First Farmers

The Origins of Agricultural Societies
Author: Peter Bellwood
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 9780631205654
Category: Social Science
Page: 332
View: 6422

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First Farmers: the Origins of Agricultural Societies offers readers an understanding of the origins and histories of early agricultural populations in all parts of the world. Uses data from archaeology, comparative linguistics, and biological anthropology to cover developments over the past 12,000 years Examines the reasons for the multiple primary origins of agriculture Focuses on agricultural origins in and dispersals out of the Middle East, central Africa, China, New Guinea, Mesoamerica and the northern Andes Covers the origins and dispersals of major language families such as Indo-European, Austronesian, Sino-Tibetan, Niger-Congo and Uto-Aztecan

Die Mühlen der Zivilisation

Eine Tiefengeschichte der frühesten Staaten
Author: James C. Scott
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518761528
Category: Social Science
Page: 400
View: 6168

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Uns modernen Menschen erscheint die Sesshaftigkeit so natürlich wie dem Fisch das Wasser. Wie selbstverständlich gehen wir und auch weite Teile der historischen Forschung davon aus, dass die neolithische Revolution, in deren Verlauf der Mensch seine nomadische Existenz aufgab und zum Ackerbauer und Viehzüchter wurde, ein bedeutender zivilisatorischer Fortschritt war, dessen Früchte wir noch heute genießen. James C. Scott erzählt in seinem provokanten Buch eine ganz andere Geschichte. Gestützt auf archäologische Befunde, entwickelt er die These, dass die ersten bäuerlichen Staaten aus der Kontrolle über die Reproduktion entstanden und ein hartes Regime der Domestizierung errichteten, nicht nur mit Blick auf Pflanzen und Tiere. Auch die Bürger samt ihrer Sklaven und Frauen wurden der Herrschaft dieser frühesten Staaten unterworfen. Sie brachte Strapazen, Epidemien, Ungleichheiten und Kriege mit sich. Einzig die »Barbaren« haben sich gegen die Mühlen der Zivilisation gestemmt, sich der Sesshaftigkeit und den neuen Besteuerungssystemen verweigert und damit der Unterordnung unter eine staatliche Macht. Sie sind die heimlichen Helden dieses Buches, das unseren Blick auf die Menschheitsgeschichte verändert.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit


Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Category: History
Page: 528
View: 770

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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

The Origins of the Civilisation of Angkor Volume 3

The Excavation of Ban Non Wat
Author: Charles Higham,A. Kijngam,Tom Higham,T. Boer-Mah
Publisher: Fine Arts Department of Thailand
ISBN: 974417997X
Category: History
Page: 280
View: 9898

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Ban Non Wat is the fourth major excavation undertaken as part of the project, The Origins of the Civilization of Angkor. It is a site of great importance because of its long occupation period, and the very large area opened by excavation over seven seasons of fieldwork. The site was initially occupied by hunter-gatherers, then by Neolithic rice farmers. By 1000 BC, this community began to cast bronzes, and six centuries later, the first iron was being forged. It is possible at Ban Non Wat, to follow the history of a community over a period of about 100 generations. This book describes the site's stratigraphy, chronology, and then covers the mortuary sequence and the material culture. It covers the early period of hunter-gatherers, the initial settlement by Neolithic rice farmers the princely early Bronze Age graves, with their outstanding painted ceramic vessels, and the extensive Iron Age cemetery that reveals a remarkable image of the rituals of burial, with its wooden coffins, bimetallic spears and exotic jewellery.

The Global Prehistory of Human Migration


Author: Immanuel Ness
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118970586
Category: Social Science
Page: 448
View: 3819

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Previously published as the first volume of The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, this work is devoted exclusively to prehistoric migration, covering all periods and places from the first hominin migrations out of Africa through the end of prehistory. Presents interdisciplinary coverage of this topic, including scholarship from the fields of archaeology, anthropology, genetics, biology, linguistics, and more Includes contributions from a diverse international team of authors, representing 17 countries and a variety of disciplines Divided into two sections, covering the Pleistocene and Holocene; each section examines human migration through chapters that focus on different regional and disciplinary lenses

Early Mesoamerican Social Transformations

Archaic and Formative Lifeways in the Soconusco Region
Author: Richard G. Lesure
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520950569
Category: Social Science
Page: 304
View: 469

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Between 3500 and 500 bc, the social landscape of ancient Mesoamerica was completely transformed. At the beginning of this period, the mobile lifeways of a sparse population were oriented toward hunting and gathering. Three millennia later, protourban communities teemed with people. These essays by leading Mesoamerican archaeologists examine developments of the era as they unfolded in the Soconusco region along the Pacific coast of Mexico and Guatemala, a region that has emerged as crucial for understanding the rise of ancient civilizations in Mesoamerica. The contributors explore topics including the gendered division of labor, changes in subsistence, the character of ceremonialism, the emergence of social inequality, and large-scale patterns of population distribution and social change. Together, they demonstrate the contribution of Soconusco to cultural evolution in Mesoamerica and challenge what we thought we knew about the path toward social complexity.

