field. Leading authors reveal how contemporary technical results touch upon foundational questions about the nature of mathematics. Highlights of the volume include: a history of Tennenbaum's theorem in arithmetic; a number of papers on Tennenbaum phenomena in weak arithmetics as well as on other aspects of arithmetics, such as interpretability; the transcript of Gödel's previously unpublished 1972–1975 conversations with Sue Toledo, along with an appreciation of the same by Curtis Franks; Hugh Woodin's paper arguing against the generic multiverse view; Anne Troelstra's history of intuitionism through 1991; and Aki Kanamori's history of the Suslin problem in set theory. The book provides a historical and philosophical treatment of particular theorems in arithmetic and set theory, and is ideal for researchers and graduate students in mathematical logic and philosophy of mathematics.

Noncommutative Rings and Their Applications


Author: Steven Dougherty,Alberto Facchini,Andre Gerard Leroy,Edmund Puczylowski,Patrick Sole
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 147041032X
Category: Mathematics
Page: 265
View: 8165

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This volume contains the Proceedings of an International Conference on Noncommutative Rings and Their Applications, held July 1-4, 2013, at the Universite d'Artois, Lens, France. It presents recent developments in the theories of noncommutative rings and modules over such rings as well as applications of these to coding theory, enveloping algebras, and Leavitt path algebras. Material from the course ``Foundations of Algebraic Coding Theory``, given by Steven Dougherty, is included and provides the reader with the history and background of coding theory as well as the interplay between coding theory and algebra. In module theory, many new results related to (almost) injective modules, injective hulls and automorphism-invariant modules are presented. Broad generalizations of classical projective covers are studied and category theory is used to describe the structure of some modules. In some papers related to more classical ring theory such as quasi duo rings or clean elements, new points of view on classical conjectures and standard open problems are given. Descriptions of codes over local commutative Frobenius rings are discussed, and a list of open problems in coding theory is presented within their context.

Foundations of Primary Mathematics Education


Author: John West,Fiona Budgen
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9780648190738
Category: Mathematics
Page: 216
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Foundations of Primary Mathematics Education was written to provide a concise introduction to the teaching of mathematics at the primary school level. Pre-service primary school teachers are often anxious about their ability to teach mathematics as a result of their personal experiences as a learner. The purpose of this book is to encourage students to develop their confidence and competence as learners and teachers of mathematics. This book covers topics essential for all contemporary classroom practitioners including: short, medium and long-term planning, assessment and reporting, engaging students in meaningful activities, mathematical content knowledge, classroom management, and using ICT in the classroom. It will be a useful reference for pre-service teachers as they prepare to enter the teaching profession.

Grundbegriffe der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung


Author: A. Kolomogoroff
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642498884
Category: Mathematics
Page: 62
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Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.

Harvey Friedman's Research on the Foundations of Mathematics


Author: L.A. Harrington,M.D. Morley,A. Šcedrov,S.G. Simpson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080960401
Category: Mathematics
Page: 407
View: 1658

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This volume discusses various aspects of Harvey Friedman's research in the foundations of mathematics over the past fifteen years. It should appeal to a wide audience of mathematicians, computer scientists, and mathematically oriented philosophers.

Internal Logic

Foundations of Mathematics from Kronecker to Hilbert
Author: Y. Gauthier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401700834
Category: Mathematics
Page: 251
View: 777

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Internal logic is the logic of content. The content is here arithmetic and the emphasis is on a constructive logic of arithmetic (arithmetical logic). Kronecker's general arithmetic of forms (polynomials) together with Fermat's infinite descent is put to use in an internal consistency proof. The view is developed in the context of a radical arithmetization of mathematics and logic and covers the many-faceted heritage of Kronecker's work, which includes not only Hilbert, but also Frege, Cantor, Dedekind, Husserl and Brouwer. The book will be of primary interest to logicians, philosophers and mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics and the philosophical implications of constructivist mathematics. It may also be of interest to historians, since it covers a fifty-year period, from 1880 to 1930, which has been crucial in the foundational debates and their repercussions on the contemporary scene.

The Foundations of Mathematics


Author: Paul Carus
Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.
ISBN: 1596050063
Category: Mathematics
Page: 148
View: 3684

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In this brief treatise, Carus traces the roots of his belief in the philosophical basis for mathematics and analyzes that basis after a historical overview of Euclid and his successors. He then examines his base argument and proceeds to a study of different geometrical systems, all pulled together in his epilogue, which examines matter, mathematics, and, ultimately, the nature of God.