Landscape of the Mind

Human Evolution and the Archaeology of Thought
Author: John F. Hoffecker
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023151848X
Category: Social Science
Page: 288
View: 2227

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In Landscape of the Mind, John F. Hoffecker explores the origin and growth of the human mind, drawing on archaeology, history, and the fossil record. He suggests that, as an indirect result of bipedal locomotion, early humans developed a feedback relationship among their hands, brains, and tools that evolved into the capacity to externalize thoughts in the form of shaped stone objects. When anatomically modern humans evolved a parallel capacity to externalize thoughts as symbolic language, individual brains within social groups became integrated into a "neocortical Internet," or super-brain, giving birth to the mind. Noting that archaeological traces of symbolism coincide with evidence of the ability to generate novel technology, Hoffecker contends that human creativity, as well as higher order consciousness, is a product of the superbrain. He equates the subsequent growth of the mind with human history, which began in Africa more than 50,000 years ago. As anatomically modern humans spread across the globe, adapting to a variety of climates and habitats, they redesigned themselves technologically and created alternative realities through tools, language, and art. Hoffecker connects the rise of civilization to a hierarchical reorganization of the super-brain, triggered by explosive population growth. Subsequent human history reflects to varying degrees the suppression of the mind's creative powers by the rigid hierarchies of nationstates and empires, constraining the further accumulation of knowledge. The modern world emerged after 1200 from the fragments of the Roman Empire, whose collapse had eliminated a central authority that could thwart innovation. Hoffecker concludes with speculation about the possibility of artificial intelligence and the consequences of a mind liberated from its organic antecedents to exist in an independent, nonbiological form.

Early Interactions Between South and Southeast Asia

Reflections on Cross-cultural Exchange
Author: Pierre-Yves Manguin,A. Mani,Geoff Wade
Publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
ISBN: 9814345105
Category: History
Page: 514
View: 9918

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This book takes stock of the results of some two decades of intensive archaeological research carried out on both sides of the Bay of Bengal, in combination with renewed approaches to textual sources and to art history. To improve our understanding of the trans-cultural process commonly referred to as Indianisation, it brings together specialists of both India and Southeast Asia, in a fertile inter-disciplinary confrontation. Most of the essays reappraise the millennium-long historiographic no-man's land during which exchanges between the two shores of the Bay of Bengal led, among other processes, to the Indianisation of those parts of the region that straddled the main routes of exchange. Some essays follow up these processes into better known "classical" times or even into modern times, showing that the localisation process of Indian themes has long remained at work, allowing local societies to produce their own social space and express their own ethos.

China

A Religious State
Author: Cho-yun Hsu,John Lagerwey
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231528183
Category: History
Page: 576
View: 1234

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An internationally recognized authority on Chinese history and a leading innovator in its telling, Cho-yun Hsu constructs an original portrait of Chinese culture. Unlike most historians, Hsu resists centering his narrative on China's political evolution, focusing instead on the country's cultural sphere and its encounters with successive waves of globalization. Beginning long before China's written history and extending through the twentieth century, Hsu follows the content and expansion of Chinese culture, describing the daily lives of commoners, their spiritual beliefs and practices, the changing character of their social and popular thought, and their advances in material culture and technology. In addition to listing the achievements of emperors, generals, ministers, and sages, Hsu builds detailed accounts of these events and their everyday implications. Dynastic change, the rise and fall of national ambitions, and the growth and decline of institutional systems take on new significance through Hsu's careful research, which captures the multiple strands that gave rise to China's pluralistic society. Paying particular attention to influential relationships occurring outside of Chinese cultural boundaries, he demonstrates the impact of foreign influences on Chinese culture and identity and identifies similarities between China's cultural developments and those of other nations.

The Solar Revolution

One World. One Solution. Providing the Energy and Food for 10 Billion People.
Author: Steve McKevitt,Tony Ryan
Publisher: Icon Books Ltd
ISBN: 1848317875
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 320
View: 4268

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It’s an astonishing fact that capturing all the energy in just one hour’s worth of sunlight would enable us to meet the planet’s food and energy needs for an entire year. The Solar Revolution tells the story of how scientists are working to reconnect us to the ‘solar economy’, harnessing the power of the sun to provide sustainable food and energy for a global population of 10 billion people: an achievement that would end our dependence on ‘fossilised sunshine’ in the form of coal, oil and gas and remake our connection with the soil that grows our food. Steve McKevitt and Tony Ryan describe the human race’s complex relationship with the sun and take us back through history to see how our world became the place it is today – chemically, geologically, ecologically, climatically and economically – before moving on to the cutting-edge science and technology that will enable us to live happily in a sustainable future.

The Neolithisation of Iran


Author: Roger Matthews,Hassan Fazeli Nashli
Publisher: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1782971939
Category: History
Page: 272
View: 3060

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The period c. 10,000-5000 BC witnessed fundamental changes in the human condition with societies across the Fertile Crescent shifting their alignment from millennia-old practices of seasonally mobile hunting and foraging to year-round sedentism, plant cultivation and animal herding. The significant role of Iran in the early stages of this transition was recognised more than half a century ago but has not been to the fore of academic consciousness in recent decades. In the meantime, investigations into Neolithic transformation have proceeded apace in all other regions of the Fertile Crescent and beyond. Here, 18 studies attempt to redress that balance in re-assessing the role of Iran in the early neolithisation of human societies. These studies, many of them by Iranian scholars, consider patterns of change and/or continuity across a variety of topographical landscapes; investigate Neolithic settlement patterns, the use of caves, animal exploitation and environmental indicators and present new insights into some well-known and some newly investigated sites. The results re-affirm the formative role of this region in the transition to sedentary farming.

The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology


Author: Peter Mitchell,Paul Lane
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191626155
Category: Social Science
Page: 1080
View: 3362

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Africa has the longest and arguably the most diverse archaeological record of any of the continents. It is where the human lineage first evolved and from where Homo sapiens spread across the rest of the world. Later, it witnessed novel experiments in food-production and unique trajectories to urbanism and the organisation of large communities that were not always structured along strictly hierarchical lines. Millennia of engagement with societies in other parts of the world confirm Africa's active participation in the construction of the modern world, while the richness of its history, ethnography, and linguistics provide unusually powerful opportunities for constructing interdisciplinary narratives of Africa's past. This Handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis of African archaeology, covering the entirety of the continent's past from the beginnings of human evolution to the archaeological legacy of European colonialism. As well as covering almost all periods and regions of the continent, it includes a mixture of key methodological and theoretical issues and debates, and situates the subject's contemporary practice within the discipline's history and the infrastructural challenges now facing its practitioners. Bringing together essays on all these themes from over seventy contributors, many of them living and working in Africa, it offers a highly accessible, contemporary account of the subject for use by scholars and students of not only archaeology, but also history, anthropology, and other disciplines.

Metabolic Ecology

A Scaling Approach
Author: Richard M. Sibly,James H. Brown,Astrid Kodric-Brown
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119968518
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 9308

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One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.

Landscapes and Societies

Selected Cases
Author: I. Peter Martini,Ward Chesworth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048194131
Category: Science
Page: 478
View: 5408

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This book contains case histories intended to show how societies and landscapes interact. The range of interest stretches from the small groups of the earliest Neolithic, through Bronze and Iron Age civilizations, to modern nation states. The coexistence is, of its very nature reciprocal, resulting in changes in both society and landscape. In some instances the adaptations may be judged successful in terms of human needs, but failure is common and even the successful cases are ephemeral when judged in the light of history. Comparisons and contrasts between the various cases can be made at various scales from global through inter-regional, to regional and smaller scales. At the global scale, all societies deal with major problems of climate change, sea-level rise, and with ubiquitous problems such as soil erosion and landscape degradation. Inter-regional differences bring out significant detail with one region suffering from drought when another suffers from widespread flooding. For example, desertification in North Africa and the Near East contrasts with the temperate countries of southern Europe where the landscape-effects of deforestation are more obvious. And China and Japan offer an interesting comparison from the standpoint of geological hazards to society - large, unpredictable and massively erosive rivers in the former case, volcanoes and accompanying earthquakes in the latter. Within the North African region localized climatic changes led to abandonment of some desertified areas with successful adjustments in others, with the ultimate evolution into the formative civilization of Egypt, the "Gift of the Nile". At a smaller scale it is instructive to compare the city-states of the Medieval and early Renaissance times that developed in the watershed of a single river, the Arno in Tuscany, and how Pisa, Siena and Florence developed and reached their golden periods at different times depending on their location with regard to proximity to the sea, to the main trunk of the river, or in the adjacent hills. Also noteworthy is the role of technology in opening up opportunities for a society. Consider the Netherlands and how its history has been formed by the technical problem of a populous society dealing with too much water, as an inexorably rising sea threatens their landscape; or the case of communities in Colorado trying to deal with too little water for farmers and domestic users, by bringing their supply over a mountain chain. These and others cases included in the book, provide evidence of the successes, near misses and outright failures that mark our ongoing relationship with landscape throughout the history of Homo sapiens. The hope is that compilations such as this will lead to a better understanding of the issue and provide us with knowledge valuable in planning a sustainable modus vivendi between humanity and landscape for as long as possible. Audience: The book will interest geomorphologists, geologists, geographers, archaeologists, anthropologists, ecologists, environmentalists, historians and others in the academic world. Practically, planners and managers interested in landscape/environmental conditions will find interest in these pages, and more generally the increasingly large body of opinion in the general public, with concerns about Planet Earth, will find much to inform their opinions. Extra material: The color plate section is available at http://extras.springer.com

Project Sunshine

How science can use the sun to fuel and feed the world
Author: Steve McKevitt,Tony Ryan
Publisher: Icon Books Ltd
ISBN: 1848315627
Category: Technology & Engineering
Page: 320
View: 9449

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It’s an astonishing fact that capturing all the energy in just one hour’s worth of sunlight would enable us to meet the planet’s food and energy needs for an entire year. Project Sunshine tells the story of how scientists are working to reconnect us to the ‘solar economy’, harnessing the power of the sun to provide sustainable food and energy for a global population of 10 billion people: an achievement that would end our dependence on ‘fossilised sunshine’ in the form of coal, oil and gas and remake our connection with the soil that grows our food. Steve McKevitt and Tony Ryan describe the human race’s complex relationship with the sun and take us back through history to see how our world became the place it is today – chemically, geologically, ecologically, climatically and economically – before moving on to the cutting-edge science and technology that will enable us to live happily in a sustainable future.

The Improbable Primate

How Water Shaped Human Evolution
Author: Clive Finlayson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191503789
Category: Science
Page: 256
View: 7703

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Taking an ecological approach to our evolution, Clive Finlayson considers the origins of modern humans within the context of a drying climate and changing landscapes. Finlayson argues that environmental change, particularly availability of water, played a critical role in shaping the direction of human evolution, contributing to our spread and success. He argues that our ancestors carved a niche for themselves by leaving the forest and forcing their way into a long-established community of carnivores in a tropical savannah as climate changes opened up the landscape. They took their chance at high noon, when most other predators were asleep. Adapting to this new lifestyle by shedding their hair and developing an active sweating system to keep cool, being close to fresh water was vital. As the climate dried, our ancestors, already bipedal, became taller and slimmer, more adept at travelling farther in search of water. The challenges of seeking water in a drying landscape moulded the minds and bodies of early humans, and directed their migrations and eventual settlements. In this fresh and provocative view of a seven-million-year evolutionary journey, Finlayson demonstrates the radical implications for the interpretation of fossils and technologies and shows that understanding humans within an ecological context provides insights into the emergence and spread of Homo sapiens sapiens worldwide.

Eine kurze Geschichte des Fortschritts


Author: Ronald Wright
Publisher: N.A
ISBN: 9783498073565
Category:
Page: 200
View: 9635

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Selbst im Verhältnis zur Geschichte seiner eigenen Existenz auf Erden ist die Geschichte des menschlichen Fortschritts kurz. Und sie könnte schon bald zu Ende sein. Wie gingen Aufstieg und Fall bedeutender Zivilisationen vorsich, was können, ja müssen wir

Archaeology of Asia


Author: Miriam T. Stark
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1405153032
Category: Social Science
Page: 384
View: 5285

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This introduction to the archaeology of Asia focuses on case studies from the region’s last 10,000 years of history. Comprises fifteen chapters by some of the world’s foremost Asia archaeologists Sheds light on the most compelling aspects of Asian archaeology, from the earliest evidence of plant domestication to the emergence of states and empires Explores issues of cross-cultural significance, such as migration, urbanism, and technology Presents original research data that challenges readers to think beyond national and regional boundaries Synthesizes work previously unavailable to western readers